Charles Lucas

The Plough Boy Journals

The Journals and Associated Documents

The Plough Boy Anthology

19th Century American Whaling

Bonin Islands

Pitcairn's Island

Dictionaries & Glossaries

Ashley's Glossary of
Whaling Terms

Dana's Dictionary of
Sea Terms





K.C.B., K.C.M.G.







      The S.P.C.K. and myself have been singularly fortunate in securing in regard to the present work the active cooperation of Sir Everard im Thurn, K.C.M.G., K.B.E., C.B., who, after retirement from six years' tenure of the Government of Fiji and the High Commissionership for the Western Pacific, has up to the present day devoted himself to the study of the Pacific, its history, problems and races, and to forming a collection of rare books and pamphlets connected with it. Every part of the present volume has been revised by him, including the map, based upon a map drawn specially for a lecture which he gave some years ago before the Royal Geographical Society, and the Second Appendix is entirely his handiwork.

      The S.P.C.K. were good enough to place at my disposal as private secretary and typist for the purpose of this work the willing and competent services of Miss Ethel Young. I am greatly indebted to her for making necessary researches which I was not well enough to carry out myself and, as noted at the beginning of my Introduction, two of the three Appendices are, in addition to the Index, in whole or part due to her.

      It should be added that the present book is intended to be the first of a series of S.P.C.K. records. The Society possesses archives of considerable interest and value, which it is hoped to publish in due course.

C. P. Lucas.     
      January 1929.







      The Pitcairn Island Register Book, now in the archives of the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, is the earliest record from within of the settlement on Pitcairn Island. The contents of the book are in the first place the Register itself, covering the years January 1790 to February 1854. Much of it has already been printed in various books; but now for the first time, as far as the Society is aware, the whole is reproduced page by page and word for word, exactly as it stands, with all the varied spellings and mis-spellings, and with the facsimile of a typical page, page 39. Following the Register in the Register Book, on a single page, is a list of prices of different articles at Pitcairn. It is undated, unless the figures scribbled in the top left-hand corner can be read as equivalent to 17 February 1834. At any rate, it is given for what it is worth. This list is succeeded by a list of shipping entries recording the ships, or the greater number of them, which called at the island in the years 1823-1853 inclusive, with notes and comments of, in some cases, great interest. The handwriting is most difficult to decipher, as will be judged from the facsimile of page 116, but, so far as it can be interpreted, the information supplements what is given in the Register and is also of value in connexion with the movements of American whaleships in the Pacific in the first half of the nineteenth century. Finally, it will be convenient to give with the Register Book a facsimile of John Adams' famous prayer for Sunday, now in the possession


of the Society. It has already appeared in Pitcairn, the Island, the People and the Pastor, with the following note: "facsimile of a prayer in the handwriting of John Adams, the original of which was presented by his grandson Mr. John Adams of Norfolk Island to the Revd. T. B. Murray."

      It must be repeated that the glaring mistakes and inconsistencies which will at once strike the eye in the Register and shipping entries are not typist's errors or due to want of revision. They represent as nearly as may be the original. Anything that is not in the original is given in square brackets, sic [    ].

      Besides the Register Book, this volume contains a map of the Pacific Ocean giving the principal places mentioned, and an index of principal places and persons. There are also three Appendices; one – compiled by Miss Ethel Young – containing a note on three small volumes of the Proceedings of the Pitcairn Island Fund Committee and the connected correspondence which are in the possession of the Society; a second – by Sir Everard im Thurn – giving a short account of the Pacific whale fishery which brought so many New England whaleships to Pitcairn Island; and a third – compiled by Miss Young and revised by Sir E. im Thurn giving a bibliography of publications relating to Pitcairn Island up to the date of the removal to Norfolk Island.

      The Mutiny of the Bounty and its outcome, the settlement on Pitcairn Island, was a fruitful theme for writers in the nineteenth century. Lieutenant, afterwards Admiral, William Bligh had served with Captain Cook on his second voyage of discovery in 1772-5, and with him had visited Tahiti, then known as Otaheite, in the Society Islands, where they became familiar with the Bread-fruit. Bligh seems to have been a most competent sailor, and a man of exceptional courage and resolution; he attained much distinction in the Royal Navy; but twice in his career he was the subject of and deposed by a mutiny on sea when he commanded the Bounty, and on land at a later date when he was Governor of New South Wales.

      Captain Cook suggested the introduction of the Breadfruit into the West Indies, and the records of the West India Committee show that, in and about the years 1775-6,


the project was taken up warmly by the West Indian planters and merchants, who saw in it the promise of a cheap food supply for their slaves. They offered rewards for successful importation of Bread-fruit plants into the West Indian Islands, and secured the powerful advocacy and support of Sir Joseph Banks, with the result that eventually the Government decided to act, and Bligh was selected to command a ship, the Bounty, an "armed transport" of nearly 215 tons, intended to visit Tahiti, collect the plants and carry them on to the West Indies. The complement of the ship was 44, including Bligh himself, and in addition there was a botanist or gardener, with an assistant, chosen by Sir Joseph Banks to take charge of the plants. There were thus 46 persons in all on board. A start was made from Spithead on the 23rd of December 1787, just a month, it may be noted, before Phillip arrived at Port Jackson with the first English settlers for Australia and founded Sydney. Tahiti was reached – via the Cape and Tasmania, not as had been intended via Cape Horn – on the 26th of October 1788. One sailor died on the voyage, and the surgeon, a confirmed drunkard, died after the ship had arrived at Tahiti. The numbers on board were thus reduced to 44. Twenty-three weeks were spent at Tahiti. The ship left on the 4th of April 1789, and at dawn on the 28th of April 1789, when she was in the neighbourhood of Tofoa among the Friendly Islands, afterwards known as the Tongan Islands, a mutiny took place. Bligh with 18 others was cast adrift in a small boat, which after great sufferings was by his indomitable courage and tenacity brought to the island of Timor in the East Indian Archipelago. Twelve out of the nineteen lived to reach England in safety.

      Bligh himself landed at Portsmouth on the l4th of March 1790, and the Government lost no time in sending out a frigate, the Pandora, commanded by Captain Edwards, to follow up the mutineers and bring them back to England for trial. Twenty-five had remained on board the Bounty out of the forty-four, and they were, according to Bligh, "the most able men of the ship's company." After attempting to settle in the Tubuai islands due south of Tahiti, but being prevented by the hostility of the natives, they returned to Tahiti; they then


made a second attempt to settle in Tubuai, and again went back to Tahiti. Here there was a further division of numbers. Sixteen out of the twenty-five stayed there or were left behind. Two of them were killed, one by the other, and the murderer by the natives: the other fourteen surrendered or were rounded up by the Pandora, which reached Tahiti on the 23rd of March 1791, after visiting and naming Ducie Island – thus passing close by Pitcairn. The prisoners seem to have been treated on board the Pandora with gross inhumanity, being heavily chained and kept in a kind of cage. The Pandora was wrecked on the northern end of the Great Barrier Reef, just east of Torres Straits, and four out of the fourteen were drowned. The other ten were brought home and placed on trial, with the result that three were executed, four were acquitted, and three were pardoned. Among those who were pardoned was a lad, Peter Heywood, who had been detained on the Bounty against his will and whose case excited much sympathy and interest. He subsequently rose high in the Royal Navy. A memoir of him, with extracts from his diaries and correspondence, was written by the Unitarian divine, Edward Tagart; there is also an account of him in the Dictionary of National Biography; and an earlier account, which will be found under the category of the post captains of 1803 in Marshall's Naval Biography, Vol. II, Part II, 1825, is a very valuable source of information on the mutiny of the Bounty.

      There were still nine mutineers to be accounted for; the Pandora sought for them in vain, and nothing was heard of them for years. The leader of the nine, Fletcher Christian, had been the leader of the mutiny. In the original crew of the Bounty he had been a master's mate, but had been much trusted by Bligh and promoted by him to be an acting lieutenant. Bligh described him as "of a respectable family in the north of England," and he was clearly of better standing and education and of stronger will than the rank and file of his shipmates. An account of him, as also of a brother of his who attained some celebrity at Cambridge and as a jurist, will be found in the Dictionary of National Biography. The other eight were Edward Young, one of the midshipmen, also better connected than the average Bounty seaman, William


Brown, William McCoy, Isaac Martin, John Mills, Matthew Quintal, John Williams, Alexander Smith. Of them Brown was the assistant gardener and Mills was a gunner's mate, while the other five were ordinary seamen. Alexander Smith, when found on Pitcairn Island – the last survivor of the nine – came to be known as John Adams, no longer a mutineer but the patriarch and central figure of a deeply religious and highly moral little community. He had registered for service in the Bounty as Alexander Smith, but whether that name or John Adams, or neither, was his real name is uncertain. He was Alexander Smith when the Topaz called at Pitcairn in 1808, but John Adams when the Briton and the Tagus called in 1814, and it is suggested by the American writer Amasa Delano, in his Narrative of Voyages and Travels, that the call of the Boston ship Topaz, and conversation with her New England captain, Folger, may have induced Smith to change his name for one with American associations and to choose the name of John Adams, the well-known New England President of the United States. Delano and Captain Mayhew Folger were personal friends. At any rate, as John Adams the central figure of Pitcairn takes his place in the story and in the Dictionary of National Biography. The writer of the article in the Dictionary, Sir John Laughton, reasoned that he must have had an exceptional education, but this supposition is inconsistent not only with other accounts but also with Adams' handwriting, which, as the facsimile shows, was that of an uneducated man. With these nine Englishmen went nine Tahitian wives, three Tahitian men and their wives, three Tahitian men without women and one infant girl. Christian, according to the story, having read on the Bounty of Philip Carteret's discovery of Pitcairn Island in 1767, sailed in search of it, and found it at the beginning of 1790. The first item in the Island Register is "1790 January 23 H.M. Ship Bounty burned at Pitcairn Island." Thus the mutineers literally burned their boats – not, however, for the purpose of making retreat impossible, but in order to conceal their identity.

      Pitcairn Island in the Eastern Pacific, called after a boy on Carteret's ship who first sighted it, is just south of the Southern tropic. It is nearer to South America than to Australia, and in the same latitude as the north of Chile.


The Pitcairners' communications with the mainland in the Pacific were not with Australia so much as with South America, especially with Valparaiso. The island lies southeast of Tahiti, and about 100 miles south of the nearest island of the Tuamotu or Low Islands group. Its area is two square miles, and it is a very high island girded with steep cliffs, in the words of Sir Thomas Staines' despatch "completely iron bound with rocky shores."

      What happened after the arrival of the mutineers in the island until intercourse with the world was resumed must have been gathered subsequently. When, in December 1825, Captain Beechey in H.M.S. Blossom called at Pitcairn, John Adams gave him his story, which will be found in the "Narrative of a Voyage to the Pacific and Beering Strait to co-operate with the Polar Expeditions: performed in His Majesty's Ship Blossom under the command of Captain F. W. Beechey, R.N.; F.R.S.; F.R.A.S.; F.R.G.S.; in the years 1825, 26, 27, 28. Published by authority of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, 1831." Beechey writes: "The following account is compiled almost entirely from Adams' narrative, signed with his own hand, of which the following is a facsimile. But to render the narrative the more complete I have added such additional facts as were derived from the inhabitants who were perfectly acquainted with every incident connected with the transaction, they having derived their information from their parents." In 1823 John Buffett and John Evans came to live on the island, the first two white men to join the original settlers, and Buffett made a beginning of the Island Register. John Adams died in 1829.

      Among the publications in the middle of the last century which treat of the mutiny and of Pitcairn Island was one fathered by the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. It was entitled Pitcairn, the Island, the People and the Pastor. The first two editions appeared in 1853, and the Preface to the twelfth edition, which was published in 1860, stated that by that date about 30,000 copies had been printed. In September 1860 the writer of the book died. He was the Rev. T. B. Murray, who had been appointed assistant secretary of the Society in 1835, and promoted to be one of the four joint secretaries in 1842.


After his death the book was re-issued and brought up to date from time to time, the latest edition being dated 1909. While Murray lived, he was the main representative of the Society in all its dealings with the Pitcairn Islanders, and as such formed a great friendship with the Rev. G. H. Nobbs, who, after the death of John Adams, gradually became the central figure in the Pitcairn community.

      A notice of Mr. Nobbs, written by Sir John Laughton, will be found in the Dictionary of National Biography. His parents' names are not stated, and it was at his mother's wish that he took the name of Nobbs. He was born in 1799 and died in 1884. As a boy he was sent into the Royal Navy and went on a voyage to Australia. He left the King's service to take part with the South American patriots in their fight for independence, and subsequently, among other voyages, he twice went to Sierra Leone. Possibly the record of evangelical philanthropy connected with the founding of the colony of Sierra Leone which, it is worth noting, was contemporaneous with the voyage of the Bounty, may have inspired him to look around for similar work. At any rate, he had been told of and attracted by the account of the settlement on Pitcairn Island, and he seems to have left England in 1826 with the object of going to Pitcairn, tried in vain to find his way there for the better part of two years, and eventually reached the island from Callao in Peru in a launch with a single companion, who died soon after arrival. Nobbs landed on the 5th of November 1828, and John Adams died four months later; Nobbs in due course carried on his work. In 1839 Nobbs took over the Island Register, which Buffett had kept up to that date, and greatly expanded it. In August 1852, through Admiral Moresby's good offices, he went to England to be ordained a clergyman of the Church of England, and it is interesting to read that he was ordained deacon at Islington by a Bishop of Sierra Leone in October 1852, prior to receiving in the following month priest's orders at the hands of the Bishop of London. Before he left England he was accredited a missionary of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, with a small salary, and he reached Pitcairn again on the 15th of May 1853. His place during his nine months' absence had been taken by the Rev. W. H. Holman, the Chaplain of Admiral


Moresby's flagship, who was the first to administer the Holy Communion on Pitcairn Island. Under Mr. Holman (as appears from the Minutes of the Pitcairn Island Fund Committee) John Arthur, son of the master-at-arms on board the Admiral's ship, took charge of the school, also remaining on the island while Mr. Nobbs was away. He had fifty scholars under his care.

      The Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge had been to some extent in touch with Pitcairn ever since 1819, when the Records of the Society state that a first gift of books was sent there by their Diocesan Committee at Calcutta. After Nobbs settled in the island and Murray had joined the secretarial staff of the Society, the two men corresponded with each other, and when Nobbs came to England to be ordained in 1852, Murray took charge of him and presented him for ordination. Thus he became the recipient from Nobbs of the Island Register Book, when the original book was discarded in 1854 on account of its dilapidated condition. It was evidently intended in the beginning to be a register in the ordinary sense, a register, as the heading of the first page states, of "Births, Deaths, Marriages and Remarkable Family Events," and Buffett dealt sparingly with other matters. Thus of the murderous year 1793 the record is studiously vague, the terms being "Massacre of part of the mutineers by the Tahitians. The Tahiti men all killed, part by jealousies among themselves, the others by the remaining Englishmen. Mary Christian born." In the entry for the first year, 1790, is recorded "Same year died Fasto wife of John Williams," and the standard story is that John Williams, having lost his wife, replaced her with the wife of one of the Tahitian men, that this outrage and the general treatment of the coloured men by the whites led to a rising of the Tahitian men and the murders and reprisals of 1793. After this date only four white men are mentioned, the other five having been killed by the Tahitians, and Fletcher Christian being one of the five. The various books give a story that Christian returned to England and lived and died in concealment, that about 1809 he or his double was seen by Peter Heywood in the streets of Plymouth or Devonport, and that the man in question, when Heywood spoke to him by name, immediately ran away. Sir John Laughton in his article in the


Dictionary gives his opinion to the effect that Heywood could hardly have been mistaken and that it was in high degree probable that Christian found his way home; but his reasoning does not carry conviction; the accounts seem perfectly clear as to Christian having been one of the five Englishmen who were murdered by the Tahitians in 1793, and evidently Nobbs had no doubt that he was killed on the island, as shown by the lines which are prefixed to the Register. John Adams is stated to have been badly wounded, but to have been called back by the Tahitians when he was running away, with the promise that his life would he spared. Then the surviving white men with the widows of the murdered whites killed the six Tahitians, or those of them who had not been killed by their fellows, and the ghastly year ended with only four male adults left on the island. It is not surprising to read in the entry for the following year, 1794, that some of the Tahitian women wished to leave a scene of so much crime; hut the Register makes no mention of plots to kill the four white men which these women are said to have made, but which were discovered before they could be carried out. All four of the remaining white men survived till 1798, when McCoy in a fit of drunken delirium threw himself into the sea and was drowned. His drunkenness with its fatal consequence can only, it would seem, have been achieved by converting an old boiler of the Bounty into a still and thus procuring an intoxicant from the Ti root. Ti is the Polynesian name for one or more species of the plants which are known in this country as dracaenas and which are used for various purposes by the natives of the Pacific Islands, including in some islands, according to the authorities on the subject, extraction of intoxicating liquor from their tuberous roots. In the following year, 1799, Quintal, having threatened and attempted the lives of Young and Adams, was killed by them in self-defence. In 1800 Young died a natural death, leaving Adams the solitary survivor of the original nine.

      It is difficult to understand the list of births from 1794 to 1799 inclusive, as entered in the Register under 1799, and especially difficult to account for the fact of seven out of the total number of children bearing the name of Young.

      An entry in the Register will be noted under date 27th of December 1795 to the effect that the mutineers were


greatly alarmed at seeing a ship close in to the island, and another account states that in May of that year at the sight of a ship nearing the island they hid themselves and subsequently found that there had actually been a landing on the beach. But that the island was inhabited was not discovered till 1808. The entry for that year includes "Arrived Ship Topaz of Boston Captn Folger." The curtain is now drawn back and the light of day let in upon this singular little colony which had grown up unknown to the world for between eighteen and nineteen years. Its existence was reported by the commander of the Topaz, but very little notice was taken at the time, because there was so much else to divert attention. Curiously enough, this year 1808 was the year in which Bligh, who had become Governor of New South Wales in 1806, experienced his second mutiny and deposition. Happily there was no such tragic sequel on the later as on the earlier occasion.

      In order fully to appreciate the Pitcairn story, it is necessary to keep before the mind's eye the contrasts which it presented. What could be more remote from the murders and crimes of the early years upon the island than the settlement as it developed under John Adams, in peace, godliness and comparative innocence? Or, again, contrast the day-to-day life of this tiny isolated group of human beings, as it flowed on in even monotony, with the wars and rumours of wars and great events which in the same years stirred the whole outside world. Pitcairn might have been in another planet. In 1805, three years before the Topaz called at the island, Trafalgar had been fought and won, but the British fleet were still in demand off every land and in every sea. In 1808 the Peninsular War had begun, and there had been a beginning too of friction between Great Britain and the United States which in 1812 brought about the second war between the two nations. In that war powerful American frigates, admirably handled, achieved many successes against individual British ships, and in the Pacific one of those frigates, the Essex, commanded by David Porter, for many months harassed British shipping, captured British whalers and gained great fame. Under these conditions it is not surprising that there were, as far as can be gathered, no more calls at Pitcairn until, after an interval of six years, the Register records the


arrival at the Island on the 17th of September 1814 of H.M. Ships Briton and Tagus. The Briton frigate, commanded by Sir Thomas Staines, had started from England in December 1813 with a fleet for the East Indies. One of the ships, an East Indiaman, became disabled, and the Briton was told off to take charge of her, thereby becoming separated from the fleet. She brought the East Indiaman to Rio Janeiro on the 20th of March 1814 and left again on the 28th of March, parting company with the East Indiaman and in receipt of instructions to go round Cape Horn instead of the Cape of Good Hope in order to join in the pursuit of the Essex, then reported to be refitting at Valparaiso. She reached that port on the 21st of May and found that the Essex had already been taken by the British ships Phoebe and Cherub, and was being sent as a prize to England. At Valparaiso the Briton was joined by the Tagus, and the two ships went up the coast to Callao, the Port of Lima, visited the Galapagos islands, then turned south to the Marquesas group, where Captain Porter had lorded it over the natives, and were returning to Valparaiso, when they came to Pitcairn Island by accident, not by design, owing to that island having been wrongly charted. "I fell in with an island where none is laid down either in the Admiralty or other charts," wrote Sir Thomas Staines in his despatch. It was a great surprise to find that the island was peopled by English-speaking inhabitants to the number of 40, only eight of whom were original settlers – one man and seven women. Captain Folger had placed the population in 1808 at 34 women and children in addition to Alexander Smith (not yet John Adams). If his figures were correct, 40 was probably an underestimate of the numbers in 1814. By 1814 the mutiny on the Bounty was ancient history, and though John Adams, to the great distress of the islanders, expressed his readiness to go back to England and stand his trial, no attempt was made by the Government to call him to account for what was long past or to interfere with his good work. Three years passed, and then the Register records that in 1817 another ship called, the Sultan, like the Topaz a Boston vessel, a Tahitian woman leaving in her. No further call is recorded till the 10th of December 1823, and then "Arrived ship Cyrus of


London Capn. Hall and John Buffett came on shore to reside as schoolmaster John Evans also came on shore." Thus two white men were added to the Pitcairn circle, and the names of Buffett and, in a lesser degree, of Evans multiplied in the lists. Buffett had been, like Nobbs, a sea-faring man, serving in British or, more often, American vessels. He had had his fill of dangers and adventure and had been twice wrecked. He must have gone to sea very young, for he was only 27 when, in 1823, the British whaler Cyrus, on which he was serving, brought him to Pitcairn. Then, according to his own account, the Pitcairners being in want of someone to teach them to read and write, and his captain giving him the option of remaining on the island for that purpose, he was discharged, Evans accompanying him, and he became a leader on the island.

      In the Register, between the visit of the Briton and the Tagus on the 17th of September 1814 and the visit of the Cyrus which brought Buffett and Evans on the l0th of December 1823, only the Sultan is mentioned as having called at the island, but there is abundant evidence from other sources that various ships called. One may be specially mentioned, the American whaleship Russell of New Bedford, commanded by Captain Arthur. This vessel reached Pitcairn on the 8th of March 1822 and stayed there till the 12th, another ship also being at the island at the same time. The following extract from Captain Arthur's Diary is of particular interest.

      "From all I had otherwise read and learned respecting the inhabitants of Pitcairn's Island, induced me to have the following notice put up in the forepart of the ship, before we had any communication with the islanders.

      "'It is the impression of the Russell's owners, that the most part of the company were from respectable families, and it is desirable that their conduct towards the islanders should verify the opinion. As the island has been hitherto but little frequented, they will be less susceptable of fraud than a more general intercourse with the world would justify. It is desired that every officer and man will abstain from all licentiousness in word and deed, but will treat them kindly, courteously, and with the strictest good faith. As profane swearing has become an un-fashionable thing even on board a man-of-war, it is quite time


that it was laid aside by whalemen, particularly at this time. As these islanders have been taught to adore their Maker, and are not accustomed to hear His name blasphemed, they were shocked with horror, when they heard some of the crew of an American ship swear, and said it was against the laws of God, their country, and their conscience.'"

      Captain Arthur followed up this notice by visiting the Pitcairners in their homes and verifying the high opinion of their religion and morality which he had been led to form. That the captain of an American whaleship should provide such a noble example of regard for godly simplicity is the more noteworthy as at a later date the conduct of the crews of such ships when they landed on the island was in some cases open to grave exception.

      Reference has been made above to the opening of communications in 1819 between the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge and Pitcairn through the Calcutta Committee of the Society, and the Annual Report of the Society for 1819 mentions that in July of that year an opportunity had occurred of "communicating with the little colony of Pitcairn's Island in the South Pacific ocean by the departure from Calcutta of the ship Hercules for that place . . . "This is followed by a copy of a letter which the joint Secretary of the Calcutta Committee wrote on the 15th of July to "John Adams and others on Pitcairn's Island," and which begins, "It is with particular pleasure that I take an opportunity of sending to you by Captain Henderson of the ship Hercules a small stock of religious books."

      The Register contains no mention whatever of the arrival of the Hercules, nor can it be verified from the Society's records, but it appears from the Calcutta Gazette of the 6th of May 1819 that the ship first touched at Pitcairn on her passage from South America to Bengal on the 18th of January 1819, and therefore it was her second visit to the island of which the Calcutta Committee of the Society took advantage, to write to John Adams and send books for the use of the inhabitants.

      Within comparatively easy distance of Pitcairn is the island, now a dependency of Pitcairn, which bears Captain Henderson's name. It also obtained the alternative name of Elizabeth Island from another ship called the Elizabeth.


A notice of this island is given in Captain Beechey's book, in which it is stated that both vessels visited it and each captain claimed to have discovered it on his "arrival the next day at Pitcairn Island, these two places lying close together," that the visit of the Hercules preceded that of the Elizabeth by three months, but that as a matter of fact the first discoverers were a boat's crew of survivors from the wreck of the American whaleship Essex (not to be confounded with Captain Porter's more famous ship of war of that name), who landed on the island on the 20th of December 1820, Elizabeth Island is referred to in the Register under the dates 4th of March 1843 and 16th of August and 11th of November 1851. Among the relics of the Bounty in the Royal United Service Institution is what is known as John Adams' Prayer Book, a book of prayers and devotions, though not a Church of England Book of Common Prayer, on the last page of which, apparently written by John Adams himself, are the words "John Adams his book given him by Samuel Henry Rapsey of the ship Elizabeth 5 March A.D. 1819." The Elizabeth therefore called at Pitcairn very shortly after the first call of the Hercules. Captain Beechey was wrong in giving priority in discovery of Henderson Island or Elizabeth Island to the shipwrecked crew of an American whaleship and in dating the first discovery the 20th of December 1820. In the very rare pamphlet entitled "Narrative of the most extraordinary and distressing shipwreck of the whale ship Essex of Nantucket which was attacked and finally distroyed by a large spermaceti whale in the Pacific Ocean; with an account of the unparalelled sufferings of the Captain and crew. . . . in the years 1819-1820, by Owen Chase of Nantucket, first mate of the vessel, New York, 1821," it is stated that the refugees after landing on the island found cut on a tree near their landing place the name Elizabeth, showing that a ship of that name had preceded them, though no date accompanied the name. The conclusion to be drawn is that the Elizabeth reached the island in question before the castaway crew of the Essex, and the Hercules under Captain Henderson before the Elizabeth.

      After the calls of the Topaz and of the Briton and Tagus, mentions or omissions of ships in the Register, under Buffett's handling, seem to have largely depended on


whether or not the call affected the family circle. Hence the visit of the Sultan in 1817 is coupled with the entry "Left this Island in the Sultan Jenny a Tahitian woman," and if no one came or left in the Hercules and Elizabeth, that may conceivably be the explanation of their visits being ignored. Under the year 1825 we have the entry "Arrived H.M.S. Blossom, Capn. F. W. Beechey Esq during the stay of the Blossom John Adams married." Thus the arrival of a ship is coupled with a marriage – old Adams, so Beechey tells us, having long wished for the marriage ceremony to be read over himself and his blind, bedridden wife – but probably the call of one of the King's ships would in any case have been chronicled. The entry for 1826 contains "Dec. 19th Jane Quintal left the island in the Brig Lovely Ann of London Cap Blythe." The important point for the purpose of the Register is evidently not that the Lovely Ann called, but that Jane Quintal left in her. In 1830, however, we have a mention of the arrival of one of the King's ships, not linked on to any family event: "March 15th Arrived H.M.S. Seringapatam Capn. Hon. Wm. Waldegrave with a present of cloathing and agricultural tools from the British government."

      Under 1828 is the entry "George Nobbs came on shore to reside." No ship is named, as we have seen that he is said to have come to the island in a small craft from Callao, and it is also not mentioned that he had a companion, presumably because the latter died soon after arrival.

