Plate IV from Richard Henry Dana, Jr.'s
The Seaman's Friend

Types of Vessels.

Dana - Plate 4
Ship        Bark       
Full-rigged Brig        Hermaphrodite Brig       
Top-sail Schooner        Fore & aft Schooner       



Ship.–A ship is square-rigged throughout; that is, she has tops, and carries square sails on all three of her masts.

Bark.–A bark is square-rigged at her fore and main masts, and differs from a ship in having no top, and carrying only fore-and-aft sails at her mizzenmast.

Brig.–A full-rigged brig is square-rigged at both her masts.

Hermaphrodite Brig.–An hermaphrodite brig is square-rigged at her foremast; but has no top, and only fore-and-aft sails at her main mast.

Topsail Schooner.–A topsail schooner has no tops at her foremast, and is fore-and-aft rigged at her mainmast. She differs from an hermaphrodite brig in that she is not properly square-rigged at her foremast, having no top, and carrying a fore-and-aft foresail, in stead of a square foresail and a spencer.

Fore-and-aft Schooner.–A fore-and-aft schooner is fore-and-aft rigged throughout, differing from a topsail schooner in that the latter carries small square sails aloft at the fore.

Sloop.–A sloop has one mast, fore-and-aft rigged.

Hermaphrodite Brigs sometimes carry small square sails aloft at the main; in which case they are called Brigantines, and differ from a Full-rigged Brig in that they have no top at the mainmast, and carry a fore-and-aft mainsail instead of a square mainsail and trysail. Some Topsail Schooners carry small square sails aloft at the main as well as the fore; being in other respects fore-and-aft rigged. They are then called Main Topsail Schooners.