      Under 1829 we have "March 5th John Adams died aged 65," and with his death comes the end of the first chapter in the story of Pitcairn Island. Many notable cases of religious conversion have been recorded in the history of Christianity, but it would be difficult to find an exact parallel to that of John Adams. The facts are quite clear. There is no question as to what he was and did after all his shipmates on the island had perished. He had no human guide or counsellor to turn him into the way of righteousness and to make him feel and shoulder responsibility for bringing up a group of boys and girls in the fear of God. He had a Bible and a Prayer Book to be the instruments of his endeavour, so far as education, or rather lack of education, served him. He may well have recalled to mind memories of his own childhood. But there can be only one simple and


straightforward explanation of what took place, that it was the handiwork of the Almighty, whereby a sailor seasoned to crime came to himself in a far country and learnt and taught others to follow Christ. The Bible and Prayer Book in question were among the contents of the Bounty, which had been brought on shore before she was burnt. The Bible, it is stated, had been used by Christian and by Young before it came with the Prayer Book into John Adams' keeping. There is no indication that before ships began to call there were more than one copy of either book in the island, indeed, there are definite statements to that effect, and if this was so they may well have been on that account more potent in their influence on John Adams himself and more calculated to instil reverence into the minds of sons and daughters of native mothers as he taught them from this source alone.

      The clumsily-worded entry under date 28th February 1831 is one of much importance. "Arrived H.M.S. Comet Alex. A. Sandilands and Barque Lucy Anne. Colony of New South Wales. Government vessel. T Currey Master for the purpose of removing the inhabitants to Tahiti." It has been pointed out above that the Pitcairners' communications with the Pacific mainlands were rather with the nearer coast of South America than with Australia; but, as far as official relations were concerned, there was no British authority, other than Consuls, on the South American side, and the islanders' allegiance, so to speak, lay in the direction of Australia, the ships for this first migration coming from Sydney by order of the British Government. Pitcairn at the present day is within the "sphere of influence" of the High Commissioner of the Western Pacific, whose headquarters are at Fiji, of which he is also Governor. Succeeding entries in the Register record that on the 6th of March 1831 all the inhabitants embarked and sailed for Tahiti, and that they arrived at Tahiti on the 21st of March. It is stated, though not in the Register, that shortage of water on the island was the reason for the removal, and that the number removed, being the whole population, was 87, as against 40 when the Briton called in 1814. On the passage to Tahiti the Register chronicles a birth, but after arrival there was exceptional sickness among the incomers. The moral conditions of the place are said to have disagreed with the Pitcairners as much as its climate, and the result, as recorded in the Register, was


that on the 24th of April, after barely a month's sojourn at Tahiti, a number of them, headed by John Buffett, sailed off in a small schooner, but owing to adverse winds were landed on what is styled "Lord Hood's Island." This is one of the Marquesas group; its native name is or was Fatuhuku, but it was named Hood Island by Captain Cook, who discovered it in the Resolution in 1774 and called it Hood Island after a midshipman of that name on board his ship, who was the first to see it. This midshipman was afterwards Captain Alexander Hood, a distinguished officer of the sea-going Hood family, who was killed in action. In regard to this island he was confused with his more famous kinsman Lord Hood, though Lord Hood was rather older than Captain Cook himself. Hence the name given in the Register. (The mistake has been perpetuated in the Pacific Islands Pilot, Vol. III, 1920 ed.) Here they remained till the 21st of June, when they embarked on a French ship, and on the 27th of June reached Pitcairn again, finding that in their absence the pigs had run wild and destroyed the crops. The rest of the community rejoined them at Pitcairn on the 2nd of September, having been brought back in the American brig Charles Dogget. Nobbs' name does not appear in connexion with this migration, and John Buffett seems to have been most to the fore. Buffett was described in Captain Beechey's narrative as "the oracle of the community." This would be at the time when the Blossom called at Pitcairn, in December 1825, before Nobbs came to Pitcairn. The Register shows that the loss of life which accompanied the move was terribly high, and this makes it difficult to criticise the shortness of the stay at Tahiti. At the same time the story illustrates what a source of trouble and expense on a small scale to the British Government have been these tiny groups of men and women, who have planted themselves in out of the way islands. On this occasion ships had been expressly sent from Sydney across the Pacific to carry the Pitcairners to a new and more accessible home in Tahiti. There everything seems to have been done with the active goodwill of Queen Pomaré for their comfort and welfare, but a month sufficed to set them on the move back again to their island, and the kindly action of the Government taken on their behalf was entirely thrown away.

      It will be noticed that for six years, 1832-7 inclusive, there


are no entries whatever in the Register other than births, deaths and marriages, and that there is a total gap between the 5th of November 1833 and the 5th of April 1835. On the 28th of October 1832 there arrived from Tahiti an impostor named Joshua Hill. He claimed to have been appointed by the British Government as their representative at Pitcairn and he had had correspondence with Government offices and persons of standing which he was able to produce, when, as is shown in the list of shipping entries, Captain Fremantle, commanding H.M.S. Challenger, visited Pitcairn on the 10th of January 1833. Captain Fremantle, under instructions from the British Government, had previously brought the Challenger to Swan River and, landing on the end of May 1829, had taken possession for the British Crown of the whole Western side of Australia, leaving his name to be borne by the port of Fremantle. He was afterwards Admiral Sir Charles Fremantle, and must not be confused with another Captain Fremantle, who in command of the Juno visited Pitcairn in 1855 in connexion with the coming migration to Norfolk Island. The commander of the Challenger found that the Pitcairners had deteriorated through their sojourn at Tahiti, and had brought back drunken habits with them. Hill seems to have persuaded Fremantle that, whereas Nobbs and the other Englishmen were encouraging and abetting the evil, he himself had taken a stand against it. Fremantle therefore gave him his support, while by no means countenancing the arbitrary measures which Hill had taken or proposed to take. It is very difficult to follow exactly what subsequently happened and when, but Hill appears for a while to have wholly dominated and terrorised the islanders, and after the most outrageous proceedings to have practically enforced the banishment of the three Englishmen. All three left in the Tuscan for Tahiti on the 8th of March 1834. Apparently in about three months they returned, and picking up their families were carried on, in the case of Nobbs and Evans, and eventually of Buffett also, to the Gambier or Manga Reva Islands, a short distance to the north-west of Pitcairn in the direction of Tahiti, where Nobbs busied himself in teaching. The three were absent from Pitcairn for the inside of a year. The Hill régime would, unquestionably, have been very short-lived had it been possible for regular visits to have


been paid to the island by H.M. ships. The correspondence which is printed in Brodie's Pitcairn Island and the Islanders in 1850 shows that the various authorities were by no means satisfied with what came to their ears and were anxious that a ship should go to Pitcairn and inquire, but that after the 10th of January 1833, when the Challenger called, it was not found possible to send a vessel until the visit of the Actaeon on the 12th of January 1837. Disillusionment with regard to Hill was then complete, for the Captain of the Actaeon, Lord Edward Russell, a son of the then Duke of Bedford, was able to give the lie to Hill's claim to be related to the Duke, and in the following December another Queen's ship, the Imogene, came with orders to deport him, and Pitcairn knew him no more.

      Brief but very important was the visit of H.M.S. Fly, commanded by Captain Elliot, on the 29th of November 1838. The Pitcairners, who now numbered ninety-nine in all, very earnestly represented to the captain the necessity of having some recognised chief authority in their community. They had experienced the want of it in the case of the Joshua Hill episode, and they had especially in view the dangers and difficulties caused when crews of whaleships who came on shore happened to be of the lawless and rowdy type, insulting the inhabitants and threatening violence to the women. The great majority of these whaleships were American, and an instance has been given above in which the commander of an American whaleship showed rare delicacy of feeling towards the unsophisticated islanders. Further, as all, or almost all, these vessels hailed from New England ports, they would, in most cases, in all probability have been manned by a good class of seaman. But there must also have been not a few exceptions, and of them Captain Elliot wrote in his despatch that they taunted the Pitcairners with having no laws; no country; no authority that Americans were to respect, for they denied that the islanders were under the protection of Great Britain, "as they had neither colours nor written authority." They had, however, as a matter of fact, a merchant Union Jack flying, which had been supplied by an English ship. In the absence of instructions the captain was in a very difficult position, but he considered it to be his duty to take some decided step, which would give protection to the Pitcairners while


involving as little as possible the British Government, of whose intentions towards them he was ignorant. He therefore gave formal authority for "their election of a magistrate or elder to be periodically chosen from among themselves and answerable for their proceedings to Her Majesty's Government." The regulations for the purpose, which he drew up and signed on board his ship on the 30th of November, provided for the election of a magistrate or elder, being a native-born inhabitant of the island, on the 1st of January in each year by the free votes of all the native-born inhabitants, or five years residents, male or female, being over eighteen years of age. The magistrate was to be assisted by a council of two, one chosen by the votes of the assembly, the other by the magistrate himself. He was to report to the captains of Her Majesty's ships on their visits, his authority was to be obeyed by the residents on the island "under pain of serious consequences until he is superseded by the authority of Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain," and he was to take an oath that "I will keep a register of my proceedings and hold myself accountable for the due exercise of my office to Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain or her representative." In addition to drawing up this and other regulations, Captain Elliot himself held a first election, having effect till the end of the year, he formally attested in writing that the elected magistrate had been sworn before him, and he provided a Union Jack to be flown as an ensign of British protection. Thus Pitcairn was in effect constituted a British colony, and when the Diamond Jubilee was celebrated in 1850, the Register spoke of the "anniversary of the settlement of the colony sixty years since."

      In the archives of the S.P.C.K., though not in the Register Book, is an address to Queen Victoria dated the 27th of July 1853, from the Pitcairn Islanders, signed on their behalf by their Chief Magistrate. It accompanied a specimen of their own workmanship for the Queen's acceptance,as explained in the following words of the address which are given as they stand: "At the suggestion of our worthy benefactor Rear Admiral Moresby we have ventured to present your gracious Majesty with a small chest of drawes of our own manifacture from the Island wood; the native name of the dark wood is miro; the bottoms of the drawers is made of the breadfruit tree; our means are very limited; and


our mechanical skill also; and we will esteem it a great favour if your Majesty would condersend to except of it; as a token of our loyalty and respect to our gracious Queen." A previous part of the address was thus worded: "We humbly trust we may be allowed to consider ourselves your Majesty's subjects; and Pitcairns Island a British colony as long as it is inhabited by us in the fullest sense of the word. Several years since the Capt. of your Majesty's ship Fly took formal possession of our little Island; and placed us under your Majesty's protection; and if your Majesty's government would grant us a document declaring us an integral part of your Majesty's dominion; we should be freed from all fears (perhaps groundless) on that head; and such a gracious mark of Royal favour would be cherished by us to an exertion in the discharge of the various duties incumberent on British subjects." But it was not thought well to give any formal document of the kind, for the very good reason that it would have implied a doubt, where there was no doubt, with regard to the island being already a British possession and the islanders subjects of the British Crown. Her Majesty, in accepting the gift and the loyal address which accompanied it, referred to the donors as "her subjects on Pitcairn's Island."

      The visit of the Fly brought a more organized life among these primitive citizens, and it was initiated by one of the Captains of H.M. ships. All the world over, from generation to generation, those in command of the ships of the Royal Navy have added to protection of outlying bits of the British Empire, the functions of advisers, arbitrators, and friends in need of their inhabitants, applying kindly good sense and the proverbial handiness of the sailor to patient solution of endless petty problems, such as cause discord and discontent in small communities cut off from the outside world.

      With the entry of the 24th of March 1839 Buffett's journal ends. As a record of births, deaths, and marriages, it seems to have been fairly accurate and complete; and in as much as it did not purport to do more than chronicle family events, it must be forgiven for the patchiness of its general information. Nobbs, who at this point took over the journal, was obviously a better educated man than Buffett, and in his hands the journal became a narrative of a wholly different


class. It is very much fuller, as much space being given now to one year as to a number of years before; and, in spite of occasional formal phrases and turns of expression, the contents are made interesting by clear consecutive writing and good arrangement, each year being summarised. Little comment will therefore be needed by way of elucidation. But it is obvious to those who study the original that various writers in addition to Buffett and Nobbs had a hand in the Register, there being great variety of handwriting as well as of expression. When Nobbs was in England, Mr. Holman became chief chronicler.

      Before this year 1839 ended, one of the Queen's ships, the Sparrowhawk, commanded by Captain Shepherd, arrived on the morning of the 9th of November, and stayed until the evening of the 12th. She had on board an ex-president of Chili, whom it seems Nobbs had known in his crusading days; the stay was longer than usual, but on all occasions when ships of the Royal Navy called, the proceedings were the same. This time on the 9th there were school examinations and prizes and presents; on Sunday, the 10th of May, the Captain and his officers attended divine service twice; on Monday several cases were submitted to the Captain for his decision; and on Tuesday he addressed the whole population gathered in the school house "on various subjects connected with their welfare."

      Thirteen ships are said to have touched at the island during the year, a greater number than ever before, but calls now multiplied. A little later, in 1845, the summary of the year gives twenty-five visiting ships, of which twenty were American, two French, and only one British, while in 1846, out of forty-nine ships that called, forty-six were American. In 1840 there are two entries which in a small way are rather surprising. "January 19th a Sunday School commenced." It would have been thought that a Sunday School had always been in existence from the beginning of John Adams' labours, but presumably it was only now that any teaching even of the Bible and Prayer Book began to be given on a Sunday. The second entry is that of the 2nd of May; it is the mention of a quarrel, carried to blows, between two of the elders of the island, one of them being the Englishman Evans. It seems singularly out of keeping with the traditional life of the community, and rather an unnecessary


exposure by Mr, Nobbs of an unfortunate incident. In November a ship connected with the London Missionary Society called, the Chaplain or Missioner and the Captain of the ship spent two days on the island, and the entry in the Register reflects the theological colouring of the Society. The next year, 1841, was marked by a severe epidemic of influenza, which made the visit in August of H.M.S. Curacoa specially welcome, the surgeon of the ship devoting three days to the care of the sick. In September, a Tahitian woman, who had come to Pitcairn on the Bounty as the wife of Fletcher Christian, died at an advanced though uncertain age. According to her own account, she well remembered Captain Cook's first arrival at Tahiti. A reference to the Register for 1850 will show that when on the 23rd of January in that year the sixtieth "anniversary of the settlement of the colony" was celebrated, there was still one survivor of the Bounty, Susanna, also a Tahitian woman, who died on the following 15th of July.

      The year 1842 seems to have been uneventful. In 1843 took place one of the expeditions to explore Elizabeth Island to which reference has already been made, Eleven Pitcairners started for the purpose on the 4th of March, and came back on the 11th, bringing a very unfavourable report. Two more expeditions to that island are recorded in the Register as having taken place in August and November 1851, in either case in an American ship, and on the second occasion it seems to have been most thoroughly explored. It is noteworthy that the alternative name, Henderson Island, is not mentioned. This was, no doubt, for the reason that the Elizabeth was an American ship and the New Englanders must have put her name on the chart. In 1844, on the 28th to 31st of July, Captain Hunt of H.M.S. Baselisk made rather a prolonged visit to Pitcairn, during which the Register says that he "assembled the inhabitants, made some alterations and suggested others for the improvement of the moral and religious observances of the community," and "appointed a commercial agent."

      Meanwhile the surgeon of the ship vaccinated upwards of sixty of the islanders, but the vaccination turned out to be a complete failure. In January 1845 two of the Bounty's guns were retrieved from the bottom of the sea. One of them was found to have been spiked, but the other, in


Mr. Nobbs' picturesque language, "resumed its original vocation, at least the innoxious portion of it." Unfortunately it was not an innoxious portion, for in 1853 the Register gives an account of an explosion of the gun when a salute was being fired, which had fatal consequences. In the first quarter of this year, 1845, there was another epidemic, and, reviewing the condition of the island, Mr. Nobbs reasoned that it was not, as was commonly supposed, a healthy spot, that the inhabitants suffered from diverse diseases, "and last but not least influenza under various modifications is prevalent." Five times within the last four years has "the fever been rife among us." That Mr. Nobbs had a considerable gift of graphic description is shown by his long account of a great storm in the night of the 16th of April, which swept the island, causing at one point a momentous landslide like an avalanche, and everywhere destroying fruit trees and foodstuffs on land and boats on the sea. A disastrous year ended with rumours of war. The chief event of the next year, 1846, was the completion and opening of a new church and school house, and in 1847 a shooting accident to a son of Mr. Nobbs. Fortunately one of H.M. ships called in time with a surgeon on board. No such aid, however, was available in the case of another accident in 1848, and, though Mr. Nobbs seems to have done all that could be done in the absence of expert surgical skill, the sufferer died. In the first half of 1849 one or more pages are missing from the Register, but the notice of the visit of Captain Wood in H.M.S. Pandora can be supplemented from the shipping list. The Mr. Buffett who was brought back by him from the Sandwich Islands, having gone there in the previous January, was evidently the father of the Buffett clan. The invitation from the British Consul-General in those islands to Pitcairners to migrate there seems to have borne no fruit. A second Queen's ship from Valparaiso and Callao, the Daphne, brought what the Register styled "the desiderata of the community viz a bull, cows and some rabbits," together with a large case of books from the S.P.C.K.; but something must have happened to the cattle, for in the Register in 1852 we are told that, when Admiral Moresby's flagship, the Portland, called in that year, it supplied Pitcairn, among many useful articles, with a bull and cow calves "for which we have long


wished." It is recorded with emphasis that this year, 1849, was the first year in which two British ships of war had visited the island, and that in this year British ships outnumbered American among the callers, eleven against seven. Australian ships were now in evidence. During the months August to October the majority of the inhabitants, now numbering 155, were attacked by influenza of a severe type. The year 1850 was the Diamond Jubilee of the settlement of the colony, which was kept with loyal enthusiasm. Among the ships which called, American vessels once more outnumbered British, twenty-nine against seventeen. Among the British ships was a New Zealand ship, the Noble, bound from Auckland for California, five passengers from which, having been landed for the day on the 24th of March, and being allowed by the captain to spend the night on shore, were left behind, two of them being taken off by a ship which called on the 11th-12th of April, and two more by one which called on the 21st of April; what happened to the fifth is not clear. Of the two who secured passages on the 12th of April, one was Mr. Walter Brodie, who recorded his experiences in Pitcairn Island and the Islanders in 1850, published in 1851. There is no reference to these castaways in the Register, possibly through Mr. Nobbs' modesty, as they gave warm expression, with good reason, of their gratitude for the kindness shewed to them on the island; this will be found in the Shipping List. In 1851, beyond the visit to Elizabeth Island already mentioned, nothing worthy of note seems to have taken place. In 1852 no fewer than three of H.M. ships visited Pitcairn, and one of them was – for the first time – an Admiral's flagship. This was the Portland, bringing Admiral Moresby, a most warm and generous friend to the Pitcairners as a whole, and in particular to Mr. Nobbs. It was on this occasion that the Admiral took Mr. Nobbs and his daughter to Valparaiso on Mr. Nobbs' way to England to be ordained; and it has been already told that his place on the island during his absence was taken by the Rev. W. H. Holman. Mr. Holman subsequently presented to the Museum of the Royal United Service Institution several of the "Relics of the Bounty" which will be found there, including John Adams' prayer book.

      In 1853 Pitcairn was again visited by three of Her


Majesty's ships. The first in point of time was a steamer, the Virago, the first steamer that had been seen by the islanders. She called in January and gave them a trip round their island. Her departure was the occasion of the fatal accident caused by the explosion of one of the Bounty's guns. In May Admiral Moresby brought back Mr. Nobbs and his daughter, and carried off Mr. Holman; and at the beginning of November H.M.S. Dido called, commanded by Captain Morshead. The Dido brought a stock of provisions in case the islanders should still be, as they had been, suffering from shortage of crops, and a full report of the visit is given in the correspondence connected with the Pitcairn Island Fund. It was a year of much sickness. With February 1854 the Register breaks off, owing to the dilapidation and consequent disuse of the book, which had been taken on board the Virago in Mr. Nobbs' absence and had been soaked in the process. Mr. Nobbs, it will be remembered, was now an ordained clergyman of the Church of England in receipt of a stipend of £50 per annum from the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, and he began the year with a sermon in aid of the funds of that Society. The Shipping List is not carried beyond October 1853.

      By this time a Pitcairn Island Fund, which forms the subject of Appendix I, had been instituted in England, under a committee of influential men presided over by the Bishop of London. Mr. Nobbs' friend, Mr. Murray, of the S.P.C.K., was the Hon. Secretary of the Committee, the Society made a grant to it of £100, and a similar sum was subscribed by Admiral Moresby, ever to be relied upon in all that concerned the interests of his Pitcairn friends. They had multiplied greatly. In 1852, the last year for which a summary of the population is given in the Register, the total was returned as 168, males and females being exactly equal, as against 40 when the Briton came to the island in 1814. They had become, or were becoming, too many for the limited space, and arrangements were made to transfer them to Norfolk Island, which were carried out in 1856. They all migrated to the number of 194, though some of them only left Pitcairn with great reluctance and after much persuasion, and in two years' time one or two families began drifting back again. Conditions had greatly changed since, in 1823, the Cyrus imported Buffett and Evans to reinforce John Adams.


The development of the Pacific whale fishery had, as has been abundantly shown, resulted in numerous visits of American whale ships, seeking fresh water, wood, vegetables and fruit, and this would account for the list of prices on page 97 being given in dollars. The discovery of gold in California in 1848 brought (until in 1851 gold was discovered in Australia also) a number of vessels en route to California from Australia and New Zealand. The captains of H.M. ships, not to mention lesser visitors, seem latterly, when they called, to have stayed on shore almost as a matter of course. The island, in short, lost, so to speak, its isolation and came into the world.

      But, after the effects of the unfortunate removal to Tahiti had worn off, the traditions of morality and religion, which John Adams had implanted, asserted themselves again under Mr. Nobbs' fostering care; and, with the opportunity of receiving the holy Communion, practically all the adults became communicants. It will be appreciated that the settlement on Pitcairn Island took place in a very interesting time in our religious history. The last years of the eighteenth and the first half of the nineteenth century were a fruitful time of evangelical effort, when Protestants generally seem to have realized in a far more wholesale manner than ever before that they had a call to go forth and preach the Gospel, and they found a wide and open field in the Pacific. Bible Christianity in simple and somewhat Puritan form was carried over the sea, and John Adams, with those whom he reared on the Bible and the Prayer Book, was all in harmony with it. So was one captain and another of the ships of the Royal Navy, as they came in contact with the Pitcairners in the middle years of the nineteenth century. This will be found illustrated by the wording of the note which Captain Wood of the Pandora entered in the List of Shipping on the 11th of July 1849, or a similar note entered by Captain Wellesley of the Daedalus on the 29th of January 1852. Very instructive, too, as to the type of Christianity presented to and absorbed by the islanders is Mr. Nobbs' entry in the Register on the occasion of the visit of the London Missionary Society's vessel on the 9th–10th of November 1840. But the Pitcairners, beginning with John Adams himself, were emphatically Prayer Book as well as Bible Christians, unswerving in loyalty to the Church of


England. One of the books states that Joshua Hill, while upsetting their minds in other respects, was not able to undermine their Churchmanship.

      Such they were, interesting on the spiritual side, as from other points of view. But the story stands alone. Because it is so picturesque, it must not mislead us into falling in love with small and distant island communities, simply because they are small and distant. There is abundance of isolation or comparative isolation for necessary and useful purposes, but usually for limited periods only, at lighthouses, submarine cable stations and the like. The permanent continuance of small communities in out-of-the-way corners of the earth seems, on the other hand, to require justification rather than to command as a matter of course sympathy and approval. They are of scanty utility; they may at long intervals provide asylums for occasional castaways; the record of Tristan da Cunha testifies that they are fields for missionary self-sacrifice, as Pitcairn was for the devotion of Nobbs. But restricted communities inevitably tend to deteriorate, their claims or the claims made for them by their friends are disproportionate to their quantity and their quality; in effect, they are pensioners of the Government and the nation whose flag covers their home. Perhaps wireless and aviation may provide for them a future which will be a revised version of the past.




Kept By John Buffett Sen.

Where are they now! The infatuated band
Whose outrag'd feelings urg'd them on to crime?
Proscribed, they wandered on from land to land;
To Pitcairn's came and perished in their prime.
What need I tell their hapless leader's fate
(Slain by the hand of one he deem'd his slave)
Save to the rash I would this fact relate,
Nor mound nor marble marks his dubious grave.
Their progeny – for these I hold the pen
To mark their Birth into this fair abode; –
When Love, to Marriage prompts the youthful train
Or when by Death the soul returns to God.
G. H. N.     


Births, Deaths, Marriages & Remarkable Family Events

Date Parties Names &.
January 23d.
H.M. Ship Bounty burned at Pitcairn Island.
Same year died Fasto wife of John Williams.
October Thursday October Christian born.

This year Matthew Quintal. Daniel McCoy. & Elizabeth Mills born & CharIes Christian.

1793. Massacre of part of the mutineers by the Tahitians. The Tahiti men all killed, part by jealousies among themselves, the others by the remaining Englishmen. Mary Christian born.

1794. A great desire in many of the women to leave the Island a boat built for the purpose of removing them launched and upset fortunate for them that she did so for had they launched out upon the ocean where could they have gone or what could a few ignorant women have done by themselves drifting upon the waves but ultimately have fallen a sacrifice to their folly.

6. May
The two first canoes built for the purpose of fishing.
Dec. 27th Saw a ship close in with the Island the mutineers greatly alarmed. A heavy surf and bad weather the ship stood to the S E.

April 20.
McCoy distilled a bottle of ardent spirit from the Te-root. The copper kettle of the Bounty made into a still, frequent intoxication the consequence, McCoy in particular upon whom it produced fits of delirium , in one of which he fastened a stone to his neck, threw himself from the rocks, into the sea and was drowned.


Births, Deaths, Marriages & Remarkable Family Events

Date Parties Names &.
1799 Matthew Quintal having threatened to take the life of Young and Adams and having made an attempt and was foiled Adams and Young having no doubt he would follow his resolution came to the conclusion that their own lives were not safe while he was in existence and that they were justified in putting him to death which they did with an axe. Between this date and 1794 were born Sarah McCoy. Alias Quintal. Dinah Adams. Polly Young. John Mills. Robert Young. George Young. William Young. Edward Young. Dolly Young. Jane Quintal. Arthur Quintal, James Young. Rachel Adams

1800 Died Edward Young Sen. of an Asthma
Edward Quintal. Catherine McCoy and Hannah Adams born.

George Adams born. the last child in the first generation.

1808 Charles Christian son of T. O. Christian born.
Arrived Ship Topaz of Boston Captn. Folger.
1810 &
Between this and the last date Joseph Christian born and James Young'died of sickness
Fletcher Christian. Mary Christian. William McCoy & John Quintal born.

17th Sept.     
Arrived H.M. Ships Briton and Tagus same month Matthew Quintal drowned by falling from a canoe in a fit between this date and 1813 Matthew Quintal. Daniel McCoy. Edward Christian & Polly Christian born. John Mills killed by falling from the rocks.

1815 &
Hugh McCoy. Maria Christian & Arthur Christian born & Peggy Christian.

1817. William Quintal born arrived Ship Sultan of Boston Captn. Reynolds left this Island in the Sultan Jenny a Tahitian woman,


Births, Deaths, Marriages, & Remarkable Family Events

Date Parties Names &.
1818 &
Charles Christian born. Mary Christian Matthew McCoy & Kitty Quintal born

1820 John Quintal born & Thursday O. Christian

1822 Margaret Christian. Frederic Young. Martha Quintal & Charles Quintal born & Jane McCoy born.

1823 Simon Young & Mayhew Young born this same year Mayhew died.
Dec. 10 Arrived ship Cyrus of London Capn. Hall and John Buffett came on shore to reside as schoolmaster John Evans also came on shore.

April 25th.

Pheobe Quintal daughter of Arthur and Catherine Quintal born
Feb. 10th John Buffett married!
July 23d. Sarah daughter of Daniel and Sarah McCoy born
Oct. 31st Edward son of Edward and Dinah Quintal born
Nov. 26th. Dinah daughter of George and Hannah Young born
John Evans married Rachel Adams.

January 3rd.
Thomas Buffett son of John and Dolly Buffett born
28    Polly Young born
April 26th         Isaac Christian born
July 9th James Quintal born
Dec. 5th Arrived H.M.S. Blossom, Captn. F. W. Beechey Esq. during the stay of the Blossom John Adams married


Births, Deaths, Marriages, & Remarkable Family Events

Date Parties Names &.
March 7th. Sarah wife of Charles Christian died aged 37 years
July 21st John Buffett born
Sep. 8th Betsy Young born. Oct. 23rd Samuel McCoy born
Dec. 19th Jane Quintal left the Island in the Brig Lovely Ann of London Capn. Blythe.

January 31stAbraham B. Quintal son of Edward and Dinah Quintal born.
April 1stGeorge Adams married Polly Young.
July 21st Caroline Quintal born
November 10th John Adams born
December 4th. William. M. Young born

May 27th David Buffett born
October 1st Mary B. Christian born 31st Jemima Young born
November 12th Albina McCoy born
November 5th George Nobbs came on shore to reside

January 3rd Jonathan Adams born
12th    John V. M. Evans born
March 5th John Adams died aged 65.
        7Louisa Quintal born
April 14th Mary wife of John Adams died
May 8th Ruth Quintal born
August 30th Marian Young born
September 30th Moses Young born.


Births, Deaths, Marriages, & Remarkable Family Events

Date Parties Names &.
October 18th Charles Christian married Maria Christian. Daniel McCoy married Peggy Christian & George Nobbs married Sarah Christian

January 19th Martha Young born
March 15th Arrived H.M.S. Seringapatam Cap: Hon: Wm. Waldegrave with a present of cloathing and agricultural tools from the British government.
26th    R. P. Buffett born
April 7th Rebecca Christian born
June 19th Josiah C. Adams born
August 8th William Evans born
18th    Phillip McCoy born
September 19th Reuben E Nobbs born

Feb. 28th Arrived H.M.S. Comet Alex. A. Sandilands and Barque Lucy Anne. Colony of New South Wales. Government Vessels. T Currey master for the purpose of removing the inhabitants to Tahiti.
March 6th All the inhabitants embarked and sailed for Tahiti
21st    Arrived at Tahiti. On the passage Lucy A Quintal born
Soon after arrival at Tahiti the Pitcairn people were taken sick
April 21st Thursday October Christian died.


Births, Deaths, Marriages, & Remarkable Family Events

Date Parties Names &.
April 24th John Buffett and family. Robert Young. Joseph Christian. Edward Christian. Charles Christian 3d. Matthew Quintal and Frederic Young sailed from Tahiti in a small Schooner but owing to adverse winds the aforesaid persons landed on Lord-Hoods Island and the Schooner returned to Tahiti.
25th    Lucy Ann Quintal died
29th    Prudence a native of Tahiti died
May 4th George Young died
15th    Kitty Quintal 2d died
16    Polly Christian died
June 3rd Edward Christian died at Lord Hoods Is.
4th    Jane McCoy died. June 6th Mary Quintal born
8th    Kitty Quintal 1st died
9th    Nancy a native of Tahiti died
25    Charles Christian 2d died
27th    Daniel McCoy 2d died
27th    Hugh McCoy died
June 21st John Buffett and the others on Lord Hoods Island embarked in the French Brig Bourdeaux packet and on the 27th landed at Pitcairns` during our absence the hogs having gone wild destroyed our crops. After returning we employed ourselves destroying the hogs &.
August 7th Sun Eclypsed. August 12th Charles D. Christian born
18th    Robert Young died at Pitcairns
September 2d. Arrived Brig Charles Dogget of Salem with the remainder of the natives


Births, Deaths, Marriages, & Remarkable Family Events

Date Parties Names &.
November 6th Edward Young died
24th    Joseph Christian died

May 30th Benjamin C Christian born
August 30th Esther Nobbs born
December 25th Daniel McCoy died
Sept. 16th Dorcas & Lydia Young (twins) born
Dec. 26th Daniel McCoy sen. died
28th    Daniel McCoy jun. born
[In margin] John Quintal married to Maria Christian

Fletcher Christian married to Peggy McCoy November.

January 17th Mary Evans born
June 11th Eliza Quintal born. May Sarah McCoy died.
Sep. 1st Fletcher C Nobbs born
 "  24 Jacob Christian born
November 5th Susan Quintal born

April 5th Sarah Quintal born
August 11 Priscilla Christian
Sept. 7 Francis M. Nobbs born
November 27th Edward Buffett born
December 23rd George, F. M. Evans born
[In margin] Arthur Quintal married to Mary Christian May 3rd.

January 17th Henry J. Quintal born
June 17th Absalom Quintal born
October 6th Jane Nobbs born
October 30th Charles Christian married to Charlotte Quintal. Matthew McCoy married to Margaret Christian
November 10th Polly Christian born


Births, Deaths, Marriages, & Remarkable Family Events

Date Parties Names &.
February 4th Ellen Quintal born
June 19th Robert Young born
July 10th Jane McCoy born
August 6th Dinah Evans born

Caleb Quintal born
November 7th Nathaniel Quintal born
November 18th Robert Young died aged five months.
December 16th Andrew Christian born. died 24th

[In margin] Arthur Quintal married to Martha Quintal October 22nd. John Quintal married to Dinah Young November 5th.

June 13th Maria L. Christian born
July 4th Ann N. Nobbs born
July 31st Edmund J. Quintal born
August 11th Diana McCoy born
November 5th John Quintal received a dangerous wound by falling from a rock while catching a goat
November 14th Maria Quintal born
November 24th John Quintal died aged 27 years of a locked jaw in consequence of a wound in the foot
November 29th Arrived H.M.S. Fly Russel Elliot Esq. with a present from the Revnd. Mr. Rowlandson and congregation Valparaiso.

Captain Elliots proposal for electing a chief Magistrate proceeded upon and Edward Quintal chosen and sworn in.
December 23rd John Quintal born.


Births, Deaths, Marriages, & Remarkable Family Events

Date Parties Names &.
January 2nd. Edward Quintal reelected as Chief Magistrate. Fletcher Christian and William Quintal Advisers
February 6th William Young died aged 40 years.
March 24th Thursday O. Christian married to Polly Young
(Here ends Buffett's journal – G.H.N.)
July 5th Joseph Quintall born
ibid 12th Martha Evans born
September 1st Edmund J. Quintall died; the disease was supposed to be the croup – aged 13 months.
ibid 22nd James Wingate Johnstone Nobbs born
November 3rd Cathrine Christian born
ibid 9th Arrived H.M.S. Sparrawhawk, J. Shepherd Esq commander. at 11. A.M. the boats landed the Captain, with several of his Officers, and General Freire ex President of Chili. – In the afternoon the children of the school were examined and received the approbation of our respective visitors; Cap: Shepherd afterward divided a valuable present among the inhabitants
  "    10th Sunday. Captain Shepherd and his officers attended divine service twice. – At 5. o'clock they went on board.


Births, Deaths, Marriages, & Remarkable Family Events
Date Parties Names &.
November 11th Captain Shepherd returned on shore. In the afternoon several cases were submitted to him for dicision.
  "    12th In the afternoon all the inhabitants were assembled in the school house; and Captain Shepherd addressed them on various subjects connected with their welfare. Afterwards he distributed rewards among the children of the school according to their respective merits. In the evening Capt: S. went on board and the Sparrowhawk sailed
Decr.. 3rd. Margaret McCoy delivered of a male child which died shortly after its birth
Decr. 4th The above mentioned infant interred
  "    7th Joseph Napoleon Quintall born
    13th Isabella Emily Christian born
    30th Louisa Victoria Rose Quintall born


Number of births, this year, eight; Marriages one; Deaths three.

Thirteen ships have touched here this year: a greater number than ever arrived before in the same space of time. Fifty two scholars attended the public school.

Number of inhabitants 106 – 53 of each sex.


Births, Deaths, Marriages, & Remarkable Family Events

January 1st Arthur Quintal) sen. elected Magistrate: George Adams and Arthur Quintal) jun. Councillors.
  "   19th A Sunday school commenced.
February 1st Mrs Nobbs received a sever contusion on the shoulder by the falling of a cocoa nut
  "   13th Moses Young fell from a cocoa nut tree, at least 40 feet in height and was but slightly injured

On the evening between the eighteenth and the nineteenth of April experienced a heavy gale of wind from the W.N.W. which did considerable damage to the Bread fruit, plantains; orange trees &: some large pieces of the Banian-tree were broke off; and considerable fears were entertained by some of the inhabitants for the safety of their houses. But through the mercy of Him who "rideth on the storm" no accident occurred. At day light the gale broke. Mem. The wind blew with greater violence than at any other time these twelve years past. In consequence of the ill health of the teacher no school have been kept for some time past. – Mr. Buffett officiating on the Sabbath.
May 2nd. A serious altercation took place between Edward Quintal] sen and John Evans sen.; – the latter receiving several bruises on the head, back and throat and several scratches on the breast.


Births, Deaths, Marriages, & Remarkable Family Events

Date Parties Names &.
May 10th Harriet Augusta Quintall baptized. Mem. This child was born 39th Apr.
June 7th William Quintall married to Maria Quintall, widow.
July 23rd Julia Christian born
November 9th Arrived the Missionary Packet Camden Capt. Morgan. – several of our boats went on board. About 9 A.M. the ships boat landed the Captain; and the Rev. Mr. Heath, of the London Missionary Society, who brought with him some valuable presents; from the Governor of New South Wales; – from the Lord Bishop; – and the Rev. D. Ross. – In the afternoon Mr. H. preached a most impressive Sermon which was listened to with breathless attention. – May the effect which it then produced be abiding. – Captain Morgan also addressed the congregation on that most important subject 'the care of the soul.' – In the evening several persons met at Mr Nobbs's house for religious conversation: Mr. Heath presided.
Nov. 10th Early this morning the public school was visited by Messrs Heath & Morgan and the scholars collectively and individually examined. – The result was satisfactory; and both teacher and pupils commended. – At noon another exhortation was given by Mr. Heath and toward evening our worthy friends repaired on board, and the Camden made sail for the


Births, Deaths, Marriages, & Remarkable Family Events

Date Parties Names &.
Marquesan Islands carrying with them our best wishes.
Decr. 13th Margaret McCoy delivered of a female child which expired an hour or two after its birth

Number of births this year, three; Marriages one. – Deaths one. Ten ships have touched at the island; being three less than last year. – Fifty one scholars attend the public school, and forty eight the Sunday school.
Number of inhabitants 108 – 53 male, 55 female.
Number of persons eligible to vote at the magisterial election 33 – 17 males, 16 females.


Date 1841.
Jany. 1st Arthur Quintal sen. re-elected Magistrate. Fletcher Christian and Arthur Quintal jun. Councillors.
  "    4th John Quintall born.
June 17th Cornelius Quintall born
July 4th Andrew Christian born
August 18th Arrived H.M. Ship Curacaa, Jenkin Jones Esq. Captain. – (21 days from Callao) and a most opportune arrival it was, for there were at least twenty cases of influenza among the residents. – Immediately after arriving at the settlement Captain Jones with the Surgeon of the ship (Dr Gunn) visited the sick; fortunately a small medicine chest had been fitted up on board for the use of the island and there being also a medicine chest on shore the surgeon was enabled to prescribe freely and beneficially.
19th. After breakfast this morning Captain Jones met such of the inhabitants as were able to attend at the school-house and addressed them on various subjects connected with their welfare; after which he read a letter addressed to the island from Admiral Ross: and caused a variety of very useful articles (the gift of the Admiral, Cap: Jones, and Mr. Miller of Valp.) to be deposited in the school-house for general distribution. Towards evening Capt Jones went on board, but most humanely permitted Dr Gunn to remain on shore.
20th. The Surgeon of the Curacaa has been most indefatigable in his attentions to the sick and the result is that some are beginning to mend, and all have experienced relief. There is not one resident on


Pitcairn Island but who is under weighty obligations to Dr Gunn. At 4 p.m. the first Lieutenant and the Surgeon went on board and the ship sailed. – May Almighty God preserve the worthy Captain, Officers and crew from every untoward circumstance.
31st The number of the sick continue to increase there are more than fifty cases, – there is not a sufficient number of persons in health to dig the yams out of the ground (this being the harvest time). Edward Quintal is not expected to survive many days and his wife is nearly as bad he is. – The school-house is shut up. – And almost every house has the appearance of an hospital. Truly the hand of God is upon us, O Lord in wrath remember mercy.
September 5th
But one service this day the number of the sick continues to increase although there are a few convalescents, the epidemic is fever attended with a distressing cough.
8th. Edward Quintall sen. died this day, his disease was influenza and dysentery combined, – Dinah Quintall (wife of the deceased) is in a very dangerous state. Three fresh cases of influenza &. this day.
September 9th Just in the height of preparation for the funeral of Edward Quintall a ship was reported, and shortly after the boat landed, – the ship proved to be the Mechanic of Bristol, Rhode Island U.S.A. At 10 in the evening Peggy Christian was safely delivered of a male child.
10th The woman delivered of a child yesterday is attacked with the epidemic.


19th. Died Isabella (a native of Tahiti) relict of Fletcher Christian, (of the Bounty) her age was not known, but she frequently said Captain Cook's first arrival at 'Tahiti was perfectly remembered by her. – Some individuals have regained their health, others are yet in a precarious state.
Sept. 26th. Stephen Christian baptized.
28th School recommenced.
October 2nd. Died Joseph Napoleon Quintall aged a years.
6th Agnes Christian born
11th Mary McCoy born
17    Matilda Quintall born

Number of births this year seven.--Marriages none. – Deaths three. During the latter part of this year the inhabitants have been much afflicted with bodily sickness. – Number of ships holding communication with the Island nineteen and one ship passed close by in a gale of wind. Number of inhabitants III .-54 males, 57 females. Number of persons eligible to vote at the Magisterial election 30-13 males 17 females.
The public school have been very thinly attended owing (partly) to unavoidable causes.
50 children attend the Sunday school.


Births, Marriages, Deaths) &.
Jany. 2nd. Fletcher Christian sen. elected Magistrate; William Quintall and Matthew McCoy councillors.
 "   14th Charles Christian sen died after a lingering illness of several months.
July 22nd. Rhoda Quintal born
October 5th George Adams fell from a tree; by which his back was much injured
 "   10th Oliver M. Quintal born
December 3rd. A sad accident this day befel Stephen Christian (an infant of 15 months) during the temporary absence of its mother the child over turned an iron pot of hot water by which he was dreadfully scalded.
8th Adeline Sophia Christian born.
"   10th Stephen Christian died aged 15 months, his death was in consequence of the accident which befel him a week ago.


Number of births this year three. – Marriages none. – Deaths two. – Several cases of inflamatory fever exist at the present moment. Ships holding communication with the island thirty one. – Number of inhabitants 112. – 53 males, 59 females. No. of persons eligible to vote at the magisterial election 40 – 20 males – 20 females. The public school have been regularly kept and thinly attended, from causes easier to be accounted for than remedied. 50 children attend the Sunday school.


Births, Marriages, Deaths, &.
Jany. 2nd. Matthew McCoy elected magistrate, Arthur Quintal sen. and Simon Young councillors.
  "   7th Two persons yesterday and three today have been attacked by the fever which is of an inflamatory type; commencing with a slight shivering, succeeded by violent pain in the loins and head and much febrile heat,- emetics and application of warm water to the feet, hands and loins are the principal remedies applied, and, under the Divine blessing, have been attended with beneficial results.
March 4th. Eleven of the inhabitants sailed in the Bark America for the purpose of exploring Elizabeth Island.
  "   5th. Arrived H.M.S. Talbot, Captain Sir T. Thompson Bart. After remaining on shore about four hours; and adjusting some of the most pressing judicial cases presented to him Sir Thomas returned on board and the frigate sailed for Valparaiso.
  "   11th. Bark America returned from Elizabeth Island; our people bringing a very unfavourable report of the land.
March 31st. Albert Christian born
April 16th. John Adams married to Caroline Quintal
Ibid. Mary Quintal born.


1843 continued
April 25th Mary Quintal wife of Arthur Quintal sen. departed this life aged 24 years
May 5th. George Edwin Coffin Nobbs born
      " 21st Kezia Quintal born
October 5th Stephen Christian born
Novr 16th Sarah McCoy born
Decr 17th Polly Adams died, after a lingering illness of many months continuance, occasioned by a cancer of the breast.


      Number of births this year six. – Marriages one. – Deaths two; – much sickness have been experienced. – Ships holding communication with the Island 29. – Number of inhabitants 116: Males 56, Females 60. – No. of persons eligible to vote at the Magisterial election, 20 males, 21 females; Total 41.

      The public school have been discontinued from August last; the teacher from sickness being unequal to the task.


January 8thThursday October Christian elected Magistrate; John Quintall and William Quintall councillors.
May 16th.Polly Adams born
June 2ndEdward Quintal born. --
Several cases of fever with cough and oppression of the stomach (chiefly among the children).
July 31stIsaac Christian married to Miriam Young. H. S. Hunt [?] Co' H.M.S. Baselisk.
[This entry is in the actual handwriting of the Captain, 4% ho evidently solemnized the marriage. – Ed.]
July 28thArrived H.M.S. Baselisk, Henry Hunt Esq Commander; bringing presents to the inhabitants from the British Government, from Admiral Thomas and from the Rev. Mr. Armstrong and other friends in Valparaiso.
    "  29thCaptain Hunt assembled the inhabitants and disposed of such cases as were presented to him for adjudication
    "  30thThe presents above mentioned were landed. The Surgeon of the Baselisk (Dr. Johnson) vaccinated uppwards of sixty persons; and prescribed for several cases of sickness.
    "  31st.Captain Hunt assembled the inhabitants made some alterations and suggested others for the improvement of the moral and religious observances of the community; appointed a commercial agent, and in the afternoon went on board and made sail for the Sandwich Islands.


August 1st.Re-opened the public school
  "   4thEdward Quintall baptized. – Mem. this child was born on the i8th of July.
  "   12thAll our hopes concerning the vaccination are at an end, it has turned out a complete failure.
September 9th.Gilbert Christian born.
This first fortnight in September was devoted to surveying and adjusting boundary landmarks; not having completed the survey it is to be resumed after the yam planting have taken place. Mem. Much less altercation than was anticipated.
October 6thGeorge Adams widower & Sarah McCoy widow married.
  "   10thLevi W. Quintal born


      Number of births this year five. – Marriages two; – Deaths none. Ships holding communiaction with the Island i8. – Number of inhabitants i2': Males 6o, Females 61. Number of voters at the magisterial election 44: Males 24r Females 2o. – Sickness have been prevalent at times. Weeds overrun the island, worms infest the potatoes and there is a comet in sight.


      Eighteen ships have touched at the island during the past year, being eleven less than the preceding.


      44 children attend the public school

[Signed] G.H.N.


1845. Births, Marriages, Deaths
January 1st.Arthur Quintal jun. chosen magistrate, William McCoy and Thomas Buffett councillors
   "   7thElias Christian born.
  "   19thDuring the past week we have been employed fishing up two of the Bounty's guns (long nines [?] I believe). For fifty five years they had been deposited at the bottom of the sea on a bed of coral guiltless of blood, – (during the time so many thousands of mankind in Europe became ' Food for cannon';) but on saturday last one of these guns resumed its original vocation; at least the innoxious portion of it, to wit, belching forth fire and smoke, and causing the island to reverberate with its bellowing: the other gun is condemened to silence having been spiked by someone of the Bounty's crew.
Feb: 15thEphraim Christian born
March 13thThe fever has made its appearance among us, – three persons have been attacked. – It is of a billious type.
   "   15The sick are recovering, – no fresh cases
   "   19thEight fresh cases to-day. – Violent pain in the head, burning heat; and cramp in the arms and thighs, is what the affected persons complain of chiefly; to which is added, in some cases a dull pain in the back.
   "   21stFourteen more are on the list and several others complaining; – the teacher who acts in capacity of doctor also, is continually upon the run; vomits and jalap are the order of the day, and there is not a house in which there is not one or more sick.


1845. Births, Marriages, Deaths, &.
       22nd.The number of the sick is greatly on the increase, those first attacked are convalescent but more than thirty are now suffering, – the teacher is also sick and it is with great difficulty he can get from house to house.
   "   23rd.Some of those first attacked have had a relapse, others seem quite well in health, but complain of great weakness, the number of fresh cases today is seven. The vomits in the medicine are nearly all expended. More than sixty have been administered.
   "   24thThere is a ship in sight, a canoe has gone on board to ask for emetics, – the canoe has returned: that ship appearing was a providential circumstance We have obtained twelve doses of Tartar emetic.
   "   27thThe fever is on the decline, cheerful faces are again seen, and I hope grateful hearts are praising God whose mercies endureth for ever.

I will now say a few words respecting the salubrity of the island; it is generally supposed to be a healthy spot; indeed appearances seem to justify such a conclusion: but the reverse is found by experience, to be the fact. Asthmas, Rheumatism, Consumption, Scrofula and last but not least Influenza under various modifications is prevalent. Five times within the last four years have the fever been rife among us, and though it has not been so severe latterly as it was on its first appearance this I think may be accounted for by the teacher becoming more acquainted with the nature of the disease (thanks to Dr. Gunn) and also with the appropriate remedies, – when the influenza first appeared among us it did not spread so rapidly as it has done at its subsequent reappearance, but the cough was more violent then, than it has been since. This I attribute to the teacher's not giving them emetics as soon as the disease



attacked them; since then he has invariably given them vomits on the first appearance of the disease; which seems to prevent any considerable degree of cough But there is one particular in which the recent fever differs from the previous ones, viz in the total absence of a cold fit at the very commencement. I have seen some of the patients when first attacked tremble as violently, and apparently from the same causes, as ever I saw a anyone under the influence of ague. Now, in this last sickness it was not thus; only one person complained of cold and he was but slightly affected.

– The first person attacked was a man of full habit of body, plethoric and subject to fits, he had attended Divine service in the morning, it being the Sabbath, after evening service I found him under the influence of a raging fever; his eyes seemed ready to start from their sockets and the heat of his skin caused a disagreeable sensation to those who touched him; – he complained of violent pains in his head, back and thighs and said he felt as if " live things were creeping between his flesh and skin." Fearing it might bring on one of the fits to which he was subject the teacher bled him, and gave him a sudorific which had a good effect; the next day a dose of calomel and jalap was administered, and two days after that he was well; though very weak.

      I do not think the fever was infectious; and though in the space of six days not less than sixty out of one hundred and twenty two were attacked yet I attribute it solely to the peculiar state of the atmosphere: whenever we have been visited by this epidemick the circumstances, as respects the weather have been invariably the same. A long drought succeeded by two or three weeks of wet; and the wind settling into the north west; in fact a north west wind is always the precussor of rheumatism, catarrh, and slight febrile affection. Bleeding is not to be recommended; vomits are the soveringn remedy for certainly no community of persons secrete greater quantities of bile than the inhabitants of this island.

March 31st.   There is now but one person sick and she is recovering, – a few have a slight cough but that is wearing away.
And now it behoves us to offer up our grateful thanksgiving to Almighty God, Father, Son and Holy Spirit, to Whom be glory now and for ever. Amen.


April 16th.

      For several days past the weather have been cloudy with occasional showers; winds very variable. Yesterday the wind blew from the S.S.E. and it began to rain in good earnest; as the day declined the wind increased; at sunset it blew a gale. All hands busily employed securing the roofs of the houses and making all snug before dark. – A dirty night was anticipated and our fears were more than realized; at io o'clock the wind shifted four or five points to the westward and the sheet lightening began to break the monotony of the lurid atmosphere: By midnight a perfect typhon raged above and around us; the whole concave of the heavens was in a continued blaze and the roar of the thunder, though not so very loud (with the exception of one burst) was incessant. – From the position of the wind, which veered and hauled four or five points, the houses were a good deal sheltered from its violence or they would, most assuredly have been prostrated; therefore the most of us, though we passed a sleepless night, were in mercy permitted to remain quiet in our houses. – Very frequently through the night loud crashes were heard, which we supposed were the trees in the higher parts of the island yielding to the fury of the storm; – the noise did proceed from the falling, and smashing of trees, but from a cause, of which we were, at that time happily ignorant.

      At daylight a man, much alarmed, came to my house saying " a part of the island had given way and was going into the sea; "From the door of my house I obtained an imperfect view of the spot from which a portion of the earth had been detached and felt certain it was an avalanche accasioned by the wind acting upon the trees, and the torrents of rain which fell detaching the earth from the parts above it. So great was the consternation and amazement of many of the natives that although they had seen the



spot from which the earth had slidden almost every day of their lives, yet they could not so far collect their ideas as to remember the original appearance of the place, whose property it had been; nor the locality of the parts near it; – As to the cause of the disruption various opinions prevailed some said it was occasioned by a waterspout, others that a thunderbolt had fallen there and a third party were anxiously enquiring if it were not probable the sea had perforated a hole from the under side of the island and so washed it away. – That they had considerable occasion for alarm cannot be disputed, and what may easily be referred to natural causes (and those not very recondite either) would to persons so inexperienced as our community, appear mysterious and awful. I will endeavour, in a few words, to describe what presented itself to our view at daylight. On going out of doors we saw that a considerable portion of the earth had been detached from the side of the [?] but to what extent we could not then ascertain; – the place in question was situated at the head of a ravine which debouched into the sea; the rain mixing with the falling earth (which was of clayey nature) brought it to the consistancy of thick mud but sufficiently liguified to glide very slowly down the inclined plane of the valley; – nothing with which it came in contact could resist its force, – the large trees at the head of the ravine, and immense pieces of rock, were borne slowly but unresistingly along and about three hundred cocoa nut trees were torn up by the roots and swept into the sea.

So tenacious was the heterogeneous stream that some of the cocoa nut trees from forty to fifty feet in height, after being displaced from their original situation remained in an upright position some minutes, and when they fell it was many yards from the spot in which they had come to maturity.--A considerable portion of this aquatic lava (for indeed its appearance had a distinct resemblance to the molten streams of an active volcano) had reached the sea before daylight: and when some of our people ventured to the edge of the precipice, they found to their dismay the boat houses, and boats left there, had disappeared.


                       Two families whose houses were adjacent to the ravine removed their household goods, fearing the foundation of their dwellings might become undermined, and whelm them in the ruin; but in a few hours the stream ceased to flow, and confidence was in a measure restored, We had now time to turn our attention to other parts of the island; at Bounty Bay a great quantity of earth had been washed away, a yam ground containing a thousand yams totally disappeared, several fishing boats destroyed, the Bounty's guns washed to the edge of the surf and large pieces of rock so encumbered the harbour that if a ship should come it is doubtful whether a passage could he found for her boat to pass through. In the interim all the plantain patches arc levelled, about four thousand plantation trees are destroyed, one half in full bearing; the other half designed for the year 1846 so that this very valuable article of food we shall be without for a long time to come. The fact is, from this date until August we shall be pinched for food; but " God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb." I humbly trust the late monitions of providence viz Drought sickness and storm which severally have been inflicted upon us this year may be sanctified to us, and be the means of bringing us, one and all, into a closer communion with our God; may we remember the rod and who hath appointed it; may we flee to the cross of Christ for safety and for succour in every time of need; always bearing in mind our heavenly Father doth not willingly afflict the children of men.
May 13thJemima Sarah Nobbs born.
June 26thNathan Christian born.
September 4thJames R. McCoy born
October 12thJohn Buffett and Betsy Young married
   "   28thHenry J. H. Christian born.


1845. Births, Marriages, Deaths, &.
November 28Gilbert W. F. Adams born

Number of births this year seven; males six, females one. Marriages two; Deaths none. Number of inhabitants 127 – Males 65. Females 62. There have been much sickness during the past year; – at present the island is in a healthy state.

Twenty five ships have visited us – American twenty two; French two. Dutch one.

We are most anxious to see a ship; a rumour of war reached us some two months since and we want to ascertain the truth of it. – hoping it may be an unfounded report; we humbly beseech Almighty God to watch over our Fatherland and whether enjoying peace or engaged in war it may never succumb to insult nor advocate oppression.

Number of children attending the public school 51.

The community are busily employed preparing wood for enlarging the church.


Births, Marriages, Deaths, &,
Jan. 1stArthur Quintal jun. re-elected Magistrate. --
William McCoy and Thomas Buffett re-elected councillors
   "   27thFrederick L. F. Young born
May 27thAbby L. F. Quintal born
June 12thChurch and School house finished; it is a very decent building and reflects much credit on the persons employed in its construction.
   "    14thOpened the new house for public worship. – Sermon for the occasion from the 31st chap: Deuteronomy, 12 verse
   "   19thEleanor C. Quintal born.
August 3rd.Alphonso D. Christian born
August 29th.
This morning Levi Quintal an infant under two years, went into the cook house, during the temporary absence of its mother; and his clothes catching fire he was burned in a dreadful manner. – Saturday evening 7. o'clock Notwithstanding proper remedies promptly applied and every attention paid, the little sufferer has just expired.
September 14thSickness is again making sad inroads among us; fever succeeded by dysentery is the type; some are afflicted severely, others slightly. Susannah the old Tahitan woman who came hither in the Bounty, 57 years since, is in a dangerous state.


September 18thEmma [name Young written in and scratched through. – Ed.] born.
November 11thEdmund J. N. Quintal born
   "   27thAlfred A. Nobbs born


Number of births this year 7. – Males 4 – Females 3. Marriages none – Deaths one. No of inhabitants 134: Males 69 – Females 65. Sickness have been rife among us. Fever, Dysentery and opthalmia.

Forty nine ships have visited us, to wit, American 46; French one; Bremen one; English one.

Forty seven children attend the public school.


Births, Marriages, Deaths, &. &.
Jany 5th.Charles Christian sen. elected Magistrate, Simon Young and John Adams Councillors
Feby 20th

    This afternoon as Reuben Nobbs was out in the mountains shooting goats his foot slipped and he let fall his musket which exploded and wounded him severely. – The ball entered a very little below the hip joint and passing downwards came through on the inside of the thigh about half way between the groin and the knee. – providentially some persons were within who immediately ran to his assistance and tore up their shirts to stanch the blood which was pouring forth profusely; a lad was dispatched to the village with the melancholy news; and in a very few minutes the whole of the inhabitants, capable of going, were on the way to afford relief, headed by his affectionate mother almost frantic with grief. – in about an hour they returned bearing him in a canoe which they had taken out for that purpose. After some difficulty the blood was stanched and the lad suffered but little pain Every person was anxious to render assistance, the greater part of the male inhabitants remained all night ready at a moment's warning to do anything that might he required. – Towards midnight he fell asleep, and so ends this melancholy day.

   "   21st

About daylight the wounded lad awoke much refreshed, he does not complain much, and have but little fever; – the men and grown lads have formed themselves into three watches to attend his wants by day and night. It is most gratifying to his parents to see the esteem in which their son is held.


Births, Marriages, Deaths, &.
Feby 22nd.Reuben Nobbs continued free from much pain hut there is a considerable accession of fever, it does not appear that either the hip or thigh hone are injured as he can move his leg without much difficulty or pain. From the great length of the internal wound it is hard to ascertain whether any of the wadding remain; the ball have most assuredly passed through.

Feby 26th

This morning a ship was reported; everybody is rejoiced, hoping to get some necessaries for the wounded lad; on her nearer approach she proved to be H.M.S. Spy Captain Wooldridge; – "Thank God" was the grateful exclamation of many, on hearing it was a ship of war; on account of her having a surgeon on board. At one o'clock Captain Wooldridge landed accompanied by the surgeon of the ship (Dr. Bowden) who immediately visited young Nobbs and after probing the wound and ascertaining the extent of the injury gave his opinion that there was not much danger and that with proper attention he. would in all human probability recover; although a narrower escape from death never came beneath his notice. – Captain Wooldridge being much pressed for time, informed the inhabitants he must sail that evening, – after kindly interesting himself in the welfare of the island and noting down such things as the community were most in want of at sunset he embarked and the British Brigantine of War Spy made sail for Valparaiso. Mr: and Mrs Nobbs would here take the opportunity of publicly tendering their grateful acknowledgements to Captain Wooldridge and Dr. Bowden for the favors conferred on their son.


Births, Marriages, Deaths, &. &.
Feb. 28th.Emma Young much burned by falling into the fire.
March 7th

Emma Young is fast recovering from the injuries sustained some days since.

   "   10th

Reuben Nobbs is in a convalescent state but complains of much pain in the hip joint

May 3rd.Harriett Melissa McCoy born.
   "   7th.Henry Seymour Buffett born.
   "   24thWilliam B. S. Christian born.
June 4th.

Experienced a heavy gale of wind from the westward, which if it had been of long continuance would have done incalculable damage. A large piece of the Banian tree was blown down and the flag staff broken off in the middle.

   "   5th.

Matthew McCoy very narrowly escaped with his life; – his canoe being upset in the surf on the west side of the island, and broken to pieces; and himself very severely bruised. – Had it not been for the assistance of two other persons near at hand he must (humanly speaking) have been drowned.


Births, Marriages, Deaths, &.
October 1st.Byron S. M. Adams born
November 2nd.Eliza C. P. Young born
December 24thAlmira Emelinc Christian born

                       Number of births this year 6.males 3 females 3. Marriages none. -- Deaths none. No of inhabitants 140 – Males 72. – Females 68. A less amount of sickness this year than for several years previous. Nineteen ships have visited us during the last twelve months – thirty Iess than the year before – "O what a falling off was there my countrymen"!

Forty eight children attend the public school.



Births, Marriages, Deaths, &. &.
January 3rd. George Adams elected Magistrate. William Quintal and John Adams councillors
February 17th   Helen Amelia Quintal born

      A brief recital of a sad accident and its melancholy termination.

On the fourth day of February as William McCoy was assisting to carry a heavy piece of timber his foot struck against a small pointed stick, which entered among the sinews of the third and fourth toes and broke off considerably below the surface: attempts were made to extract it but without success. – Laudanum was injected into the wound and bread poultice applied. – The next morning the teacher dilated the wound as much as the patient would permit him; – the teacher also being afraid of cutting deeper on account of the proximity of the tendons. – For three days Laudanum was injected and meal poultices applied thrice a day; each morning an attempt was made to extract the piece of wood, but the patient was so suceptable of pain that he could hardly permit the probing of the wound. The teacher being anxious that suppuration should take place; and knowing that Laudanum would retard it, changed his practice and substituted spirits of turpentine for the Laudanum; and Basilicon for poultice. Things went on in this train several days – the patient suffering severe pain in his foot, his groin and the lower part of his belly: and all attempt to extract the wood abortive. Serious fears were now entertained; and which alas I were fully verified – the teacher had been careful not to mention his suspicions to anyone lest they should reach the ears of the sufferer; but on the evening of the thirteenth of the month he was informed that McCoy complained of a slight pain in the back of the neck and that his jaws were somewhat stiff – _powerful antispasmodics were immediately applied internally



[The MS. is much damaged here and many words are missing where the spaces are left. – ED.]

[and] externally, and frequently repeated during [the night]; the teacher remaining with him          daylight the sufferer was informed that death [was] inevitable if the splinter was not extracted; when [he] consented to further dilation of the wound. [The] teacher too, urged by desperation of the case [was] determined to use more powerfull means than hitherto done; accordingly the injured limb had [a] bandage wound tightly round it and the patient being [held] by several persons a pair of plyers reduced for the purpose were inserted, and after many failures [the] teacher succeeded in drawing forth a piece of wood three inches long and half an inch in diameter!! Laudanum was now injected into the hole and continued to be so at intervals during that day and the following night; but the tension of the jaws and the stiffness of the neck continuing to increase spirits of turpentine were again applied strong antispasmodics were exhibited every two hours and friction with the hand upon the jaws and neck were untiringly and almost unceasingly applied; but on the evening of the fifteenth the powers of        began to fail his jaws became fast closed but in such a manner that he could imbibe small portions of liquid substances, but they frequently induced symptoms similar to those of a person labouring under hydrophobia. Being now unable to swallow any preventive medicine Tresmus supervened the paroxysms of which continued to increase in frequency and strength till the afternoon of the seventeenth of the month when William McCoy ceased to exist. Aged about 38 years.

      As a member of the community William McCoy's conduct was ever worthy of imitation. A dutiful son, a loving brother and a firm friend. Being unmarried he left no issue. – His lands he bequeathed to his niece, Jane McCoy, daughter of his brother Matthew McCoy. "Requiescat in pace."

[66a]      [FROM BRODIE]

March 9th.

Arrived H.M.S. "Calypso" Henry J. Worth Esq. Captain from some misunderstanding respecting the signal no attempt to land was made to day our boat went on board and remained all night.

  "     10th

At nine this morning Captain Worth and a party of his officers landed and the greeting on both sides was most cordial, our people, men women and children are almost beside themselves. Two whale boats and several large cases of useful articles were brought on shore for the use of the Islanders, contributed by the Admiral and officers on the coast, and foreign residents in Valparaiso among which the Rev. Messrs. Armstrong (our untiring benefactor) and Trumbull were prominent. At 12 A.M. Capt. H. J. Worth and his officers returned on board to afford opportunity for another party's visiting us. Much entreaty was used by our people to induce Captain W. to remain another day, and our young women drew up a petition and presented him. To which he have no decided answer but told them if they should hear a gun in the course of the night that would be the signal for sailing. At one o clock another party landed and returned on board at four P.M. Thus ends a very happy day; but much anxeity will be experienced during the night lest the report of a gun should be heard. Fair weather & fine weather, and light winds is the earnest wish of all concerned.

March 11th.

At daylight this morning the general inquiry was "Where is the Ship?" She was discovered about four miles from the land. Two of our boats went on board and at 9 A.M. the captain landed[.] Dr. Donnet, hearing there were some hieroglyphics supposed to have been cut by the aborigines on the face of the cliff, on the east side of the Island determined to inspect them himself. He was informed that the path was not only difficult, but dangerous, yet he would not be turned from his purpose. Accordingly he started with one of the islanders and succeeded in his undertaking being the first European that ever went down the face of the cliff (which is very precipitous), without the assistance of a rope. At noon Capt. Worth assembled the inhabitants and expressed to them his entire satisfaction with the state of things on shore, and exhorted them to continue in the way they were in. After making them presents of various articles from his own stores, he returned on board. The cutter soon returned with another party, and Lieut. M'Leod and Mr. Lock (midshipman) succeeded in descending the "Ridge of the Rope." At sunset the cutter went on board, and the "Calypso" sailed, carrying with her our grateful aspirations that she may successfully accomplish the objects of her cruise and return unscathed to Valparaiso. To Capt. Worth and his officers we are under weighty obligations, particularly to Lieut. M'Leod and Dr. Donnet, though in fact every officer that came on shore seemed anxious to confer favours upon us. May God have them in his holy keeping, and may they long hold a place in our grateful recollections.

March 15th.Employed in dividing the several things brought hither in H.M.S. "Calypso" the majority of which are such as we are greatly in need of. Surely no community of people were ever so kindly cared for as we are.
  "     30th.Cordelia Ruth, daughter of Charles & Charlotte Christian born
April 9th.Jonathan Adams & Phebe Quintall married.
April 29William Wilburn son of John and Dinah Quintall born
May 27Sydney Herbert son of George and Sarah Nobbs born
July 8th.Alice Sophia daughter of Matthew & Margaret McCoy born
  "     9th.Moses Young and Albina McCoy married.
  "     31st.Anna Rose daughter of Thursday & Mary Christian born
Nov. 15th.George Calvin Clifton son of Jonathan & Phebe Adams born
Dec. 25th.Abraham B. Quintall & Esther Nobbs married.

                       Births this year 7. death, 1. Marriages, 3. Inhabitants Males 74, females 72. Ships calling here this year 9, 44 children attend the school, 30 scholars of 14 years of age and upwards attend the Sunday school. The attendance at the Wednesday Bible class for adults quite satisfactory.
Jany. 1stSimon Young elected magistrate. Arthur Quintal and Edward Quintall councillors
  "     16[Mary Elizabeth Young born this date.]
April 19th.George Webb son of John and Caroline Adams born
March 24[Rachel Hope Quintal born this date.]
July 10thThis morning at daylight, our city was scared from its propriety by the booming of a cannon. Those who had already risen ran to the edge of the precipice and those who had not turned out lost no time in doing so. A brig was discovered in the offing with a flag of some kind flying; but from the want of light we could not distinguish its heraldic bearings. After peeping through the somewhat hazy atmosphere for nearly half an hour, and stretching our necks and eyelids in a most extraordinary manner the increased light enabled us to discern that the vessel wore the St. George's ensign and now the shout of a man of war sounded from house to house. Two boats were speedily manned and soon got on board. As the weather was low[e]ring, we on shore were fearful that the ships boat would not land but after an hour's anxious suspense, we were gratified by seeing a boat lowered, and pull for the shore accompanied by our boats. On nearing the surf a party from the ships boat shifted into ours and passed through the surf quite dry. The brigantine proved to be H.M.S. Pandora, James Wood commander, from Oahu and Tahiti,


Births, Marriages, Deaths, &. &.

[Apparently a page missing here. – Ed.]

bringing as passenger Mr. Buffett, who left this place for the Sandwich Islands last January. Captain Wood brought with him letters from Consul General Miller and several other persons, offering to provide land &. for any families who wish to emigrate. Captain W. assembled the inhabitants at the school house and on the letters being read informed them that he would remain on shore till the afternoon of the next day in order that they might have time to diliberate on the contents of the letters and then he would receive their answers.

July 11

This morning Captain Wood left us to the regret of us all, for though our acquaintance was but of two days duration the urbanity of Cap. W. and his salicitude for our welfare have made a deep, and we hope a grateful impression on our hearts. – That the good ship Pandora and all her gallant crew may escape the perils of the deep, and before many months have elapsed show her number some early morning at Spithead is the wish of their friends residing on the "Rock of the West."

Aug: 9th

The inhabitants are slowly recovering from the epidemic which have pervaded the island during the past month. So general was the attack that the public school have been discontinued and public service performed but once on each Sabbath in consequence; the teacher being fully employed attending the sick.

July 22ndEveline Helen Buffett born
ibid 28thIsaac Godfrey Christian born


Births, Marriages, Deaths, &. &.

Aug: 11th.

    Arrived H.B.M.S. Daphne from Valparaiso via Calao bringing the desiderata of the community: viz. a Bull, cows and some rabbits; they were landed without any difficulty by our boats. We also received from the Rev: Mr. Armstrong several boxes of acceptable articles and a large case of books from the Christian Knowledge Society. At three o'clock Captain Fanshawe and a party of the officers landed. At sunset they returned on board with the exception of the surgeon who remained on shore at the particular request of Mr. Nobbs. who wished some advice respecting the sick.

 –– 12th.     

    At one o'clock P.M. Captain Fanshawe returned on shore with a fresh party of officers and attended divine service. Much persuasions were used by our young people to induce Cap. F. to remain with us another day; but he told them he could not do so with propriety accordingly at sunset he returned on board and the Daphne made sail for Tahiti.

    Captain Fanshawe and his officers treated those of our people who went on board most kindly and made minute enquiries into oui wants and actual condition: they were pleased to express their satisfaction at what they saw and heard and left us deeply impressed with their courtesy and urbanity. May Almighty God have them in His holy keeping.

August 25th     

    Some of the inhabitants have had a relapse. About 4 o'clock this afternoon Arthur Quintal, sen. fell from a rock and injured himself badly, – particularly the higher ribs


Births, Marriages, Deaths, &c.

and his left arm. He was conveyed home in a canoe. Throughout the night he suffered severely

Aug. 30th

Arthur Quintal still suffers from the contusions received in his fall the other day. The major part of the inhabitants are sick – probably they have received an accession of disease from the bark Elizabeth Archer from Sydney which touched here a few days since: some of her passengers were unwell at the time and our epidemic has assumed a different type.

  "     31st

Frederick Young attacked with spasmodic affection of the stomach which very nearly deprived him of life: had not the teacher been on the spot at the moment and the appropriate medicine (Aether, Brandy and Laudanum) within reach, in all human probability Frederick Young would have expired under the attack

Sept. 4th.

Maria Quintal delivered of a male child. The number of the sick is on the increase. The school is discontinued and but one service on the Sabbath, – partly from the ill health of the teacher, and in part from the continual demand, night and day, for his services among the sick


A large hair seal captured on the West side of the island. Fletcher Christian first discovered it among the rocks, and was much alarmed at the sight of it: he feared to go near it least it should be a ghost (of which he has a great horror) or some other beast of prey; but quickly ascended the hill which overlooks the town and gave the alarm. Some persons went over to his assistance and


Births, Marriages, Deaths, &c.
                       shot the animal just as it began to make the retreat to the water
Sept. 11th

The infant born on the 4th inst; being in a dangerous state and not likely to survive it received the ordinance of baptism

  "     12th

This morning the infant expired. Almost every person is afflicted with a most distressing cough. A remittent fever attended with slight rigors and much prostration of strength is the type of disease at present.

  "      26th

This day was set apart as a day of fasting and prayer. Public service commenced at eleven o'clock and ended at one: all who could get to church attended. Text, Romans znd chap: 4th and jth verses. One of the females fainted during the service.

Oct. 3rd. Hannah Quintal born
  "     21st. Abigail Lear Christian born
  "     28th Lucy Ann Hagar Christian born
Dec. 1st Reuben Nobhs embarked in the Brig Georgiana for Valparaiso.
  "     20th Eliza S. Adams born.


Summary of the Year 1849.
                       Number of births ten; (males three, females seven Marriages one – Deaths one.

No of inhabitants one hundred and fifty five – males seventy six; females seventy nine.

Forty seven children attend the public school.

This year is unprecedented in the annals of Pitcairn. – We have been visited by two British ships of War; the Pandora Capt. Wood, and the Daphne Capt Fanshawe. The commanders of these ships and their officers treated the inhabitants with the greatest kindness and were pleased to express their entire approval of all they saw and heard.

The Daphne brought us a bull and a cow, and some rabbits, with a variety of other articles from the Rev. Wm. Armstrong, and other friends in Valparaiso; – the cattle and the rabbits produced a great sensation.

Another (to us) wonderful occurrence is the arrival of so many other ships under British colors viz eight from the colonies, (bound for California) and one whale ship from London, – in all nine merchantmen and two ships of War!!!

American ships have dwindled down to seven – six whalers; and one Brig from California, – in her Reuben E. Nobbs embarked for Valparaiso. Number of ships touching at the island this year eighteen.

George Adams saved the life of a female child alongside a British ship in the offing.

The inhabitants, with scarcely an exception have suffered severely from sickness during the months of August, September and October. The school was discontinued, the children were too sick to attend, and the teacher was fully (and thank God efficiently) employed in ministering from house to house. Some of the cases were quite alarming, and the disease (the influenza) in general was more severe and considerably modified from that of former years – violent spasms in the stomach and epigastric regions were frequent in all stages of the complaint.

At the close of the year the community are in the enjoyment of restored health. May the recent affliction so teach us to number our days that we may apply our hearts unto wisdom.


Births, Marriages, Deaths, &c.
Jany. 1st. Arthur Quintal jun. elected Magistrate. Thursday O. Christian and Edward Quintal councillors
 ibid 6th Robert Young Born
 ibid 23rd.

This day was obseved as the anniversary of the settlement of the colony, sixty years since. One survivor of that strange event and its sanguinarry results; witnessed the celebration. At daylight one of the Bounty's guns was discharged and wakened the sleeping echoes and the more drowsy of the inhabitants. At ten o'clock divine service was performed. Text     . After the sermon the various letters received from the British Government and principal Friends were read from the pulpit and commented upon. At twelve a number of musketteers assembled under the "Flag Staff" and fired a volley in honor of the day. After dinner the community male and female assembled in front of the church, where the British flag was flying and gave three cheers for Queen Victoria, three for the Government at Home, three for the Majestrates here, three for absent friends, three for the Ladies and three for the community in general; amid the firing of the muskets and the ringing of the Bell. – At sunset the gun of the Bounty was fired again and the day closed in harmony and peace – Much, very much have we to he grateful for, both to God and man. – It is voted that an annual celebration be observed

March 24th       Daniel McCoy and Lydia Young married


April 20th Charles Carleton Veiden Young (Born)
June 2nd. John Pitcairn Elford (Native of Adelaide New South Wales) Baptized
June 15th Julia Christian died of Dysentery.
July 15th Sussannah (a Native of Tahiti and last survivor of the Bounty) died from the prevailing epedemic; and the exhaustion of old age combined.
September 18th Robert Charles Grant Young Born
  "     27th Mrs Eliza Palmer (wife of Capt. Geo. Palmer of Nantucket.) Died of consumption
  "     23rd.

Edward Quintal 2nd fell from the side of the precipice upon the rocks below and badly fractured his leg

December 24th Charles William Grant born
Summary of the Year 1850.
                       Number of births 4 – Deaths 3.

Marriages 1 No of inhabitants one hundred and fifty six. Males 79 – Females 77. No of ships touching here 47. American 29 -- English 17 -- Hannoverian 1.


Births, Marriages, Deaths, &c.
Jany 1st Thursday O. Christian elected chief Majestrate. John Buffett Jun. and Thomas Buffett Councillors
Jany 8 Mary Anne McCoy born
Jany 21st Frances Adelaide Quintal born
        28th Observed the anniversary of the settlement of the Colony – David Buffett and Martha Young married
March 15th By the accidental discharge of a fowling piece in a whale hoat that was out fishing three persons viz Abraham Quintall. John Buffett jun. and Fletcher Nobbs were seriously injured.
March 30th Anna Rose Christian died aged 3 years
April 27th Mary Isabel Adams born
July 13th Fairfax Moresby Mitchel Quintal born.
Aug. 5th Joseph A. M. Buffet born
Aug. 10th Jacob Christian and Nancy Quintall married
Aug. 16th

Twelve of the inhabitants sailed in the Joseph Meigs for the purpose of visiting, Elizabeth Island. On their arrival at the island they discovered a human skeleton, and, as nothing could be found that may lead to discover who this unfortunate individual was, it must ever remain a mystery

Sep. 5th Thomas A. Buffett born
  "     15 Julia E. Quintall born
                       Leonard E. W. Christian born Oct. 17
October 28 William Ward Dillon Adams born


Births, Marriages, Deaths, &c.
Nov. 5 Julia Anna Christian born
Nov. 9 Sarah Clara Quintall born
Nov. 11 Thirty eight of the inhabitants sailed in the ship Sharon of Fairhaven, for the purpose of visiting Elizabeth Island; on Friday 14 after a boisterous passage of three days they landed upon Elizabeth Island, when they immediately set about wooding the ship and exploring the island which is evidently of coral formation. The soil is very scanty, and totally unfit for cultivation. Various specimens of marine shells are scattered all over the surface of the island, which in combination with the thickly scattered pieces of coral, renders traveling both difficult and dangerous.

Water is found, on the North West part of the island slowly dripping from the roof of a cave, which cannot be reached without the aid of ropes. The island rises about 60 feet above the sea. Eight human skeletons were also found upon the island, lying in caves. They were doubtless the remains of some unfortunate ship-wrecked seamen, as several pieces of wreck were found upon the shore.

Nov. 27          Sarah Adams died from Irritation of the Spine. Aged 55 years.


Births, Marriages, Deaths, &c. &c.
Dec. 13thBenjamin S. Young born
Dec. 25thPhilip McCoy and Sarah Quintall; – Benjamin Christian and Eliza Quintall married.
Summary of the Year 1851.
                       Number of births 12. Deaths 2.
Marriages 3.
Number of inhabitants 166 – 81 Females 85 Males.
Number of ships touching here this year twenty four. American 18. English 6.
A small amount of sickness among the inhabitants this year.


Births, Marriages, Deaths, &c. &c.
Jany 2nd. Abraham B. Quintall elected chief Magistrate. Frederick Young and David Buffett Councillors.
Jany 7th            At about 1 P.M. intelligence was brought to the village that Robert (a Native of one of the Society Islands and who was left here sick from the American Whale ship Balcena) was washed from off the rocks by the surf. Those who were at hand when the news was told, immediately hastened to the place to learn the truth of the statement – upon arriving there and not seeing anything of him, search was made along the rocks, this also proving unsuccessful some of the men went in their canoes to search for him outside of the rocks. A few minutes after the canoes were launched his hat was found some thirty or forty yards from the rocks.-- Being convinced from this that the man was drowned the search was continued with renewed vigor – and about an hour after his body was seen lying at the bottom in about seven fathoms of water and about twenty yards from where he was washed off. The men succeeded in recovering the body – which was interred the same evening.

It is but justice to the memory of this poor man to add that his good and quiet behavour while among us, had gained for him the esteem and good will of all upon the island, and that his untimely end, is deeply regretted by the whole community.


Births, Marriages, Deaths, &c.
Jany 28th.

At break of day a ship was reported in with the shore. All who had turned out of their beds hastened to the edge of the precipice to ascertain the truth of the statement. Scarcely had they done so when from the heraldic bearings of its colours she was by the teacher pronounced to be a man-of-war, the whale boat was immediately manned and in the course of a few hours, she returned on shore bringing with them Capt. Wellesley and others of the officers of H.M.S. Daedalus from the Sandwich Islands, via Tahiti bound to Valparaiso. Captain Wetlesley and his officers remained on shore all night and returned on board the following morning – when a fresh party landed from the ship. Capt. Wellesley and his officers were pleased to express their approbation of what they saw upon the Island and have by the urbanity of their conduct during the few hours they were with us gained the good will and esteem of all the inhabitants

January 31st      

At half past seven this morning Capt. Wellesley and his officers returned on board and the Daedalus left here for Valparaiso bearing the good wishes of the Islanders.

Jany 30th Emily W. Christian horn
March 7th David R. B. Young born
  "     14th David R. B. Young died Aged 7 days.


Births, Marriages, Deaths, &c.
April 5th Fletcher Christian died after a lingering illness of many months duration. Aged 40 years. As a member of the community the conduct of Fletcher Christian was ever worthy of imitation, suffice it to say that his many amiable and agreable qualities will cause his memory long to be cherished by those he has left behind him.

June 13th John F. Young born
August 7th        

About 9 A.M. A sail was descried bearing South West from the Island, under a press of sail beating in for the Island. A few hours after she was distinctly seen from the settlement. She was in a few minutes pronounced to be a vessel of War, for a time all was in good spirits in expectation of hearing of and from absent friends, during the afternoon the precipices were lined with anxious spectators, intently gazing upon her, until the shades of night hid her from our view.

  "     8th

This morning at early dawn we were aroused by the report of a gun. We lost no time in manning the whale boat and an hour after we had turned out of our beds ten of our number were on board of H.B.M. Frigate Portland bearing the flag of Rear Admiral, Fairfax Moresby of the blue. 11 days from the Society Islands and bound to Valparaiso. At 9 A.M. the Admiral and his secretary landed in one of the Frigates boat. At 12 our whale boat returned with Capt. Chads and a party of officers from the frigate. It being the Sabbath



the Rev. Mr. Holman officiated at
He preached
[5 or so words missing here on each of two lines. – Ed.]
Corinthians 58th verse. After service some of the officers returned on board. The Admiral, Chaplain, Captain and secretary remained during the night Monday 9th. This morning at 9. a fresh party of the officers landed from the frigate and at twelve Captain Chads returned on board accompanied by several of the ladies of the Island. 1. o'clock the Royal standard was hoisted on board the frigate and a royal salute of 21 guns fired. The ladies returned at sundown much pleased with their visit.

Admiral Moresby proposed to the inhabitants to take their teacher Mr Nobbs to England, to be ordained a Minister of the Church of England, and to leave the Rev. Mr. Holman in his stead until Mr. Nobbs should return


Today the Admiral kindly brought his band of musicians ashore to amuse the islanders. They landed at 9 A.M. and remained until 4 P.M.


Mr Nobbs having concluded to accept the Admiral's offer took leave of the community and at 11 A.M. embarked with his daughter Jane on board of the Portland for Valparaiso. They were accompanied on board by some of the Islanders and after taking leave of the officers and crew of the good ship Portland and of their beloved teacher they returned ashore and the frigate pursued its course to Valparaiso – bearing with her the best wishes of every member of the community.

I must here remark that the kindness shown the community by the officers and crew of the Portland is such that we could never repay – in fact it is beyond our powers sufficiently to thank them. Among the many useful articles they left us, is a bull and cow (calves) for which we have long wished.

        12th.Scarcely had the Portland left us when the influenza appeared among us. Several were attacked today.
        13th Several fresh cases of influenza.
        20thSeveral in a convalescent state.


       26th.Maria Edith McCoy born
       25th.Mayhew Young cut his foot severely while cutting wood for the American Whale ship Joseph. Meigs. The wound was dressed by the Rev. Mr Holman and Capt. Allen of the Whaleship.
Sept               Mary Christian affected with Dropsy and little hopes entertained of her recovery
  "     3rd.Mary Emily Christian born.
Oct. 10thThe Sacrament of Holy Communion administered for the first time on the Island
Oct. 25th

Mary Christian died after a lingering illness [?.] Another of our number is removed from amongst us and we fervently hope she is gone to a happier and better land. We deeply commiserate the grief of her sorrowing family but trust that that good Providence which "tempers the blast to the shorn lamb" will enable them to bear up under the heavy blow they have sustained. And may we all recognize in this dire calamity, one of those visitations sent by that All wise Being who chasteneth those whom He loveth –

Oct. 31stWilliam Wilburn Quintall died aged 5 years and 6 months. His death was occasioned by a thorn slightly wounding him in the heel, producing lockjaw.
Nov. 17th

At 5 P.M. a sail was descried to the North East of the Island. In a few minutes we had the satisfaction to know she was vessel of war. A boat immediately put off to her, and returned at 10 P.M. The vessel proved to be H.B.M. Schooner Cockatrice, William Dillon Master Commanding as Mr Dillon is an old acquaintance, the community were not a little mortified at his not coming ashore, accordingly next morning all were anxiously, waiting to welcome him ashore again At 11 A.M. Mr Dillon landed bringing letters for the community, and for private individuals – by the letters which Mr. Dillon brought we learn of the safe arrival of our teacher, Mr. Nobbs at Panama – on his way to England.


                       [Mr Dillon remained with us a week]
on the 25th of the month bearing with him the heartiest good wishes of the Community at Pitcairn Island
                       Number of births this year 5. – Deaths 5 (one a Native of Otaheite). Number of inhabitants 168 – 84 Males; and 84 Females.

Number of ships touching here 14  American 9 – English 5
– Three ships of war and two merchantmen.

This year is remarkable in the annals of the Island as being the first in which the Holy Sacrament of the Lord's Supper was administered, to the inhabitants by a Clergyman of the Church of England. Only thirty four received it at the first time, but at the second, all who were capable of receiving it did so.

That the endevours of the Rev. W. H. Holman for the spiritual welfare of the inhabitants of this place may have the blessing of Almighty God is the prayer of every adult member of the Community – I must also take this opportunity to say, that too much, cannot be said or done in action for the interest which the Rev. W. H. Holman (Chaplain of H.M.S. Portland and now residing among us) have evinced both for the spiritual and temporal welfare of the community.


Jany 3rd. Matthew McCoy elected chief Magistrate, Thomas Buffett and Edward Quintall Councillors.
Jany 16th.      Macy Quintall (seriously?) hurt by his brother throwing a knife and wounding him in the right side. As the wound bled profusely considerable alarm was felt lest it should prove fatal.
Jany 17 The wounded boy suffering but little pain and all fears for his safety ended
Jany 19th Alice Maud Quintal born
  "      24At 1 P.M. The cry of sail ho? resounded through the village and within 15 minutes after, the vessel was pronounced to he a ship of war – hearing this all of those within the village immediately flocked to a place where she could be distinctly seen, mingled emotions of grief and pleasure filled the breasts of all, grief at the thoughts of the Rev. W. H. Holman's leaving us (for all seems to be convinced that the vessel came for that purpose) and pleasure at the thought of again seeing their absent former teacher, Mr Nobbs and his daughter again, both of whom left here in H.M. Portland, and Reuben Nobbs, who left the Island in 1849 – and has since been living in Valparaiso, – after eagerly looking at the sail through the spy glass, she was distinctly made out to be a steamer, as the inhabitants are aware of H.M. Steam Sloop Virago's being upon this station they immediately conjectured it her, in a few minutes she was near enough for the boats to go off to her. Quite fortunately the only remaining whale boat that is at all reparable was repaired this morning – she was immediately launched, and a number of the natives, accompanied by the Rev. W. H. Holman put off in her



– A few strokes soon brought the boat along side, when all those who went, were heartily welcomed on board of H.M. Steam Sloop Virago by her gallant Captain and officers. The Virago was immediately brought to an anchor abreast of Bounty Bay and after firing a salute of six guns, and giving, three hearty cheers for the Queen, and three more for the Islanders (which was as heartily returned by those remaining on shore) Captain Prevost with a party of his officers came on shore and remained all night – in the evening the Islanders and the officers amused themselves in singing and listening to the Bagpipes which was kindly brought on shore by the Commander to amuse the Islanders. The Captain gave a pressing invitation to all the inhabitants to go on board of the Virago and take an excursion round the Island under steam – it was thankfully received and accordingly next morning at nine all were ready to embark. They were all safely landed at three P.M. much delighted with their visit and the kindness of the officers and men

Monday Jany

I have considered it my melancholy duty to enter in the public Register one of the most awful and distressing events which has ever occurred in the history of this little community. The visit of H.M.S. Virago had afforded everyone the greatest pleasure and delight. She was the first steam vessel the people had ever seen, and the pleasant cruize they took in her round their island together with the great kindness and attention of the Captain and officers will never be forgotten. On Wednesday the 26th after the last boat had left the Island and mutual wishes for the blessing of God had been offered on both sides, the chief Magistrate Matthew McCoy together with Charles Driver Christian and William Evans went for the purpose of loading the Bounty's old gun to give their good friends a parting salute according to



the usual custom. They had put in the charge and were in the act of ramming it home when it suddenly exploded. Matthew McCoy was blown away several feet from the gun, his right arm dreadfully shattered, his body burnt in several parts and his whole system received a most severe shock. Charles D. Christian was badly wounded in both legs and also slightly burnt. William Evans received a violent shock and was slightly wounded and burnt. They were immediately conveyed to the nearest house and in less than half an hour the surgeons of the Virago (they having fortunately seen from the ship that something had happened) were on shore. M. McCoy's arm was soon after amputated, but the shock proved too severe, he gradually sank and expired twelve hours after the accident. As William Evans recovered from the immediate effects of the shock he was seized with violent fits and the doctors were for some time in great doubts of his recovery, however he got better by degrees and has every chance of doing well. Charles Christians' wounds though very severe were not considered dangerous, several large pieces of wood were from time to time extracted, but the shock to the system was comparatively trifling and he is now doing well. The cause of the accident cannot be satisfactorily accounted for, the most probable reason is that there was a nail at the end of the rammer which from severe friction against the side of the gun produced a spark which caused the explosion. In speaking of the dead it is always wrong to use any stronger language than that of hope, but we have every reason to trust that Matthew McCoy is now enjoying a foretaste of that happiness



which awaits all the true servants of God. So far as human eye could descern he appeared to be a sincere, humble-minded Christian whose utmost endeavour was to do his duty both to God and man, he was one of the most useful and popular members of the little Society and his loss will be most severely felt by all. "Requiescat in pace".

I earnestly trust that all will learn to see in this awful visitation the hand of the same Good Providence which is so plainly discernable in every step connected with the history of this community. The same God who preserved to them from the wreck of the Bounty a copy of His Holy Word and the Prayer Book of His Church, and afterwards turned the heart of their father J. Adams, from sin and wickedness to His service has now in a most solemn manner exercised His chastening rod to draw back unto Himself the hearts of those who have erred and strayed from His ways. He chastens us not for His own pleasure but for our profit, and if the late visitation does not effect His good purposes He will inflict a still more terrible punishment. May all learn by it the lesson of strict obedience to His will and a more resolute following of His commandments.

(signed) W. H. Holman                 
H.M.S. Portland     
Ross Adams
Born January 27th
Monday 31st Steamship Virago sailed for the Society Islands.
February 21st C. D. Christian and William Evans getting gradually better.


March 27th

Easter Day C. D. Christian and W. Evans, attended Divine service, both have quite recovered from their wounds

5th April Rebecca Holman Ascension McCoy born.
12th of May    Fortescue Moresby Buffett Born.
Sunday 15

Light winds from the North-east, -- a ship was descried to the eastward bearing down for the Island under a crowd of sail. At 1/2 past twelve she had neared the Island sufficiently to go off to her – which was immediately done. The vessel proved to be H.M.S. Portland and we had once more the satisfaction to welcome the (to us) dear and gallant Adm: and our worthy pastor to our Island home. She also brought back Reuben the son and daughter of our kind friend and pastor, the former of whom had been absent nearly four years. We were truly rejoiced to see those, dear good friends, who have done so much to promote our comforts and happiness and we hope and trust we may ever deserve their (hitherto unmerited) kindness and regard. – Divine service teas performed, during the evening, and our humble church was honoured with the attendance of the fatherly old Adm: and his officers. – The Rev. Mr Holman, preached a farewell sermon to the community which deeply affected them. Text from 13 Chap. 2. Cor. 11th verse

Monday 16th

The community busily employed landing the various presents to the community from their untiring friend and benefactor Admirl: Moresby and others in Valparaiso and England to all of whom we feel truly grateful.

Tuesday 17th      

To-day at 12 A.M. the Adm: assembled the people in the school room and addressed them on various subjects (principally relating to


                       the internal regulations of the Island.
Wednesday 18th.

12 A.M. The Admiral avowed his intention to sail in the course of the afternoon and in consequence all was bustle and preparation. The Rev. Mr Holman took an affecting leave of the community at 3 P.M. and embarked in one of the Islands boats, accompanied by many of the men – the dear old Adm: embarked after taking leave of his sorrowing friends in Pitcairn's Island. He was rowed on board by a crew of the Islanders and after being hospitibly entertained by the officers they took a final leave of their generous friend and returned on shore.

Thursday 19th. Several of the people attacked with influenza.
Friday 20th. The epidemic rapidly spreading, many very ill. Henry Chads Christian born
Wednesday 25th. The majority of the people seriously ill, and almost unable to help themselves.
Saturday 28th.

Rainy and very thick weather. About 10 a ship was reported in sight to the westward. 12 A.M. the ship seen from the village and pronounced to be the Portland, after some hours a crew of invalids put of to her. The gallant Admir: and his worthy and generous officers (when made aware of the condition of the Islanders) expressed much concern and did all in their power to relieve them. The boat did not return untill the following morning. The Admir: very kindly sent a surgeon on shore to attend to the sick, and with almost unexampled generosity, he with his officers sent some biscuits sugar, tea &c &c &c to alleviate as far as was in their power, the sufferings of the afflicted Islanders – At sun down, the good ship Portland left us we fear, for ever. May our Heavenly Father ever preserve her and her gallant officers and



crew from the dangers of the sea, and from the assaults of their spiritual and temporal enemies is the earnest wish and prayer of the community at Pitcairn Island.

May 31st Elizabeth Holman Adams Born.
June 28th John Moresby Acland Quintal Born
July 14th Emily Evangeline Buffett Born.
August 9th William Henry Holman Christian Born.
  "     13 Rosalind Amelia Young Born
October 5th Earnest Heywood Christian Born
19th September
Sarah McCoy had a severe fall by which she broke her collar bone and fractured her jaw
       21. Sarah McCoy suffering much pain
October 5th Sarah McCoy almost quite recovered (thanks to the assiduous attentions paid her by the Rev. G. H. Nobhs --
  "     16th George Henry Parkin Christian Born
Nov. 2nd.

About 4 P.M. a sail which was immediately pronounced to he a man of war, was seen coming from the eastward. The whale boat was manned, and went directly off to her. She proved to be H.M. Dido bringing to the community some more tokens of the kind regards of their untiring friends at Valparaiso, more especially Rear Adml: Moresby and his benevolent officers. Nothing can exceed the kindness with which we were treated Capt. Morshead and his officers while on board.

Nov: 3rd. This morning at daylight another sail was seen standing towards the Island, she proved ultimately to be a whaler which left here on the 1st inst. The crew had attempted to scuttle



the ship they succeeded in making four auger holes through the bottom and had it not been for the timely discovery of it, all hands on board would have perished. On her condition being made known, 12 of our number went on board, to help free her which they succeeded in doing after labouring hard at the pumps for i8 hours. The rest of the people busily engaged, in landing the articles from the Dido which was effected before dark.


At 12 Captain Morshead and his officers accompanied by several of the Islanders of both sexes returned on board the Dido. The Islanders remained until dark and after taking an affectionate leave of their kind, and hospitable friends they returned to their own homes, deeply impressed with the kindness hospitality and generosity of Capt. M. and his officers. By this vessel Reuben Nobbs returned to Valparaiso accompanied by his brother Francis


Nov. 7th.Susan Nobbs delivered of a son which expired a few hours after his birth
  "     12th.The community slightly affected with influenza which continued for about a fortnight
Dec. 24thNancy Christian died aged 23 years Her loss was deeply felt by the whole community. She was a young woman of excellent parts and her untimely end will cast a gloom over the coming Xtmas festivals. The complaint which terminated her existence was ovarian dropsy.
Summary of the Year 1853.
                       No. of births 13. Males 7. Females 6. Marriages 2. Deaths 3.

The inhabitants have suffered more from sickness this year than they have for many years past.


January 2nd. Arthur Quintal elected Chief Magistrate, Thom: Buffett and Isaac Christian Councillors.
Sunday. 1st A sermon in aid of the funds of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel was preached by the Rev. G. Nobbs.
"   5th Alfred Nobbs badly sprained his foot and was brought home by George Adams
Arrived Falcon of New Bedford
"   12th Employed collecting the leaves of the pandanies for the roof of the church.
"   22nd William Evans and Rebecca Christian married
"   31st Mary Ellen Olivia Buffett born
February 14th This morning the Rev. Mr Nobbs was sent for to attend on Frederick Young, who was suffering much from pain in his right foot caused by a cut from a chisel just above his small toe: this accident had happened io or iz days previous but not paining him any he had paid no attention to it. Yesterday he went out in his canoe for fish, and walked about a good deal on the rocks in search of hait, when he returned home he felt great pain from the wound in his foot extending along the calf of his leg and up his back with involuntary starting whenever he attempted to move toes in this state of nervous irratatibility he passed the night. When Mr N. arrived at the house he was astonished at the state he found the young man in, the wound was


partially healed but very much inflamed and without any discharge, on the patient being asked some questions concerning the accident, he said he believed the chisel when it fell on his foot had partly separated the abductor of the small toe and that while traversing the rocks yesterday for bait a complete separation of the tendon had taken place as he felt at that time a severe though short sensation of pain darting upwards from his toe to the nape of his neck. No time was therefore to be lost as there was stiffness of the neck, darting pains along the spine and at intervals involuntary contraction of the muscles. In short there was tetanus in an incipient state. Ten grs of calomel combined with two of opium was immediately administered to him the wound was probed very gently, & a bit of lint wetted with turpentine was inserted, and a pumpkin posit placed over all as an emollient. After school Mr. N. returned to the house of the patient whom he found with a flushed and anxious countenance, and complaining of increased pains along the whole of the spine. The stiffness of the neck had also increased, opened the wound and found that it had but slightly supperated, introduced a couple of drops of turpentine and placed a rag moistened with the same over the top of the foot. The spasmodic contractions incresing in frequency and force so much so that at times he would start from a recumbent position to a sitting one without the lightest premonition. Made a strong bath of woodashes and water and placed the


wounded foot in it, the water was as hot as he could bear it, it was kept up to this temperature and the foot remained in it forty minutes, during this process he fainted twice, but for a very short time and several times he suffered severely from spasmodic attacks. By this time the news had spread through the town and the magistrate, his brother and some of the women came in very opportunely, as help was wanted to place him on the bed, a pint of hot and strong mint tea and covered him up with blankets with a view of causing profuse perspiration, but the spasms though not so frequent were too violent to permit of keeping the blankets on him.

      This book has become so dilapidated from getting wet with salt water when taken on board the Virago at the commencement of last year, during my absence, that it is necessary to prepare a new hook by copying the contents of this into it and then continue from this date. It is my intention to send this Imperfection; to my well beloved friend the Rev. T. B. Murray, thinking it may serve to amuse him over his after dinner toast and water: though I think either my honoured friend or his sedate and most amiable spouse will find it difficult to translate many of the original autographs in the shipping list; and I think much of my own unrivalled penmanship, will be attended with similar difficulties.

Pitcairns July 1854

[Signed]                  George H. Nobbs.     

God help them all, the parents, the children, their maternal Aunt, the deaf gentleman and his wife, who I think is another Aunt; and if my recollection serves me aright there is also an Uncle whom I met once or more, and whom I suspect to be the author of a very pleasing eulogium on my appearance an peculiarities, in " Blackwood," and which was copied into an American paper and found the stay hither. Well, may their shadows never grow less and their happiness temporal and spiritual be ever on the increase. And may I have the pleasure of knowing it.

[Signed]                  G.H.N.     




Prices of Different Articles on Pitcairn's.


Yams. per barrel 2."00
Sweet potatoes do. 2."00[?]
Irish potatoes do. 3."00
Beans. per do. 7."00
Onions. do. do. 3."00
Limes do. do. 2."00 [?]
pawpaw. 1."00
Lime juice per gall. 00."50
Cocoanuts. per hundred 2."50
pumpkins do. do. 12."00
Water mellons do. do. 12."00
Oranges. do. do. 1.25
Plantains, per bunch 00.33
Fowls. per doz. 3."00
Firewood per boatload
      with the crew 3."00
      without the crew 4."00
Pilot fees per day 1."25.


[being List of Shipping Entries]
1823Ships NamesCommanders Names
December 10th Cyrus – London John Hall
January 26 Oeno, Nantucket George Worth
March – MarylandObed Folger
April 17th Waverly, Oahu W. Dana
1825Waverly do. do.
September Melantho, London Noah Folger
December 5th Lima, Nantucket Abraham Swain
H.M.S. Blossom Capt: W. F. Beechey

January Roscoe, New Bedford George Worth
August 18th Governor Macquarie, Tahiti Robert Brimmer
December 14th Lovely Ann, London Phillip Blythe 1827
February 2nd President, Nantucket – Winslow
            16th Connecticut, Norwich – Chester
December 10th Discoverer, Valparaiso – Lindsay
March 3rd Weymouth, Nantucket Moses Harris
May 24th Discoverer, Valparaiso – Grimwood
January 20th Ganges, Nantucket Josiah Coffin
      "      22nd Volador, Valparaiso John Clark
      "      26th Independance,Nantucket – Whippey
February 28th Orion, Nantucket – Alley
March 9th Connecticut, Norwich Parker Smith
September 21st Rob Roy, Boston Isaac Percival
      "      30th Unity " – Madsa


March 15th H.M.S. Seringapatam Hon. W. Waldegrave
October Nelson, London Edward David
December 14th Courier de Bourdeaux A. Maurue
      "      15th Eagle, London J. Grave

February 3rd Fabius, Nantucket – Coffin
      "      28th H.M.S. Comet Alex. A. Sandilands
Lucy Ann, N.S. Wales J. Curry
July 3rd. Origon, Fairhaven Jabez Delane
September 2nd Charles Dogget, Salem William Driver
December 2nd Pomarre, Valparaiso John Clark

March 16th Carmen, Valparaiso A. Maurue
April 3rd. Independance, Nantucket – Whippey
October 28th Maria, Tahiti Thomas Ebril
November 34th Alexander, Nantucket Jonathan Swain
December 28th Eagle, London J. Grave

January 10th H.M.S. Challenger Capt. Freemantle
      "      21st Albion, Tahiti – Johnson
February 22nd Russian S. of War Amerika
March 24th Ballance, Bristol R.I. – Dogget
April 5th Maria, Tahiti Thomas Ebril
August 1st Ploughboy, Nantucket Nathan Chase

March 8th Tuscan, London Thomas Stavars
September 16th Olivia, Boston Charles Kendal
October 6th Olive Branch, Tahiti – Cornish
      "      13th Olivia

October 24th Phenix, New Bedford Squire Sandford
      27 Enterprize  do. – Winslow

January 24th Ann, London Robert Howe
March 23rd Triton, N. Bedford – Carr
29th Phenixdo. – Sandford.


April 22nd             Columbo, Boston          –     Williams
       24thPeruviando. – Sweetland
August 21st Fortune Upham
Nov. 2nd Polynesiana, Valparaiso A. Maurue.

January 11th H.M.S. Actaeon Lord Edward Russel
April 11th Cole Cole, Chili Senorei
  "     21st Hobomok, Falmouth H. C. Bunker
December 8th H.M.S. Imogene H. W. Bruce, Esq.

January 23rd Alexander Coffin, Nantuck: – Congdon
March 9th Sapphire, Salem H. H. Smith
 "     18th Hobomok, Falmouth H. C. Bunker
May 22nd Polynesiana, Valparaiso      A. Maurue
September 7th Sapphire, Salem H. H. Smith
November 2nd Lady Amherst, London William Bushel
        26th    Barque Kent, Boston Joseph Steel
        29th     H.M.S. Fly Russel Eliott, Esq.
December 7th Ferdinand, Havre
        29th George, Nantucket William Swain [Swain erased in pencil and Chase written in]

February 2nd John Cockrel, Havre Robert Walch
February 16th Thomas Williams, Stonington R.I.Palmer Hall
April 29th Aduxly Clarke, Bristol Shermon, 1000 bls.
June 21st Christopher Mitchell – Veeder, 13 ms. 650 bls.
 ibid Logan – Briggs, 500 bls.
 do.     30th Ship Ceres of Wilmington Edward Ayers, 18 mo. 1000 bbls.
July 19th Cyrus Hussey 30 m., i800 bbls.
Sep: 2nd Pacific Palmer, 34, 1300 bis.
October 27th Brig. Friends, ValparaisoRugg
Nov: 9th Phoenix, Nantucket Hussey, 2300 bbs 24 months out


Nov: 9th H.M.S. SparrowhawkJ. Shepherd Esq.
  "     16th Alexander, N.B.C. Stetson, 11 ms., 600 bls.
Dec: 10th Will Thompson, N.B.E. Doane, 7 m,, 250
No of ships arrived this year 13.

Jany 5th Swift, N.B.}Lewis Toby 35 ms., 1800 bbls. 650 right whale.
Feb: 15th 1840 Cutter Rovers' Bridefrom the coast of Chili.Cap: Biddulph, R.N. bound to Ohithiti from there to Sydney.
April 30th 1840      Barque Fortune of Sydney.Stephen Dodd Morris Master 16 ms. 850 bls. Sperm Oil
June the 27th     Ann, NantucketPeter C. Brock 35 1/2 Ms. 1950
August 15th Almira, Edgartown– Toby, 9 Ms. 110 bls.
Sep: 7th 1840 Ship Crusader. 620 TonsPeter Inglis ex Chili to Sydney, out 35 days
Nov: 9th 1840 Missionary Packet, LondonRobert Moryson
 ibid     18th Persia, N.B.– Norton 26 ms. 900 bbls. sperm oil
Dec: 17th 1840 Mechanic, Newport R.I.25 months 1800 bbls. sperm
No of ships arrived this year 10.
Dec: 20th Christopher MitchellC. Veeder, master 32 months, 2800 bbls. sperm oil

January 22nd Ship Elizabeth 10 1/2 months 500 bls sperm oil James Bunker
  "     23rd Rose, NantucketB. A. Coleman 38 months out 1600 bls.


April 4th Ship Alexander, N.B. 26 ms. 1900 hls. sperm oil.
April 11th Ship Atlantic, Nantucket. 23 ms. goo bls. sperm oil
May 12th Brig. Polynesiano (in distress for provisions) hound to Valparaiso. – Supplied her to the very utmost of our capabilities; and that too on the Sabbath
  "     26th Persia, N.B. – Norton. 32 ma. 1200 bbls. Sperm oil
  "     29th Ship Milo of New Bedford 29 ms. out 2000 barrels sperm oil bound to Callao or elsewhere. Last from Tahiti. Obtained a supply of potatoes at a small consideration at this place while off the island got a large whale which produced about 85 bbs. of oil Fell Gardner [signed]
June 2nd Ship Loan – Merchant 26 ms. 1400 bbls. sperm oil, bound home in a leaky state.
June 9th Barque Nelson. S. D. Norris – 28o barrels
  "     26th Bark Lady Raffles. Edward Hight, from Sydney bound to San Blas and London.
July 6th Ship Europa (French) from Sandwich Islands, bound to the Gambier Islands.
  Mem: Several sperm whales in sight. – During the last two months sperm whales have been frequently seen.
                       GH NOBBS. [signed]


July 9thShip Navy Capt: William Brock. 13 months out goo bbls. of oil of New Buery Port
    "   13thBlowing hard from the southward: -- an American whale ship (name unknown) passed to the northward. One of our canoes put out after her but did not get on board.
Ship General Williams of New London Capt. Essex [Ersy?] G. Bailey 7 months out one whale
18th August
Her Majesty's ship Curaçoa – Jenkin Jones Esq. Captain, arrived here this day, bringing for distribution to the inhabitants of Pitcairns Island, from the British Government the undermentioned
Arms &. viz.
Black Belts leather for cartouch boxes. 31 in No
Belts leather 14 " "
Cartouch Boxes 25 " "
Musket ball cartridge 600 " "
Muskets 25 " "
" Bayonet 25 " "
" Rammers steel 25 " "
Scabbards for Bayonets 25 " "
Swords 20 " "
Scabbards for Swords 20 " "
Case metal lined for Powder (half) 1 " "
Flints 250 " "
Pikes strong 10 " "

Presents from Captain Jenkins Jones – and other Individuals
Fish hooks 150 in No.Iron spoons 24
Fishing lines 6 " Wood axes 3
Iron pots 4 " Chisels 6


Adzes 3 in No. Handsaws 3 in No
Hammers 6 Nails 100 lbs
Jack Knives 12 Gimlets 12 in No
Spades 3 Pickaxes 2 "
lead 50 lbs Tape 1 parcel
Thread 1 parcel Card of scissors 1 in No.

A small medicine chest presented by H.M.S. Curaçoa
Epsom salts 10 lbs Calomel 2 oz.
Jalap 3 oz. Rhubarb 2 oz.
Magnesia 4 " Laudanum 1 "
Simple ointment 2 lbs. Blistering plaister 1/2 lb.
Sticking plaister 4 yds Ipecacuhana 6 oz.
Senna leaves 4 oz. Lancet 1 in No.

Presented by sundry Individuals and Cap. Jones
Scott's essays on the most important subjects of Religion
Evelyn's Juvenile Gleaner.
The Violet by Miss Leslie
2.Vols Robinson Crusoe
59.Religious Tracts.
15.Addition – Multiplication & Subtn Tracts.
1.Church Prayer Book
1.New Testament 1 [?] Christian Knowledge
1.Selection of Hymns.
1.Vol. Publications of the American Tract Society
1.Christian Remembrancer -- for 1839.
2.Black lead pencils.
1.Vol. 12 Sermons to the aged
1.Vol. Biddulphs plain & practical sermons.
2.Dr. Watts Hymns for children
4.Our Saviours Sermon on the Mount
2.St. Pauls Epistle to the Ephesians.
1.vol. Reading lessons for every day in the year.
1.Prayers taken from the Liturgy


Bibles 5 in Number
New Testaments [24?] 10 in No
Bickersteths Scripture Help 1  "  "
Sept: the 9thShip Mechanic of Newport R.I. 37 months 24 hund. bbls. sperm oil Spencer Pratt Master.
November 12thSchooner La Rita, A. Maurue Master 33 days from Valparaiso; bound to the paumotu, and Siciety Islands.
Nov: 29thShip Erie of Fairhaven eleven months out 500 blls. [signed] Wilmot Lane Master
Nov: 29th
Ship Splendid of Edgartown Edwin Coffin, Master 23 months 1800 bls. Sperm oil
Ship Cyrus of Nantucket Daniel Emmons Master Thirteen months 700 sperm oil.
Dec: 24th
Ship America of Bristol RI 14 months Three hundred bbls. G. Prichmond Master
Jan: 17th
Ship Wm. Rotch of New Bedford 30 1/2 ms. 1200 bbls. sperm R. Tobey master
January 22nd
Ship Orbit of Nantucket 30 months out with 8oo bbis. Isaac Gardner master
January 22nd
Ship Barclay of Nantucket 25 months out with boo bbls. sperm oil Rueben Barney master


Ship Charles Carroll of Nantucket January 31st 1842 from Tahiti 40 months out 900 Bls. [signed] Thos. S. Andrews Master.
Ship Mariner of Nantucket 15+ months out 800 sperm oil Geor. Palmer Master.
Ship George Washington of Wareham Charles C. Russell Master 21 months out 80 sper:
February 13thShip General Williams. of New London 14 months out 2100 bbls. of oil [signed] Cira. G. Bailey Master.
February 22Ship Zone of Nantucket 33 months out 1650 [signed] Edwin Hiller
March 29thShip Jefferson Wm. B. Cash Master 20 months out 1900 Bbls S. oil
April 4thShip Splendid Edwin Coffin Master 27 months 1950 Bbls. S. oil
April 5th 1841Ship Pacific Walter Taber [signed] Master 20 ms. out 1200 Bbls. S. oil
April the 5 1842Ship London Packet, Fair Haven 28 1/2 months 1650 Bbls.
Ship Nancy 6 months out with 600 bls. oil [signed] Capt. Thomas Jay.
Barque Franklin of N. Bedford 33 Months out 800 bbls. of oil: Capt. Wm. E. Beetle.


May  8th 1842 Ship Japan, Nantucket 7 1/2 months 150 bls. sperm oil. [signed] Benj. F. Riddell
May 12th 1842 Ship Atlantic, Nantucket 36 months 1250 bbls. Sperm oil [signed] Geo. C. Hoeg.
May 12th 1842 Columbus Gardner, Nantucket 35 1/2 months l200 bbls. Sperm oil [signed] W. B. Gardner.
May 17th 1842 Lydia Cathcart, Nantucket 20 months 700 bls. Sperm oil
June 29th Ship Clematis of New London 10 months out 2000 whale 160 Sperm oil [signed] George G. Benjamine Master.
August 6th Ship Christopher Mitchell – Keen Master 9 ms. 120 bls. sperm oil, reports ship Statira of Nantucket – Folger 32 ms. 2500 bbls. sperm oil intends cruizing till October
August 15th Ship Geog: Washington 27 1/2 months 1200 bls. of Sperm.
August 18th Bark Ship George of Stonington Con 14 1/2 months 1600 bls. 1500 Whale 500 Sperm [signed] Joseph B. Fosett Master
August 18th 1842 Ship Metacom of New Bedford 9 1/2 months with 450 bls. Sperm [signed] Joseph Reynolds
Sept. 16th 1842 Barque Alto of Fairhaven 25 months out 600 Sperm [signed] James M. Coffin Master.
Oct. 13th Barque Nelson of Sydney 2 months out 40 bls. Sperm [signed] William Roggers Master.


Oct. 26th Ship Ceres, Wilmington. Dol a Ayers 14 months with one Lamp feeder full
Barque Charles of London 32 months 850 barrells Nov. 8. 1842.[signed] Richard Hammer Master.
November 20th 1842 Ship Kingston, Nantucket Capt. William Rawson 29 months out 1000 bbls. Sperm
December 2nd 1842 Ship Samuel Robertson, William H. Warner. New Bedford (28 days from Otahiti) 13 months out with 400 Bbls. Sperm, bound to the S.W.
December 2nd. 1842 Ship Nile, Cook, New Bedford (last from Otahiti) with 1100 Bbls. Sperm oil, 17 1/2 months out. Bound "South about" or so. [signed] Wm. H. Warner Pro. Capt. Cook.
December 17th 1842 Ship Chili. D. B. Delano Master 38 months out 1800 bis. of Sperm oil Bound to New Bedford.
January 23rd 1843 Ship Mariner G. Palmer Master 27 months out with 1300 bbls. of sper oil, and is praying dilig. to get more.
Ship Charles of New Bedford Richard Gardner Master 20 months with 850 bound to eastward
Feb. 2nd Ship Friendship 14 ms. 1000 bbls. (120 S) Samuel Taber Master.


Shipping List for 1843

Ship Rose 12 ms. out 500 bbls. Captain Wm. B. Swain
Ship Swift New Bedford i4 ms. 300. F. Fisher Feby 28th
Ship Splendid Edgartown 38 ms. 2400 bound to Tocohuone and thence home [signed] Edwin Coffin.
Feb. 28th         Ship South Carolina, New Bedford. 8 months out 850 of whail oil all well [signed] Ansel S. Stuart Master.
March  5th H.B.M. ship Talbot, Sir Thomas R. Thompson Bart. arrived here this day, bound to Valparaiso.
March  6th Ship Liancourt of Havre 9 ms. 400 bbls. whale oil Capt. Lopez
March  7th Ship Merrimac of Newbury Port 13 ms. 1000 bls. oil Capt. George J. Howe
March  8th Barque Carnarvon of Sydney out six months with 200 barrels of S oil all well.
March 16th Ship Marcia of Fairhaven 13 months out 900 one Hundred Sperm. [signed] Conrad Masher. [?]


Ship Balance of Providence 16 months out 1400. 180 Sperm [signed] D. H. Reed
March 13th 1843Ship Eagle of New Bedford
Edward H. Coffin 30 ms. out 1400 Bbls. Sperm
Ship Mercury, New Bedford Haskell 21 ms. out 1100 Bbls. Sperm oil. March 11. 1843
March 18th Sailed Bark America for the Coast of California.
April 11th Brig. Content 35 days from Valparaiso with a cargo of corn for Sydney.
May 25th Ship Geo. Washington of Wareham 37 month 1300 bbls. C. C. Russell
June 29th Ship Kingston, Nantucket William Rawson 36 1/2 months 1150 bls. Bound in with Coast
July 8th Bark Drimo, Sippican: Cha. Hammond 23 ms. 350 bbls. sperm oil.
August 30th Ship Metacom, New Bedford Cap. Reynolds 22 months 950 bis.
Sept. 4th Ship Eliza Adams, Fairhaven William Holly Master 14 1/2 ms. 700 bbls. Sperm oil Bound Eastward.
Sep. 24th Ship Mariner, Nantucket 35 months out 1450 bbls. of Sperm oil
Ship Geo. Washington of Wareham C. C. Russell 42 Months out 1600 bbls. and bound Home at that Oct. 28th 1843


Nov. 12th Ship Clarkson, Nantucket; J. C. Chase Master 13 1/2 ms. 1050 bbls. sperm oil
Nov. 15th Schooner Sagaz from Valparaiso sailed 20th October. Reports the death of Captain Ebriel and the burning of his vessel at the "Isle of Pines" with the distruction of all hands, by the Natives. The Cause of this Act had not transpired – Robert Griggs. Master Sagaz. Edward Lucett, Supercargo.
Ship Kutusoff 24 months from New Bedford with 1800 barrels (650 Sperm) have not seen a whale since leaving the N.W. Coast Nov. 28th/43. [signed] Wm. G. C. Cox.
Ship Rose 22 ms. out 1000 bbls. bound East as I can get Dec. 17th 1843 [signed] Wm. B. Swain.
Dec. 27th         Bark America from the Coast of California 40 ms. out 600 bbls. sperm 1000 black oil. – Bound for Valparaiso, with the captain sick.
Number of ships in correspondence with the island this year 29 – American 25 – British 3 – French 1.
Ship Thames of Sag Harbor 7 months out 600 Bls. Bound to the N. West February 14th 1844 [signed] J. R. Bishop.


Jan. 20th Ship Metacon 26 1/2 ms. out 1250 bbls. sperm oil. Capt. J. Reynolds. –
Jan. 25th Ship Nancy of Havre 5 months out 60 bls. Capt. Thomas Jay. –
Jan. 25th Ship George of Fairhaven 36 1/2 months out 1650 bbls. J. H. Swift Master [signed]
Jan. 25th Brig. Sir John Byng from Sydney to Marquesas and the South Sea Islands -- Mowbray Megget Master. Geole Forbes M.D. supercargo
Jan. 26th Ship Eleanor of London 40 ms. 1000 bbls. sperm. Wm. Barnett Master.
Jan. 30th Ship Mercury of New Bedford 32 ms. out 1675 bbls. of oil. [signed] D. F. Haskell.
Feb. 5th Ship Clarkson of Nantucket J. C. Chase in command 16 1/2 months out and has 1400 bbls. sperm oil on Board is bound to the Northward near the Line on a cruise.
Feb. 14th Brig. Jules Rosville and schooner Altrevida from Valparaiso bound to the Gambier Islands.
Jan. 15th Ship Isaac Howland, New Bedford Lorenzo Fisher 7 months out 800 bbls. of Whale oil bound for N. West Coast.
Jan. 15th Barque Cherokee, New Bedford Wm. Devol Master 7 1/2 months out 250 bbls. bound to Sandwich Islands.
Feb. 17th Ship Lowell, New London Geo. G. Benjamine 6 months out 800 whale 200 sperm. Bound for the N. West Coast.
June 26th         Ship John Adams -- Cap. Thompson 34 ms. 600 bbls. sperm oil.


July 28th      H.M.S. Basilisk, H. Hunt Esq commander.
Sept. 20th Ship Clarkson 24 months out 1500 bbls. sperm.
Sept. 8th Ship Almira 16 ms. out 450 bbls. Sperm. Have not got a whale since July 7th A.D. 1844
Oct. 23rd
A.D. 1844
Ship Almira Charles Cl Alley Touched at Pitcairns Island for refreshments with 550 of sperm oil
Ship Rose 33 months out 1300 bound in to 1148 West Nov. 19th [signed] Wm. B. Swain Master.
Number of Ships touching at the Island this year 18 -- viz American thirteen, – French two, – English three.


Ship William Baker of Warren R.I. Luther M. Borden, Master 13 1/2 months out. 1000 bb. Whale 100 sperm oil Jan. 8th.
Ship Franklin of Sag Harbor Edward W. Halsy Capt. 7 months out. 400 of whale 100 sperm for the North West Cost of America. January 16th 1845.
Ship Splendid Cold Spring (L.I.) C. Fordham 5 R. Whales 7 months out for N. W. Coast. Feb. 6th. 45
Ship John Wells of Sagharbo 6 months out 250 Bbls. of Whale oil For N. West Cost.[signed] J. M. Hodges.
Ship Merimac of New London 7 months out eleven from the Sandwich Islands [signed] G. Destin.
Feb. 9th Ship Phocion New Bedford 16 months out 1300 bls. Bound N. West. Peter Butler, Mast. [signed]
Ship Argo of Nantes 5 months 1/2 out 80 barils [signed] O. de Grandhangson [?] Master.
February 11th
Ship Huntress of New Bedford E. T. Shearman. 8 months out. 1500 bls. of Whale oil
Ship Hudson Sag Harbor 7 months out 500 bbls. W. & 100 of Sperm oil [signed] Henry Master 12th Feb. 1845.
Ship Albion 6 months out clean.

Logbook page


Brunswick, New Bedford 14 ms. 1500 -- 200 sperm Alney
Philip the 1st of Greenport 9 ms. 750 – [signed] Joseph S. Case.
Feb. 11th Ship Henry Tuke of Warren 7 1/2 months with 5 whales [signed] Henry Champlin.
Feb. 19th Ship Joseph Haydn, Bremen 8 ms. 350 bbs. wh. [signed] Parker.
Feb. 27th Ship Champion Isaac L. Sanford 8 1/2 months out 175 Whale 130 sperm Bound to the North West
Feb. 28th 1845 Ship Julian Seth Blackmeer [?] of New Bedford 9 months out 900 bbls. W. 200 sperm Bound to the North West Cost.
March the 15th Ship Messenger, New Bedford 19 1/2 ms. 500 bbls. Sperm.
March 9th Ontario, Gibbs, Nantucket 21 ms. 1400 sperm.
March 12th Ship Fabius. Nickerson 8 ms. 950 wh.
March 21st Lexington. Weeks, Nantucket 8 1/2 months out 600 sperm 180 Whale bound to the N W Coast.
March 26th Ship Thom. Dickason 7 1/2 months with 200 bbls. whale oil Bound for North W. Coast. [signed] Wm. Lowen.
April 2nd Ship Sarah Frances, Gardner 15 months out 500 bbls.


July 8th Ship Alexander 34 months out 2200 Sperm for Home. [signed] John R. Dornin Master.
August 7th French Bark Eliza from the Gambier islands, bound to Valparaiso with shells
Sep. 3rd Ship Planter 11 months out 500 bbls. sperm from Galapagos [?] B. T. Folger, master [signed]
Oct. 7th 1845 Ship Rose Wm. Swain Master 44 months out 1350 Sperm 200 Whale.
Number of Ships touched at the Island this year 25. – viz American 22, French 2, Dutch 1. an increase of 7 over the year previous.
Jan. 29th 1846 Ship Minerva Cap. Smalley with 320 bls 299 of sperm. Fairhaven
Feb. 5th. 46. Barque Pacific Capt. Alden.


January 13th 1846 Ship Eliza L. B. Jenney of Fair Haven 37 1/2 months out 2460 Bbls. Sperm oil bound to the S E [signed] John Church
January 13th 1846 Ship Levi Starbuck of Nantucket 6 months out 50 bbls. sperm bound to the N.W. [signed] Joseph P. Nye Master
Jany. 13th Ship Marcus 15 ms. 800 whale [signed] Samuel H. Taber Master
––– 19th Schooner Carolina (French) from Valparaiso bound to the Gambier Islands
January 31st 1846 Brig John Adams of New Bedford 18 Months out 600 Bis Bound North [signed] Wilcox [?] Mason
Feb 4th 1846 Huntsville Howe, Cold Spring 15 months. 15 hundred 60 sperm.
Feb 5th 1846 Barque Pacific Alden of Fairhaven 7 months 60 sperm
Feby. 5th Nantasket: Smith. New London 31 ms. 4100 whale.
Feb. 12th Kutusoff Shockley, New Bedford
Feb. 12th Ship Roman Shockley, New Bedford 9 mon. 1200 w. oil
Feb. 12th Ship Henry Lee, Sagharbour 7 1/2 months 800 whale
Ship Hellespont, Mystic. 7 months out 300 bls.
Barque Columbia, Sagharbour 7 months out 400 bis. 100 sperm.
Ship Eleanor of Mystic 6 months 65 sperm 250 whale.
Ship Triad of Greenport 7 1/2 months 300 bls.
Ship Enterprise of New Bedford 18 months out 700 w, 70 sperm Feb. 15th [signed] Shuboch Brayton
Ship Clematis, New London 8 months 100 sperm 200 whale
Ship Genl. Williams, New London 8 Months out 900 whale [signed] John Ward.
Ship Gov. Troop of New Bedford 18 months out 2500 – 120 of sperm.
Feb. 12th Ship Hannibal of New London 3100 whale for home [signed] John C. Brooks.
Ship Archer of New Bedford Feb. 22nd 300 bbls. (18 Sp) 9 ms. out [signed] Moses Snell
Feb. 17th Ship Isaac Howland 8 ms. 300 whale 50 sperm [signed] Cory Master.


Feby. 14th Barque Pioneer 14 ms. 1400 whale.
Feb. 15th Ship Ontario 9 ms. 300 bbls. whale
–– 24th Ship Champion, Edgartown 9 ms. 3 whale
Feb. 27th Ship William Hamilton, New Bedford 7 months 600 bls. 40 sp. L. Fisher Master.
March 1st Ship St. George, New Bedford 8 1/2 Months out 450 whale 150 Sp. [signed] George W. Slocum.
March 1st. Bark Philetus of Stonington 7 1/2 months 120 whale 130 of Sperm [signed] H. Hatherway.
Feb. 27th Ship Montpelier – Faber 17 ms. 1300 bbls. (120 sperm).
Ap. 1st Ship B. Felowes, Bubwik 10 ms. 1846. 10 B sperm
May 8th 1846 Ship Harvest, Nantucket 14 ms. 350 S (Coffin)
July 9th 1846 Ship Roscoe E. McCleave 34 ms. 14 sperm. Bound in with the Coast
July 20th Ship Mary, Nantucket 33 1/2 ms. 900 bbls. S.P. Charles Pitman Jr.
July 19th Ship Henry Clay 24 ms. 2000 bbls. sperm
July 26th Ship Messenger, New Bedford (C. C. Down) 36. ms. 1400 Bound on Chili.
August 7th Com Morris, Falmouth 13 months 600 sperm[?] bound Eastward.


Ship Chs Carroll 26 ms. out 1600 bbls. 700 sperm on Coast of Chili
Ship General Scott B. Listare Master of New London 13 months out 550 Bbls.
Barque Henry of Salem 14 ms. out 350 Sp. 290 whale. Cha. Lind Master. Sep. 4th.
Oct. 6th 1846. Ship Wm. Nicol of London out 36 months. 1900 of sperm of black. [signed] W. Bushell, Master.
Ship Washington of Nantucket 36 months out 1350 Sperm Bound in on the Coast [signed] Stephen Bailey. Master.
Ship Navigator of Nantucket 17 months out 750 Bbls. spr. Going to look for more [signed] George Palmer Master.
December 11th Ship Lion of Providence R. Island. [signed] Charles F. Howland. 15 months 9: 50: sperm.
Ship Java of Fairhaven 13 1/2 ms. 550 Sp. 300 w. [signed] L. D. Lucas,
Dec. 14th Ship Balaena of New Bedford 10 1/2 ms. 650 sperm 150 whale [signed] Colvin Dexter.


December the 15th
Ship George Washington of Wareham 29 1/2 months 1750 of whale and 250 of Sperm bound in with the coast [signed] Charles C. Russell Master
December 15th 1846. Ship Arnolda of N. Bedford 29 months 1450 sperm bound to the coast [signed] David H. Coffin.
Ship Alexander Barclay, Bremen. Fish Master 16 months out l000 Whale Bound for North west.

Ship Enterprise of Nantucket 12 moths out 850 Sperm. bound to the coast Jan. 1st [signed] Saml. C. Wyer.
Ship Harvest 22 ms. 500 Sperm bound to the coast.
Ship Henry Clay of Nantucket 31 ms. out 2400 Sperm bound off Massafuero Jan. 1st. [signed] Edward C. Austin.

Number of Ships touching at the Island this year 49 – viz American 46 – French 1. Bremen 1. English – 1.



Jan. 8. Ship Nantucket of Nantucket 16 1/2 ms 800 bbls. Bound for the Cost [signed] Benj. C. Gardiner.
Jan. 19th Ship John Jay 20 ms 1700, whale.
Jan. 25th Ship Richard Mitchell of Nantucket 39 months out 1900 bbls. sperm bound on Chili [signed] Josiah C. Long.
Jan. 26th Ship Martha of Nantucket 16 ms out 800 sper Bound on the Line. [signed] Henry B. Folger.
Jan. 27th Ship William Hamilton. New Bedford 19 months out 2800 – 120 sperm. [signed] Lorenzo Fisher Master.
February 1st
Ship Frances of New Bedford 40 months 1300 Sperm for the Coast of Chili & Home. [signed] James S. Purrington
Feb. 2nd. Bark Bayard of Green Port 13 months out bound to Kampischatka. 300 bls. whale oil. [signed] John N. Fordlam.
Feb. 8th Barque Soln. Saltus of Salt River 18 ms 1200 Bound to the Coast
March 27th Ship Hope, Providence (R.I.) 18 ms. 1600 bbls. Bound direct for the N.W. Coast.
March 30th Ship Pacific 1st of New Bedford 31 months out 2000 sperm Bound off Shore Ground.


August 20th
Ship Three Brothers, Nantucket J. Mitchell 13 months out 700 barrels
Ship Navigator of Nantucket 26 months 1150 sperm oil. bound in with the coast.
Oct. 4th Ship Isaac Howland 28 ms. – 2600 bbls. whale oil
Oct.  28th Barque Sarah 27 months 1100 of sperm Bound in on the coast
Nov. 12th Barque Iris, New London 38 ms 1650 Whale Bound to the Coast [signed] W. H. Haynes.
November 15th Barque Autumn, Stonington. 24 months 500 sp. Bound to the Coast [signed] E. A. Perry
No of ships touching at the Island this year 19 – viz. American 18. British 1.



January 6th Ship Harvest 35 ms out 500 sperm bound to the Coast. [signed] Goeg. D. Coffin.
February 5th. Ship Falcon 19 ms out 600 bls. of W oil bound to the N.W. coast Capt. Kirby.
Mancke Capitaine Armand gilbs ayant 80 barils huile de cachalot A 110 jours de mer [signed] A. Gilbs [?]
Her Majesty's Ship Calypso, arrived at this Island on the 9th of March 1848 and was visited by the Captain and officers who were highly gratified to find the high state of moral feeling and conduct of its inhabitants as well as their perfect appearance of happiness and prosperity [signed] H. G. Worth Captain
Feb. 26th Schooner Caupolicon from Valparaiso
April 5th Ship Martha of Newport R.I. 35 1/2 ms 850 bbs. sperm. Capt. Gifford
Sept. 5th Ship Margaret Scott of N. Bedford; 9 months. out with 100 bhls. sperm oil [signed] Luce. Master.
Nov. 11th William Nicol of London out 13 months with 750 Barrels of sperm oil [signed] Wm. Bushell Master Bound Eastward.


                      Ship Washington of Nantucket 13 months out 90 bbls. Stephen Bailey
Number of ships touching at the island this year 9. American 5. English 2. French 1. Spanish 1. 10 less than last year.

Jan. 9th Ship Herald of New Bedford 14 months out 150 Sperm. 250 whale – J. A. Macomber.
Jan. 12 Ship Dover of New London 6 months out 120 bbls. of Sperm oil 200 bbls. of whale. Bound for the West coast. [signed] Charles Jeffery.
Feb. 14th Ship Genl Scott of New London 7 months out 250 bbls. whale bound to Mowee [?] [signed] George C. Harris
      15. Ship Tuscarora of Cold Spring 6 months out No oil. [signed] S. C. Leek.
Feby. 16th        Ship Ontario, Sag Harbour Six months out Two hundred and fifty whale bound to the North West coast [signed] William Payne April 19th A.D. 1849.
Brig Kirkwood of Nantucket 18 months out 400 bbls. of sperm oil. [signed] Charles C. Alley, Master January 6th A.D. 1849. Lost from Brig Kirkwood's mast head overboard Charles Ramsdell from Nantucket 3 officer


June 29th        Brig Fanny 27 days from New Zealand with emigrants for California [signed] F. O. Leathart, master.
July 11th H.M.S. Vessel Pandora arrived at this Island on the 10th July from Papiete and Honolulu having on board Mr Buffett an inhabitant who had been a passenger from Honolulu, the extreme hospitality and simple minded hearty good will with which we have all been received as well as the manifest piety and strictly moral conduct of the inhabitants reflects the highest credit on themselves not less than on their excellant precepter whose greatest reward must be that he has in this world a foretaste of the happiness which will be the lot of those to whom the Judge of the World shall say "well done good and faithful servant enter thou into the joy of thy Lord" that God may help them all and keep them in the strait and happy path of industry and virtue is the earnest wish and prayer of their sincere well wisher [signed] J. Wood.
Aug. 1st, Schooner Bandicoot 56 days from Hobart Town V.D. Land Bound to Sandwich Islands and California. [signed] Carraway
Aug. 11th H.B.M.S. Daphne at this Island. The officers received every kindness from the inhabitants and leave them with very great regret and with sincere and hearty good wishes for their wellfare and prosperity [signed] E. G. Fanshawe


Augt. 19th        Schooner Union 35 days from Port Philip, New South Wales; has on board 60 passengers;, bound for San Francisco California. [signed] Milne Master.
Augt. 23rd. Barque Elizabeth Archer Captain Charles Cobb, thirty six days out from Sydney, bound for California, with eight cabin, twenty intermediate, and one hundred steerage passengers including women and children. Several of the passengers remained on shore for the night and received great hospitality from the happy and highly interesting inhabitants – supplies were easily and readily afforded to all; it was a joyous meeting and tended much to elevate the spirits of the visitors. [signed] J. M. Bowden, passenger for Captain Cobb who is not on shore.
Sept. 14th Bark Dunbarton Mayhew New Bedford 12 1/2 months out 200 bbls.
Aug. 25th Schooner Vansittart, Cap. J. Gill; 9 weeks from Hobart Town, V.D. Land, bound for San Francisco California.


Oct. 17th        Ship Wm Nicol of London out 24 months and 8 days with 1750 S. oil, all well on board bound to the Eastward [signed] Wm. Bushell Master.
Oct. 22nd. Schooner Frederick 32 days from Auckland New Zealand has on board 10 passengers Cargo consisting of Timber Brick Houses and general assortment of Merchandise, have received great kindness from the inhabitants and I consider that should any [?] and provisions wood and Water that the prices are exceedingly moderate, [signed] Hyam Joseph.
Oct. 21st. Schooner Arenaria Capt. Martin, 6 weeks from Hobart Town; has on board i8 passengers and a Cargo of Timber, Houses and general assortment of merchandise. Bound for California.
Nov. 2nd. Barque David Malcolm, Smith, master, 42 days from Launceston, V.D. Land; bound for California with 60 passengers and a cargo of timber, houses &.
Dec. 1st Brig Georgiana Frances. Page master. George W. Rider owner. 40 days from San Francisco California bound to Valparaiso.



Dec. 18th        Barque Pilgrim, London 30 days from Auckland. N.Z. bound for California. While off the island a number of passengers having got into one of the boats, previous to lowering, the davit gave way and precipitated them into the sea; a female child was rapidly disappearing when one of our people sprang from the tafferel and rescued her from a watry grave.
FOR 1849.
American Whale ships five. Merchant one. – A sad failing of from preceeding years.
British whale ships one. Vessels of various classes from the colonies, and bound for California eight. (?)
British ships of war two; – may the opportunity be afforded us of recording a similar event at the close of the coming year.
Number of Vessels in all 18,


Shipping List for 1850
January 15th    Ship Meteor Turner late Keeny left sick at Tahita 20 months out 1100 whale.
January 25th Ship Phenix, Jos. McCleave 29 1/2 months from New Bedford 1700 W. 350 sperm on board bound on the Off Shore ground.
Feb 12th.
Bark Dryad S. C. Fisher 29 months from New Bedford. 43 days from San Francisco Bound to Talouhouno
Feb. 19th Ship Henry Clay S. P. Skinner 28 ms 500 S. Bound in shore.
  "    20th Bark Margaret Brock, McMechan from Hobart Town -- 50 days out bound for San Francisco.
Mar. 2nd Schooner Rose. R. L. Pattison 58 days from Sydney with six passengers for San Francisco [signed] George Mullen for the Captain on board.
April 10th American Ship Geo. & Susan Wright 17 months out 600 sperm.
March 24th Barque Noble Cap. Parker from Auckland New Zealand bound to California
April 11th Barque Colonist from Port Adelaide for San Francisco with 120 passengers Captain Marshall
April 19th Barque Reaper 31 days from Auckland New Zealand with 60 passengers bound for San Francisco. California. [signed] James Rose Master.


April 12th 1850.We cannot leave Pitcairn Island without recording our thanks, not only for the hospitality shewn towards us by the kind hearted inhabitants, but even more for the genuine cordiality of our reception, and the delicacy with which it was manifested. Anxious as we were to he as little a bother to them as possible (being aware that they had but little to spare for themselves) while obliged by necessity to be entirely dependent on them, having been left on shore from our vessel with nothing but the clothes we stood in, we still found it impossible to prevent them from supplying us with even a superfluous abundance. For they would listen to no refusal. We likewise wish to record our sense of the worthiness of the community, of the high tone of feeling, both moral and religious, which universally pervades it and of their loyalty to Queen and country.
With our heartiest good wishes for their welfare, which we hope for a future opportunity of proving in more than words, we bid them a kind farewell
[signed] {Hugh Carleton          [a third unreadable]
             {Walter Brodie
April 21st 1850     
The fact of my being left in common with the above gentlemen and two others (one of them Mr Taylor) upon this island where we had landed with permission of the Captain and being left destitute of everything is recorded above. I have further to state that our property has been carried away and that but for the generous kindness of the inhabitants our position would have been one of inestimable suffering, and as it is our personal losses are most severe, – as for myself I can only say that being so unworthily deserted has caused me delays for which no amends could ever repay me. Before leaving Pitcairn's Island I avail myself


of the few moments left me to say that more sympathy in the sufferings of others could never be shown in any part of the world. I attribute so much Christian charity to the great pains which have been taken by my worthy friend Mr Nobbs in the education of the settlers and in the formation of their minds, and to himself as to the two other European settlers I render my heartfelt thanks for all we have received from them and through their example. I most sincerely hope that those having the more immediate means to do them and the kind hearted community service will do so. Wishing them every prosperity I leave this day by the Sch: Velocity, bearing with me the most affectionate remembrance of their active friendship.
[signed] Charles R. de Thierry.
I beg to add my name and thanks to the above
[signed] Albert H. Taylor.
April 21st Ship Nauticon of Nantucket 19 months out. 500 barrels of sperm [signed] Charles Vieder Master.
1st May 1850 Barque Harriette Nathan Archer master 39 days from Hobarton. Cargo flour lumber vegitables &. for San Francisco [signed] [name un-readable]
April 21st.          Brigantine Velocity 28 days from Sydney with a cargo of flour cheeses and lumber for the Sandwich Islands [signed] McWeigh Masters.


April 25th    Barque Hebe 28 days from San Francisco bound for Valparaiso [signed] Samuel H. Faber. Master.
April 29th Brig Raven from Port Philip with a cargo of Flour and vegetables for San Francisco. California [signed] Wm. Bell. Master.
May 4th Ship Commodore from Auckland with a cargo of timber and potatoes out 30 days bound to San Francisco. California – 125 passengers – all well. [signed] Ja. Broadfoot. Master.
May 4th Brig Halcyon from Launceston V.D. Land out 43 days Laden with Timber Flour and potatoes & and 20 passengers all well. Bound to California. [signed] A. J. Woods. Master.
May 28th Brig Broadaxe from Adelaide South Australia 52 days with 79 passengers for California Ten Tons of Flour and small quantity of timber [signed] H. W. N. Bowen
Having come in the above Brig as surgeon superintendant of the emigrants, I am happy to affording the testimony of the Hospitality good feeling and unbounded kindness of the inhabitants to myself and the ships company and [–? –] amiable and interesting a people I never met as the inhabitants of Pitcairn's Island. The charms of the Island have delighted every one of the ships company and their high intellect and unceasing goodness have afforded me so much pleasure that I can little express my feelings, – to the amiable and estimable Mr. C. H. Nobbs I shall feel for ever indebted and feel my insufficiency in thus testifying to his virtues – [signed] J. Hungerford Sealy M.D. A.B.


June 3rd 1850.   Barque Laura
Bound from Sydney to San Francisco and 39 days from said Port put in to Pitcairn's Island for fresh water &. I left the Barque about 7 o'clock p.m. on the Friday evening in a small ferryman's boat pulled by two seamen and landed about 1/2 past 8 P.M. piloted in by one of the inhabitants was received with every possible kindness and attention shown by the inhabitants remained until Monday and leave this happy place with regrets in not being able to remain sometime longer. But before going I record my sincere thanks to Mr Nobbs, the Majistrate and the inhabitants in general for the kindness I experienced during my stay on the Island hoping that the unanimity of feeling and happiness of the Islanders may ever remain as I found them [signed] Thos. K. Law M.D. D.D.S. Charterer of said vessel.
June 4th Brig Union 54 days from Hobart Town with a cargo of houses, flour &. – for San Francisco [signed] Thomas Arnold Nicols
June 5th Brigantine Dispatch 31 days from Sydney for San Francisco [signed] Wm. F. Plant. Master.
June 9th Barque Artemesia of London 558 tons Register Sailed from Port Nicholson New Zealand 19th May with a cargo of coals sawn Timber Potatoes and other vegetables and sundries for San Francisco [signed] John P. Ridley Comdr. Thomas Waters super Cargo Twenty one days out from Wellington J.P.R.
1850 June 17th Bark Hoogley, Warren to months out 40 bbls. S. Bound on Peru [signed] Albert C. Morse.


Ship Navigator 10 months 50 BB1s. sperm oil, seen whales once in six months, and I am in hopes to see more the next six months.
July 3rd 1850  Ship Potomac of Nantucket 11 months out 300 bls. sp. oil [signed] Charles Grant Master.
July 1850 Ship Henry of Nantucket 24 mos out 550 bbls. S.O. 14 days from Tahiti and bound on the off shore grounds [signed] B. A. Coleman Master.
July 25th --50 Ship Phenix of N. Bedford last from Tahiti nearly 3 years out 1700 Bs. 550 S. bound on the off shore ground. [signed] Joseph M'Cleave Master
August l2th Ship Napoleon of Nantucket 43 ms. i400 bbls. S.O.
Hanoverian Schooner Gesine 27 days from Honululu bound to Valparaiso
Ship Constitution of Nantucket 36 months out 550 bbls sperm [signed] Obed R. Bunker.
Ship Zenas Coffin of Nantucket 22 mos. 600 bbls. sperm. [signed] Chas. G. Arthur.v
Ship Niger of New Bedford 26 1/2 months out 1000 sperm 600 whale from the off Shore ground bound to the Coast of Chili.[signed] James Gray
Sep. 24th Ship Rob. Edwards. New Bedford 15 1/2 mos. 350 spm. for Chili from off shore 8 days. [signed] Nath. Burgess.


Oct. 2nd 1850 Ship Phillippa Dela Noye of Fairhaven 27 months out 500 Bbls. S.O. [signed] Wm. H. Morse
Oct. 1st Ship Navigator 13 months out 150 bbls. sperm. [signed] George Palmer Master.
Oct. 16th Brig Maid of Erin. Cap. Cobborn from Hobart Town Van Diemens Land, bound to San Francisco and California with a general cargo.
Oct. 31st Ship Hercules of New Bedford 12 months 450 sperm. [signed] Cyrus Fisher.
Oct. 31st Ship Java of Fairhaven 12 months out 350 bbls. sperm. bound to the coast of Chili [signed] Wm. B. Thompson Master.
Nov. 5th Ship Phenix of N. Bedford 39 ms. out 1700 W, 750 S. bound to the coast of Chili [signed] Joseph M`Cleave
Nov. 5th Ship John Howland of N. Bedford 36 months 1300 S. bound to the coast of Chili [signed] Timothy Leary
Dec 4th Barque Helen Augusta, N. Bedford 5 months from San Francisco and 40 days from Newcastle bound to San Francisco with coals [signed] Frederick W. Myrick.
Dec 4th Brig Baltimore nine months from New Bedford bound to the Sandwich Islands
Dec. 9th Brigantine Fabius forty two days from San Francisco bound to Valparaiso.


                      Barque Commodore Preble of Lynn 26 mo. out 2800 whale oil 130 sperm bound home [signed] B. B. Lamphier 26th Decr. 1850
Barque Rory O'More of Launceston V.D. Land from that Port bound to San Francisco. out 40 days [signed] Master. G. Brennon. 16th Dec. 1850
Ship Leonora of Boston 45 days from Newcastle (N.S.W.) bound to California [signed] W. Chase. Master.
Summary of the Shipping List for 1850.
American Whale ships 22. Merchant 7.
British vessels of various classes from the Colonies, bound for California 17.
Hanoverian Merchant 1.
Sum Total 47.


Jan. 13th     Ship Alert of New London 7 months out 90 bbls. whale, bound for the Arctic Ocean. [signed] John Bolles Master
Jan. 13th Ship York 35 days from Newcastle, N.S.W. with a cargo of coals for San Francisco [signed] Arthur Master
Jan. 27th Barque Edward of New Bedford 18 1/2 months out 400. [signed] Presbury N. Jud
Feby 1st Ship Mohawk of Nantucket Eight months out no oil and have not seen a sperm whale since leaving home. Bound West. [signed] Oliver C. Swain. Master.
Feb. 14. Ship Potomac of Nantucket 18 months out 540 bbls. on board and bound to San Maasi [signed] Charles Grant. Master
March 4th Brig Halcyon 31 days from Launceston bound for California with a general cargo [signed] – Tullock Master.
March 16th     Brig Marion 31 days from Hobart Town with a general cargo for San Francisco. [signed] Lane Master.
April 2nd. Ship Peruvian of Nantucket 32 1/2 months 250 bbls. bound to the eastward. [signed] G. B. Folger.


Brig Rodolph of San Francisco from Newcastle bound for Panama with coal. [signed] Charles D. Perry. Master
April 23 Brigantine Minerva of Kirkaldy – David Reid Master with a general cargo for San Francisco – California
April 24. Barque Alert of London, Robert Miln Master 31 days from Sydney, with passengers and a general cargo for San Francisco
May 4th Ship Eagle, New Bedford Potter master 22 ms. out 750 bbls. sperm oil.
May 19th the Brig. Broad Axe from California and Valparaiso to Adelaide [signed] John [?], Owner.
Ship Navigator of Nantucket 22 months out 350 Bound to the Eastward.
July 14th 1851. Ship Manchester of Nantucket Alexander H. Coffin Commander 46 days from San Francisco bound to Valparaiso.


July 25th 1851 H.M. Schooner Cockatrice Mr. W. W. Dillon Master Commanding 14 days from Otaheiti to Valparaiso
August 12th 1851 Ship Joseph Meigs of New Bedford 9 1/2 months out 150 bbls. spm. bound Eastward [signed] George H. Allen.
August 24th 1851 Ship Charles Carroll of Nantucket 32 months out 700 bbls. sperm. Bound Eastward [signed] Josiah C. Long.
Oct. 17th 1851 Ship Balaena of New Bedford 26 months out 1100 Bbls. Sperm Bound Eastward [signed] Calvin Dexter
Oct. 27th 1851 Bark Paragon of Nant. 11 months out 120 Bbbls. Sp. Bound Eastward [signed] Thomas Nelson
Nov. 6th 1851. Brig Kate of Bristol G.B. 29 days from Valparaiso bound to Manilla [signed] Arthur Reuss.
November 9th Ship Sharon of Fair Haven 39 months out 1300 on board bound on a cruise [signed] George C. Rule.
Dec. 6th 1851. Bark Andrews N.B. Nye. 18 ms. 850 sperm. to the Eastward.
December 30th 1851 Ship Pacific of New Bedford 38 months out boo Barrels of Sperm [signed] Asa Hoxie.


                      Summary of the Shipping List for 1851
                       British 1 Ship of War.               5 Merchant ships
                       American 3 Merchant.         15 Whale ships
      Total 24.


January 29th Her Majesty's Ship Daedalus, Captain George Wellesley 19 days from Society Islands bound to Valparaiso. –
Having passed two days ashore in this most interesting island I cannot but express the pleasure it has afforded myself as well as all the officers of the Daedalus to have visited it. I have never before had the privilege of witnessing such an example of piety with every Christian virtue attached to it. It does ones heart good to behold and mix amongst this simple and happy people whose lives are a pattern from which everyone must profit. I take leave of them with great regret but with the earnest prayer that it may please the God and Father of us all to continue to them His watchful protection also with a fervent hope that all who visit them will take care in every way to preserve them in the path of rectitude by their –– –– conduct amongst them: [signed] George G. Wellesley
March 1st 1852. Bark J. J. Cobb J. S. Johnson 28 days from San Francisco Bound to Boston by the way of Rio
March 7th Ship Tybee of Stonington, 5 Mos. out 40 bbls. sperm. A. Barber Master.


May 13th Ship Mariner Coffin 33 ms. out 500 bbls. sperm five weeks from Tahiti.
June 25th Bark Superior Luce, New Bedford 30 months out 1150 Sperm 60 Whale.
July 7th Ship Navigator 34 months out 500 bbls. sperm bound to the eastward [signed] George Palmer, Master.
Aug. 3rd Adeline Gibbs of Fair Haven 40 months out 1200 bbls. Sperm – Bound Eastward [signed] Weeks Master.
August 8. H.M.S. Portland 11 days from Borabora the Society Islands, Captain H. Chads with the flag of Rear Admiral Fairfax Moresby bound to Valparaiso.
August 21st Ship Joseph Meigs, New Bedford 22 mos. 550 bbls. Sperm [signed] G. A. Allen
Sept. 5th Barque Raymond 49 days from San Francisco, bound for Valparaiso. [signed] Holt. Master.
Sept 15th Ship Barnstable. 16 months out 300 bbls. Sperm. [signed] G. Corn Master.
Nov. 17th H.M.S. Cockatrice 30 days from Valparaiso W. W. Dillon Master Commanding bound to the coast of Mexico.
December 21st   Ship William Nicol, 15 months out 600 bbls. sperm oil. bound eastward. [signed] William Bushell


                      Ship Almira of Edgartown 54 days from Sandwich Islands bound to Sandwich Islands 19 months out i500 bbls. W.O. [signed] Jon L. Jenks Master.

Summary of the Shipping List for 1852.
British 3 ships of war f! I 1 merchantman, and one whale ship. American 8 whale ships and one merchant

Jany. 4th. Barque Hannah of and from Tahiti bound to Lord Hood's Island to collect Mother of Pearl Shell, – Rede Master.

  "    24th H.B.M. Steamer Virago, Captain James Prevost, ____ days from Callao, remained 8 days and sailed for the Society Islands.

Feb. 5th Barque Endeavour, of New Bedford –– Howland Master; 15 months out 80 barrels sperm oil.

May 15th      H.B.M. S. Portland, Flag ship of Rear Admiral Fairfax Moresby, Henry Chads Esq. Captain; 30 days from Valparaiso; remained five days, and sailed for the Gambier Islands.



Sept. 9th    Brig Lallah Rookh of Sydney 33 days from Valparaiso bound to Sydney Wm. Twohey [?], Master.

  "    27th Whale ship Wm. Nicol of London 24 months out with ____ barrels spm. oil. Wm. BusheII, master.

Oct. 13th Whale ship Hector, Capt. Norton 10 months from New Bedford, U.S. with 700 barrels Sperm oil.


The Pitcairn Island Fund Committee
The S.P.C.K. have in their possession the Records of the Pitcairn Island Fund Committee, consisting of three bound volumes which contain (1) the Minutes of the Proceedings of the Committee and (2) and (3) the Correspondence and other papers relating to its work.

      The Committee first came into existence in December 1852, and its original object was "to provide means for the outfit and passage home of the Rev. G. H. Nobbs, Chaplain of Pitcairn's Island, in December 1852, and for the supply of clothing, furniture and other needful articles for the inhabitants of Pitcairn. Towards this end a subscription . . . was raised by the friends of the cause; and the Authorities of the Admiralty afforded much valuable co-operation . . ."

      The first meeting of the Committee was on December the 3rd, 1852, at the Admiralty, under the Chairmanship of Bishop Blomfield (Bishop of London), the Rev. G. Nobbs being present. The Hon. Secretary of the Committee was the Rev. T. Murray (Secretary of the S.P.C.K.); the trustees were the Bishop of London, Sir Thomas Dyke Acland, Bart., and William Cotton, Esq. Those present at the first meeting were Sir Thomas Acland, the Hon. G. Waldegrave, Captain Fanshawe, R.N., Captain Inglefield, R.N., Arthur Mills, Esq., M.P., William Cotton, Esq., and T. T. Grant, Esq., F.R.S. (afterwards Sir Thomas Grant, K.C.B.). There is a list of names of distinguished persons who gave their patronage to the effort (among them being the Archbishop of Canterbury and Mr. Gladstone), and the list of subscribers is also given.

      The first Report Sheet (dated August 1853) of the work of the Committee says: – "The very scanty resources of Pitcairn's Island, containing a population of 170 persons, within a circuit of four miles and a half, with limited extent and imperfect means of cultivation, and the great need which existed of many articles of daily use, induced some friends of Mr. Nobbs, and of this interesting community, on the recommendation of Rear-Admiral Moresby, to raise a fund of moderate amount towards the passage and outfit of Mr. Nobbs and for the supply of such things as were most pressingly required by the inhabitants. Labourers' and carpenters' tools, a proper bell for the small wooden Church, Communion plate, medicines, two or three clocks, besides clothing of various sorts, some simple articles of household furniture and cooking utensils, together with stores and pro-


visions were required; and it appeared likely that further supplies of some of these things would he required for some years to come. . . . In addition to the above, Mrs. Moresby collected and laid out in clothes for the islanders £20; Mrs. Nutcombe contributed and expended in a Gown and Surplice for the Rev. G. H. Nobhs £5; and a friend at Fulham presented silver Vessels for the Holy Communion, for use in the Church at Pitcairn."

      A Second Report Sheet was issued by the Committee (dated May the 29th, 1857), after the removal of the Pitcairners to Norfolk Island, which, after repeating the aims and objects of the Committee, continues: – "Although the attention of the Committee was, in the first instance, mainly directed to the above mentioned design, the members could not he indifferent to the progress of events in connexion with the state and prospects of the exemplary and amiable community, on whose account the Committee had been formed.

      "The islanders, having suffered from a fear of scarcity, caused by the failure of crops, and having, in May 1853, solicited the aid of Her Majesty's Government in 'transferring them to Norfolk Island or some other appropriate place,' the Government benevolently acceded to their proposition. This was notified to the Committee by letters from Herman Merivale, Esq., Under Secretary of the Colonial Department, December 1853 and April 1854. From that period to the present prompt and courteous communications have from time to time been received by the Committee from the Colonial Office, announcing the measures determined upon for the welfare of the Pitcairn community."

      Reference to the appended "Contents of the Committee's Books" will show that all the correspondence which passed between the Committee on the one side, and on the other the Colonial Office, the Admiralty, and the Lt. Governor of Van Diemens Land, as Tasmania was then called, with reference to these arrangements is still preserved. The Report continues: "Rear-Admiral Moresby, now Vice-Admiral Sir Fairfax Moresby, K.C.B., having arrived in England in 1854, after a recent visit to Pitcairn, the Committee were enabled with the greater accuracy to ascertain the condition of the island and the wants of the people. The Admiral had three times visited them and acquired the entire confidence and attachment of all the inhabitants. It will be remembered that to his generosity and good judgement was owing the voyage of their pastor and teacher Mr. Nobbs to England for Ordination in 1852."

      The Government was well advised in the matter of the transfer of the Pitcairn Islanders to Norfolk Island and in the steps taken


for their welfare in that island by Sir William Denison, who had arrived in Van Diemen Land as Lt. Governor in 1847 and towards the end of 1854 was appointed Governor of New South Wales. "The measures of the Government having been finally matured for the conveyance of the people to Norfolk Island in the Spring of 1856, the Committee had opportunities of knowing the exceeding attention which was shown by all concerned, and which extended itself to the minutest details, for the successful issue of this remarkable movement. And the Committee must add that all the credit for the plan and execution of the transfer is due to the British Government. The preparatory step taken by the despatch of H.M.S. Juno, Captain J. S. Fremantle, R.N., to Pitcairn's Island, for the purpose of making enquiries, and giving information, was conducted by that officer with great kindness and discretion."

      Reference to the Minute Book and also to the Correspondence will show that an attempt was made to obtain permission for this visit of enquiry to be carried out "from the Pacific rather than the Australian station," so as to secure an officer known to and in possession of the confidence of the Islanders; and the Cockatrice, commanded by Captain Dillon, from Valparaiso, was first entrusted with the mission. Later it was found that the Cockatrice was laid up and would require to be specially equipped if employed, and under the circumstances the original "instructions for conducting the operation from Sydney have taken their course." The Report continues, "The vessel engaged for carrying the transfer into effect was the Morayshire, Captain J. Mathers; and during the whole of the passage the real interests and personal comforts of the people, young and old, of both sexes, were consulted in the most tender and scrupulous manner in all respects. Acting Lieutenant G. W. Gregory, of the Juno, performed his part of Superintendent in a manner which amply justified Captain Fremantle's choice of so intelligent and humane an officer for the task. Thus in the removal of 194 persons in an Emigrant Ship on a voyage of upwards of three thousand miles, occupying thirty five days, it does not appear too much to say, that no one could have desired a better kind of treatment for members of his own family.

      "The conduct of the respected Chaplain of Norfolk Island, the Rev. G. H. Nobbs, throughout the whole of this transaction, has confirmed the feelings of confidence and esteem which the Committee had previously entertained for him, and which he had earned by more than a quarter of a century's faithful and efficient service amongst the flock at Pitcairn. He not only attended to the religious wants of the voyagers, but all the medical duties likewise devolved upon him. These were of no


light nor ordinary kind; so severely did many suffer from continued sea-sickness. . . ."

      Mr. Nobbs' own account of the voyage will be found filed in the Minute Book, being a printed copy of a letter addressed to Mr. Murray, written from Norfolk Island (September 1856). It is in effect a diary of the voyage, arrival and landing, and occurrences up to that date, with a preliminary account of the departure from Pitcairn and the happenings previous to departure, including the calls of the Dido and the Juno. The Report then continues: "All were landed securely at their new abode, on the 18th of June, 1856; a grand result which was much facilitated by Captain H. M. Denham, R.N., and the officers and men of H.M. Surveying Ship Herald; that vessel having been detained some days by Captain Denham on the spot for the purpose of giving assistance. The first act of the Community, on assembling after the landing, was to offer a devout Thanksgiving to God for their prosperous voyage.

      "The Committee have learned that the expense wisely and liberally incurred by the Government in effecting the conveyance of the people from Pitcairn to Norfolk Island was 5,580 pounds. . . .

      "Sir W. Denison wrote to the Hon. Sec. of the Committee a letter dated Sydney, 14th of July 1856, saying that thenceforward the islanders would not require any charitable assistance. 'They are now,' he said, 'occupants of a most fertile island, with stock of all kinds, with tools and appliances for all their immediate wants.' His Excellency stated his intention of exercising a careful supervision over the people who may be permitted to land and reside among the new inhabitants."

      In the Correspondence (Book III) will be found Sir William Denison's despatches, regarding his visit to Norfolk Island, description of the buildings, allotment of land, and residences (including the Governor's House), and a full account of the settlement; also the Census for 1857. The Report goes on: "The Rev. Mr. Nobbs has written at great length from Norfolk Island. In a letter dated October the 15th, 1856" (this letter is preserved among the documents) "he gave a circumstantial account of two visits paid to the island by the Bishop of New Zealand. It appeared that on the last of these occasions his Lordship had, on Sunday the 7th of September 1856, confirmed 86 persons being the whole of the adult population, with the exception of three, who were unable to attend. The Bishop had also brought the people a large and acceptable supply of provisions. Mrs. Selwyn had remained two months on the island during the Bishop's absence, and had in various ways afforded most kind and valuable service to the female portion of the Community."


      An account of this unique Confirmation is given by Mr. Nobbs in the above letter, in which he says, "Well, I repeat again it was a most interesting sight, and one which I have often desired, but never expected to see fulfilled. The women arranged in rows in their white habiliments looked like a bevy of nuns; but I was well sure that went no further than the outward appearance; they were also as barefooted as Carmelites, but not from any superstitious penchant, but merely because they had no shoes to wear. Everything being planned in methodical order by the good Bishop, the Evening Service was read by the Rev. Mr. Pattison; after another excellent sermon by his lordship, illustrating the duties of the Christian profession, the Confirmation began by ten persons standing up in parallel lines of five each, without stepping from the place where they had been seated. . . . I am sure it would have gratified our many friends could they have been present and seen parents kneeling by the side of their children, many of whom were also parents; and in one instance a great-grandmother was accompanied by four granddaughters, three of whom had families of their own. . . . The number of persons confirmed amount to 86, including all ages from Elizabeth Young (daughter of Mills of the Bounty and the oldest person in the community, she being about sixty-six) to Andrew Christian aged fifteen, the great grandson of Fletcher Christian." The "Mr. Pattison" here mentioned was afterwards the well-known Bishop Patteson. Perhaps Bishop Selwyn's own account of the Confirmation may not be out of place. It was written in a letter to his son dated from Auckland, September 1856. he writes: "I have just returned from Norfolk Island, where I held on Sunday the 7th of September one of the most remarkable Confirmations, I should think, in the history of the Church. The whole adult population of the Pitcairn Islanders, except three who were too feeble to attend, presented themselves to me in nine classes to be examined and Confirmed. Your dear Mother had carefully prepared all the women during two months that she resided on the Island. The eldest of the candidates – a woman more than seventy years of age – was a daughter of John Adams, the last survivor of the mutineers of the Bounty. Almost all the candidates were connected in some degree of relationship with men who, if they had been captured, would have been hanged at the yard-arm of a man-of-war, and who died violent deaths, the result of intoxication, jealousy, and every other evil passion. And yet the grace of God enabled John Adams to sow a seed in the hearts of the children among whom he was left alone in the year 1800, which bore this rich harvest in 1856, when eighty five of his children, grandchildren, sons in law, or daughters in law,


or foster children, whom he had adopted, were Confirmed by me . . . And to make the scene more striking, the service was performed in the Convict Chapel. . . The Chapel opened into the Prison Yard, set round with every kind of cell for every class of criminal; in every corner heaps of rusty fetters and cast off garments marked with the broad arrow . . . and all the signs of misery and sin made more striking by the horrid silence of the solitary cells . . Close by this visible type of everything that is most hateful in sin and its consequences, might he heard the song of praise in which every voice joined; and on the 7th of September eighty-five persons knelt before the Lord's Table to receive strength to fulfil their baptismal promise. . . ." (Life of Bishop Selwyn, Vol. II. Also in Armstrong's History of the Melanesian Mission).

      The last meeting of the Committee was apparently on May the 18th, 1838, when a letter from the Earl of Harrowby (who was unable to he present) was read, in which he wrote " . . . I cannot but think that our simple course is to place what funds remain to us in the hands of the Government of New South Wales, to whose care the Pitcairn Islanders are now entrusted by the Government, and to dissolve ourselves as a Committee. We were called into existence for a definite purpose; that purpose is now attained, and it is well that we should not mix ourselves up with other questions in which the welfare of the Pitcairners is not the only object, though connected with them ... ". (The original Ietter is among the documents.) A letter of 14 pages (the original of which is among the documents) was also read from the Bishop of New Zealand (Bishop Selwyn) giving an account of a visit to Norfolk Island (November 1837) and stating his views and opinions with regard to the inhabitants and his relations with them. The committee agreed, however, that these matters did not come within their province and that the points could not be taken up by them. But in the lapse of time between the reception of the Bishop's letter and the meeting of the Committee Mr. Murray had replied to the Bishop, which reply was also read. A passage in the reply runs: "The Committee have not met since November, but your last letter is too important not to be communicated on the first occasion in my power to the members, for whose information, as well as my own, you say it is intended. It is not for me to enter upon the matters to which you call attention in the earlier pages, especially as to what is (or in your Lordship's view should be) the Ecclesiastical status of Norfolk Island; and I venture to remark that these seem to me to be subjects scarcely for the consideration of the Pitcairn Fund Committee. . . .". While the subject was considered to he irrelevant to the work of the


Committee, there is a great deal of correspondence preserved (largely autograph letters) regarding the founding of the Church in Norfolk Island and the Melanesian Mission, including letters from Bishop Selwyn, Sir William Denison (Governor of New South Wales), Sir T. Dyke Acland, Bart., and the Rev. C. J. Abraham, all showing great divergence of opinion and disagreement as to what tended to the welfare of the Pitcairners. Sir W. Denison attributed to the Bishop's efforts to establish his authority in Norfolk Island much of the dissatisfaction which ultimately resulted in a drifting back to Pitcairn of some of the islanders. In a letter addressed to Mr. Murray in November 1858 he says: "I am sorry to say that I hear of some discord and division among the people, which I am afraid that I can trace to the efforts made by the Bishop of New Zealand to estahlish his authority there by the creation of a party; of all the curses which plague society party spirit is the worst, it is at the root of all our divisions and has its root in selfishness. . . ." .

      The discord to which reference is here made so greatly affected the history of the Pitcairners in Norfolk Island that some explanation is desirable. The facts, as may be gathered from E. S. Armstrong's History of the Melanesian Mission, were as follows.

      Selwyn in 1841 had been consecrated first Bishop of New Zealand, with a somewhat indefinite charge also covering a large part of the Western Pacific Islands. From 1848 he had begun to visit as far away as the Solomon Islands, and thence to bring young Melanesians for instruction during the warmer New Zealand season (from October to May) at Auckland, such instructed natives being returned as missionaries to their far distant island home.

      In 1856 – the year in which the Pitcairners were taken to Norfolk Island – it occurred to the Bishop that that island, lying practically midway between the Solomon Islands and New Zealand, with a climate and general conditions which made it suitable for residence all the year round of both native pupils and their European teachers, would be an ideal position for the training quarters of the intended Melanesian Mission. Selwyn, therefore, in that same year (1856) visited Sydney "in his hope of obtaining permission to establish the headquarters of the Mission at Norfolk Island." But the Governor of New South Wales "refused even to allow him (Selwyn) to place a chaplain there. He dreaded the influence of the savage Melanesians on Mr. Nobbs' carefully guarded and childlike flock." As a matter of fact, the Governor, who, in communicating to the Pitcairn folk the benevolent intention of the Government to establish them in Norfolk Island, had inadvertently left them under the impression that they were to he the sole occupants of their new


island home, found a difficulty in sanctioning the settlement of any other body.

      For the time being, therefore, the Bishop's hopes of establishing headquarters at Norfolk Island were frustrated. He, however, continued to call at the island on his journeys between New Zealand and the Solomon Islands; and even, as has been seen, on one occasion left Mrs. Selwyn there for two months in place of the forbidden chaplain, to assist in preparing Mr. Nobbs' flock for Confirmation. It might also be noted that Patteson was consecrated Bishop of the separated Diocese of Melanesia in 1861, and in 1864 the New South Wales Government requested the new Bishop "to take the Pitcairners at Norfolk Island under his supervision, thus withdrawing that opposition on the part of the Government which had prevented the original settlement there." It makes this circumstance the more interesting that, in one of his letters to Mr. Murray, Bishop Selwyn definitely named Patteson as the chaplain he had proposed to place on Norfolk Island.

      Even from their first coming together, the relations between the general body of the Pitcairn folk under Mr. Nobbs and the Bishop's folk had proved amicable; though a certain number of the Pitcairners never lost the feeling of discomfort at finding themselves under strange ecclesiastical conditions, and still more their feeling of disappointment at not finding themselves sole masters of the "land of promise" into which they had been brought. To this cause in part was due the secession and return to Pitcairn of a malcontent minority.

      In 1857 the Committee had been enlarged, the members being (those marked with a * being also members of the S.P.C.K.) the Treasurers; the Earl of Harrowby; the Bishop of Oxford; the Lord Auckland, Bishop of Bath and Wells*; the Bishop of New Zealand*; the I Eon. George Waldegrave; Sir G. Grey; A. Stafford. Esq., M.P.; Vice-Admiral Sir Fairfax Moresby; Captain E. Fanshawe, R.N.*; Archdeacon Grant*; T. T. Grant, Esq.; the Rev. Ernest Hawkins, B.D.*; Captain Inglefield, R.N.; Captain Prevost, R.N.; Herman Merivale, Esq.; Arthur Mills, Esq., M.P.*; T. F. Elliot, Esq.; Fortescue Moresby, R.N.

      In 1858-59 certain persons were sent out from England to supplement the Norfolk Island community, and this was the cause of a great deal of discussion in Committee, and correspondence with the Government Emigration Board, which is now filed in these volumes. The S.P.C.K. Report for 1859 contains the following entry: – "Since the arrival of these despatches certain qualified persons of good character who were required for the community on Norfolk Island have been sent


thither, under instructions received from Sir Will: Denison, the Governor, namely, Mr. Rossiter, a schoolmaster, who is also to act as storekeeper, a wheelwright, smith, and millwright, and a mason and plasterer. These persons sailed from Plymouth on the Palmyra in February 1859. The Society took the opportunity of forwarding by this vessel some books . . . for the use of the members of the community in whom so much interest has been taken for so many years. Intelligence has been received, in a letter from the Governor dated July 7th, 1859, of the arrival of the emigrants at Norfolk Island. The amount of their passage money to Sydney had been defrayed from the Pitcairn Committee Fund."

      No final statement of accounts appears to have been made by the Committee; nor is there any record of their formally being dissolved. But there seem to have been no further meetings after that of May 18th, 1858, at Lincoln's Inn Fields, when the suggestion of the Earl of Harrowby (letter above) was approved and it was agreed that the Committee should not be called together again "except for some special cause." It is to be presumed that they handed over any surplus funds remaining in their hands, as suggested, to the New South Wales Government. It is somewhat difficult to arrive at how much money the Fund dealt with from first to last. But the original subscription list (given in the Committee's first Report) amounted to £925, of which a sum of £5oo was invested.

      Reference has been made to the "drifting back to Pitcairn" of some of the people very shortly after their arrival at Norfolk Island. With regard to this, the Report of the S.P.C.K. for 1860 has the following entry: -- "Letters have been received from the Rev. G. H. Nobbs, Chaplain at Norfolk Island, and Sir W. Denison, Governor of New South Wales and Norfolk Island. His Excellency's letter dated July 7th, 1859, written on board H.M.S. Cordelia, described the visit which he had just made to the community on the Island. Two families, viz., Mayhew Young and his wife and seven children, and Moses Young, his wife and five children, had left on December 2nd, 1858, for Pitcairn's Island, and some other families had expressed their intention of following them. Both Sir William Denison and Mr. Nobbs had done their best to discourage this hazardous measure. . . . In a letter dated October 20th, 1859, the Rev. G. H. Nobbs alluded, with expressions of deep regret, to the departure of the two families to Pitcairn. Of these persons, sixteen in number, the parents were the only persons above the age of fifteen."

      An interesting account of the return is given in a newspaper article, "The Mutineers of the Bounty," written in 1881 by


Rosalind Young, one of the descendants of the mutineer of that name, and a native of Pitcairn. The following is an extract from the article: "After the removal of the former inhabitants of this island to Norfolk Island, which was successfully accomplished June 8th, 1856, some of the people were strongly possessed with a desire to return to Pitcairn Island, which had for them greater attractions, although isolated, than the superior advantages that Norfolk Island had; they therefore left the latter place on December 2nd, 1858, – the love of the home of their childhood overcoming every other feeling. The first party that returned was composed of sixteen persons in two families. One consisted of William Mayhew Young and his wife Margaret, and their seven children, six of whom were by the woman's former husband, Matthew McCoy, who was accidentally shot while in the act of discharging the Bounty's gun, when firing a farewell salute to H.M.S. Virago, in January 1853. He left nine children; the two eldest being married remained with their husbands in Norfolk Island, and the next daughter stayed behind with them also. The other family that returned consisted of Moses Young and his wife Albina, and their children, five in number. Of the younger persons who then returned, the eldest was only fifteen years of age. A schooner called Mary Ann was chartered to bring them here, and leaving Norfolk Island they reached their destination safely on January 17th, 1859, after a passage of forty-five days. . . . It was about this time – 1863 – that preparations were being made in Norfolk Island for the second party to return, which number originally far exceeded that of the first; but when almost everything was ready some withdrew. The vessel chartered to convey them was a small schooner, – the St. Kilda. The emigrants were twenty-seven persons, two of whom – Mrs. Elizabeth Young and Mrs. Hannah Young – were daughters respectively, of John Mills and John Adams, mutineers of the Bounty. They were grand looking old women, and queenly in their bearing . . . Mrs. Elizabeth Young was the oldest inhabitant of Pitcairn Island, and is now, at the time I write, still living and carries well her ninety years. Of the others who returned, were Thursday O. Christian and his wife Mary (daughter of Mrs. Elizabeth Young) and with them their nine children. . . . The others who returned were Simon Young and Mary his wife and their eight children (a son of theirs, the first born, was with Bishop Patteson, of the Melanesian Mission); Robert and Lydia Buffett, and an American, Samuel Warren, who married the eldest daughter of Thursday and Mary Christian on the eve of their departure from Norfolk Island and agreed to cast in his lot with them; Mrs. Hannah Young, Simon's mother,


who left all the rest of her children and grandchildren in Norfolk Island to accompany her younger son to her early home."

      Of the remaining documents in these volumes Captain Bligh's Pamphlet (No. 21 in Vol. III) requires special mention. It is a manuscript copy (39 pages quarto) of a pamphlet which has on its forefront the title "An Answer to Certain Assertions contained in the Appendix to a Pamphlet entitled 'Minutes of the Proceedings of the Court Martial held at Portsmouth August 12th 1792, on Ten Persons charged with Mutiny on board His Majesty's Ship the Bounty,'" by Captain William Bligh. London. Printed for G. Nicol, Bookseller to His Majesty, Pall Mall 1794.

      It contains Bligh's own description of all the persons concerned; copies of letters and other testimonies of the various persons concerned, as to what happened before and during the Mutiny, all in favour of and exonerating Bligh, and mostly letters addressed to Bligh. It is handwritten, in one hand throughout. There is nothing accompanying it to give any clue as to how or why it came into the possession of the S.P.C.K., or what is its connexion with the other papers, with which it has no apparent concern. It is possible that the Rev. T. Murray in his book (12th Ed., p. 32) is referring to it when he says he is inserting some particulars "which he is able to furnish from a rare but authentic document." The only printed copy of the pamphlet which has so far been traced is in the British Museum. See Appendix III.

List of Contents of the Three Volumes of the Pitcairn Island Fund Committee.

      Volume I. Minutes of Proceedings of the Committee (comprising the first and the last meetings).

      At the end of this volume, bound into it, are the following papers:

      (1) The first and second Report Sheets of the Committee, dated respectively August 1853 and May 1857.

      (2) Twenty printed pages, being the account by the Rev. G. H. Nobhs of the voyage of the Pitcairners to Norfolk Island.

      (3) Twenty-four printed pages of correspondence between Sir W. Denison and the Bishop of New Zealand relating to Norfolk Island and its inhabitants, during 1857.

      (4) An autograph letter from the Bishop of New Zealand to the Rev. T. Murray (dated from Cuddesden, March 1854) putting forth some matters he desired the Committee to discuss.

      (5) Autograph letter from the Earl of Harrowby.

      (6) Two autograph letters from Sir W. Denison to the Rev.


T. Murray with regard to his proposals for the welfare of the Norfolk Island Community, dated Nov. 1858 and May 1859.

      (7) On a loose sheet (now filed in this book) the original MS. of an Address from the Pitcairn Islanders to Queen Victoria, 1853.

      Volumes II and III. contain correspondence covering the same dates as the Minutes. Volume II is composed almost entirely of original Ietters bound together. For convenience, these have been grouped here under their subject headings. A list of names of some of the more important persons concerned in the correspondence is given separately at the end. The numbers refer to the order in which the papers are filed.

      (1) Arrangements at Norfolk Island -- 1, 3, 17, 18, Vol. II

      (2) Arrangements for the transfer of the Pitcairners thither and the providing of a vessel (including the Reports of the Dido's visit to Pitcairn (1853) and the Juno's (Captain Fremantle) visits to Pitcairn and Norfolk Island (1856) and Consul Toup Nicolas' Report to the F.O. of his visit to Pitcairn (1853) ) -- 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 12, 13, 15, 16, Vol. II

      (3) Arrangements for sending out extra "Settlers" from England to Norfolk Island, in accordance with Sir W. Denison's recommendations, to supplement the settlement, in particular a schoolmaster -- 21-40, VoI. II, and 1-5, Vol. III.

      (4) Regarding the Rev. G. H. Nobbs' expenses for coming to England -- 5, 10, Vol. III.

      (5) Reports from Norfolk Island: Extracts from Sir W. Denison's Journal of his visit (80 pages MSS.); on the inhabitants' health: description of the buildings: land cultivation: allotment of ground and assigning of official residences: duplicate (signed) despatches from Sir W. Denison and a Government Gazette; all during 1857. Also the census taken 1857 -- 26, Vol. II, and 6-11, 14, 15, 16, Vol. III.

      (6) Correspondence regarding the Ecclesiastical controversy, including MS. copy of the Bishop of New Zealand's Memorandum, with Sir W. Denison's marginal remarks; and covering this, an autograph letter from Captain Fortescue Moresby -- 17-20, 25, 27, 28-33, Vol. II, and 3, 4, 6, Vol. III.

      Miscellaneous Papers which cannot be classified with above:

      Six pages of MS. without heading or reference, being a description of the landing on Norfolk Island and the division of land -- 41, Vol. II.

      Extracts (MS.) from (apparently) a later Pitcairn Island Register, 1853 -- 8, Vol. II

      Fourteen pages (double) autograph letter from the Rev. G. H. Nobbs from Norfolk Island to the Rev. T. Murray, dates Jan. 1st; July 25th; Sept. 23rd; Oct. 13th, 1857. Being a running journal of Norfolk Island -- 23, Vol. II.


      Autograph Letter from John Adams, jun. (Norfolk Island), to the Rev. T. Murray, Oct. 1857 -- 24, Vol. III.

      Eleven printed pages of a speech (apparently by Sir W. Denison, but name, place and date are not given), with regard to Norfolk Island and the inhabitants -- 20, Vol. II.

      Admiral Bligh's Pamphlet – 21, Vol. II.

      List of names of some of the Correspondents:

      The Duke of Newcastle, Secretary of State for the Colonial and War Departments, 1852-4.

      Sir William Denison, Royal Engineers, Lt. Governor of Van Diemens Land (Tasmania), where he was appointed in 1846; at the end of 1854 he was appointed Governor of New South Wales (and of Norfolk Island) till 1861; then Governor of Madras.

      Herman Merivale, Esq., Permanent Under Secretary of State, Colonial Office.

      Fred. Peel, Esq., M.P., and John Ball, Esq., M.P., Parliamentary Under Secretaries of State, Colonial Office.

      The Bishop of New Zealand, Bishop Selwyn.

      Sir Thomas Dyke Acland, Bart.

      The Rev. C. J. Abraham, Archdeacon of Auckland, afterwards Bishop of Wellington.

      Earl of Carnarvon, Parliamentary Under Secretary of State, Colonial Office, at later dates twice Secretary of State.

      Sir F. Rogers, Land and Emigration Commissioner; afterwards succeeded Mr. Herman Merivale as Perm. Under Sec., Col. Off. On retirement created Lord Blachford.

      Toup Nicolas, Esq., H.B.M. Consul at Raiatea.

      Captain Fortescue Moresby, R.N.


Sir Everard im Thurn

      On March 8th, 1822, two American whaleships – the Russell of New Bedford, Captain Arthur, and another the name of which is unknown, but the Master of which was one Arcy, were lying off Pitcairn Island, taking in wood, water and fresh provisions, and in very friendly relations with the islanders. Whether before that date other whaleships had called at the island since Captain Mayhew Folger of the American merchantman Topaz first found the settlement, is uncertain. The Sultan, of Boston, Massachusetts, Captain Reynolds, which is recorded as having called there in 1817, seems not to have been a whaleship.

      In the year after the visit of the Russell the Island Register and Shipping List were begun; and from these documents, largely helped out by Alexander Starbuck's History of the American Whale Fishery, it may be ascertained that of well above four hundred recorded calls made by vessels of all kinds at Pitcairn Island, between 1823 and 1853, the years during which the Shipping List was kept, more than three-fourths of these calls were by ships from the busy little shipping ports of New England. Most of these American vessels were whaleships; the others – that is, those not accounted for by Starbuck – were probably either merchantmen engaged in the China trade or such as were in search of seal skins, bêche-de-mer, or other South Sea produce.

      Many of these New England whaleships called at Pitcairn more than once during a single voyage – which might last for two or even three years; and in some cases the same ship repeated its visit during subsequent voyages. For instance, the Navigator of Nantucket was at Pitcairn six times. The first time was during the voyage on which she left her home port on July 3rd, 1845, and returned on July 5th, 1849, having been at Pitcairn in 1846 and 1847. She left home again on August 27th, 1849, and got back on June i9th, 1854, having called at the Island four times, twice in 1850, and once in each of the years 1851, and 1852. Again, the Pacific left her home port, New Bedford, on November end, 1836, and returned May 25th, 1840, having called at Pitcairn in 1839. She Ieft home again August i5th, 1840, and returned


May 1st, 1844, having been at Pitcairn in 1842. She started again on October 21st, 1844, and returned home on July 5th, 1848, having been at Pitcairn in 1846 and 1847. And on yet another voyage she started on November 11th, 1848, and got home on July 22nd, 1852, having been at Pitcairn in 1851.

      The Rose of Nantucket, like the Navigator, called six times, and the George Washington of Wareham and the Phenix of New Bedford made five calls at Pitcairn. Eleven other ships called more than once.

      Commander Charles Wilkes, of the United States Exploring Expedition which was engaged in very important survey work in the Pacific Ocean during the years 1838-1842, in his Report (published at Philadelphia in 1845), has put on record (Vol. V, Ch. XII, pp. 457-502) a detailed account of the busy whale-fishery carried on from New England at the very time when these ships were resorting to Pitcairn Island. He says that the New England whaling fleet then numbered 675 vessels, mostly of 400 tons burden, the majority of which cruised in the Pacific.

      Wilkes enumerates, and shows on a special Map, .chat were then regarded as the principal whaling-grounds within the Pacific Ocean. The more important of these have been transferred to the sketch map at the end of this book.

      The "On-shore ground" lay along and not far from the coast of Chili and Peru, approximately from the island of Juan Fernandez to the Galapagos Islands; and the "Off-shore ground" was somewhat to the north-westward, thus slightly more " off " the South American coast. Special whaling grounds were recognised about the Hawaiian, Society, Samoan, and Fijian groups; and Wilkes says there was yet another "in the neighbourhood of the Kingsmill group," that is, between the Gilbert (or Kingsmill) and the Ellice groups. But the most important of the fields stretched across the South Pacific from slightly north-westward of Valparaiso to the Kermadec islands – thus actually or nearly covering Pitcairn. North of the Equator there was a much used whaling ground off the Californian coast, and another along the extreme " North West Coast " of America. Still on the Asiatic side of the North Pacific, there was a fishing ground off the coast of Japan, between it and the Bonin islands; and in the south-west there was the so-called "Middle-ground" between Australia and New Zealand, and yet another off the eastern coast of New Zealand.

      Wilkes adds: "These, it will be seen, embrace a large field, and it might be supposed that a ship could hardly miss finding the animals. Such, however, is not the case. A vessel may visit all these places and yet return home 'a clean ship,' if she happened to be out of season. It appears from experience that


whales in their migrations congregate in the above-named places at certain times of the year, and those who are acquainted with the business endeavour to be early on the cruising grounds."

      Alexander Starbuck, in the book already named, provides from the Shipping Lists of the many New England ports if not a complete yet a very full list of each voyage of the " whalers" from these home ports, distinguishing in each case to which ocean each ship went, the date of its leaving, and of its re-entry – if it did return – the owners' name and that of the Master, the tonnage, the harvest it brought back from the sea, and in some cases its after fate. Particulars of almost every whaleship recorded in the Shipping List as having visited Pitcairn may be found in Starbuck's book.

      It is evident that these whaleships from New England had adopted the habit of calling for rest and refreshment at this lonely island so conveniently situated close to, if not actually within the most important of the Pacific whaling grounds, and at a point which these ships must frequently have passed in following the tracks along which the shoals of whales moved, according to season, from one feeding ground to another.

      That there are comparatively few recorded instances of " whalers " other than those of American nationality resorting to Pitcairn is probably due to the fact that the whaling business of others than the New Englanders was at the period under consideration carried on chiefly in the waters between New Zealand and the Antarctic Islands and elsewhere than on the outskirts of the Central and Eastern Pacific.

      Doubtless the Pitcairn folk's homely character and ideas must have been especially congenial to the New Englanders of those days. The passage – already quoted – from the log of the Russell of New Bedford as to the warning posted on the ship as it approached Pitcairn in 1822, enjoining the crew to respect and treat the Islanders well, is important evidence on this point; and the rest of the entry in the same log, especially as it is not readily available elsewhere, affords an interesting picture of the sympathetic relations at once established between the Islanders and their New England visitors. It reads as follows: – "Ship Russell, March 9th – Pleasant weather; at 2. p.m. went on shore accompanied by Captain Arcy, in his boat: as the islanders' boat wanted repairing, we took her on deck, and before the next morning had her done, to the grateful satisfaction of our new friends. The islanders went on shore in one of our boats, Captain Arcy taking five, and we the other five; our landing was effected much easier under the skilful direction of our new pilots than could otherwise have been done. Previous to leaving the ship, bread and butter was put on the table, and they were


invited to eat; but they refused, alleging that it was their fast day; however, after some importunity and enquiry whether I thought it w-ould be any harm to them, and being assured in the negative, they partook, though slightly, and not till after they had implored a blessing. And after their repast was finished, a hymn and prayers were offered with great devotional propriety. On our landing, the Hill of Difficulty was to be ascended – a job I could not myself have performed in less than two or three hours: it was done in much less time with the assistance of a steady young man named Robert Young, Al ho helped me almost every step. When we arrived at the top, we appeared to be at least 30o feet above the face of the water; having gone up a zigzag path the boat appeared almost under us. We were there met by the venerable Governor, John Adams, who was attended by most of the women and children of the island, and were welcomed to their shores in the most artless yet dignified manner. After resting awhile we were then invited to the village, about half a mile distant, through groves of cocoa nuts and other trees of a large growth, which made an excellent shade. Although we came to the village, which was situated on a gentle declivity, with a sufficient distance between the houses for the drying and bleaching of their cloth, the beautiful prospect, regularity, and neatness of the houses, with the joyous and double welcome of its truly hospitable inhabitants, made the spot enchanting. Soon after our arrival a dinner was served up, consisting of two roast pigs, fowls, yams, and plantains; but as they declined partaking with us, on account of its being their fast day, we concluded to wait till near sunset, at which time they would be at liberty to join us; and when they thought it seasonable, we all sat down together, but not till the chief of our kind entertainers had asked a blessing in a very impressive manner. The return of thanks appeared not less impressive in the minds of the community, who were like olive branches around the table. After spending the evening – if not the feast of reason, at least we had the flow of soul, beds were prepared for Captain Arcy and myself, and J. Adams, having taken a bed in the same chamber, though it was not in his own house, we conversed till midnight. Early in the morning, our kind female friends were actively employed getting breakfast for us, which was ready by seven o'clock, consisting of fowls boiled with yams, which make an excellent soup; it was good, and we eat heartily. For our dinner we were treated with baked pigs and roasted goats, with a large quantity of yams, plantains, &. Our people were equally well provided for. At three o'clock I returned to the shore to go on board, receiving the same kind attention in descending the mountain which was paid when going up it. We got into


our boats with feelings of gratitude, which I was unable to express, towards these good people, but not till they made me promise to come on shore again before we left the island."

      "10th, 11th and 12th – Still lying off and on, a part of the crew on shore, relieving each other by turns. On the 12th I again went on shore and was received and treated with every attention. Before noon I returned on board after a more affectionate leave than I ever did anywhere except my home. I was accompanied on board by John Adams, Dolly Young, and Mary Ann Christian. Having received from them a supply of young cocoa nuts and fowls, and made such presents as they wished for and we could spare from the ship's stores, we gave them a part of bolt of light duck, one axe, two hatchets, four boat-knives, a bag of bread, a few bottles of wine, a roll of old canvass, a little grindstone, and a watch. I Iaving now accomplished the business for which we came, our friends, after wishing us a good voyage and safe return home, went on shore. Captain Arcy not having finished watering, concluded to stay another day or .two, and was anxious for us to stay till he was ready, but I was unwilling to lose more time.

      "Before we leave Pitcairn Island it will not be improper to make a few observations. The time and manner of its colonization are to most general readers well known. John Adams and six Otaheitan women are all that is left of the Bounty. Forty nine have been born on the island, two of whom are dead, which leaves 53 persons on the island, now all in good health without a single exception. There are about eleven active young men, who are ready and willing at all times to assist a ship's crew in, or anything else the island affords. John Adams assures us, and from what we ourselves saw we have no reason to disbelieve him, that the island was inhabited before themselves, but at what period it is difficult to conjecture. They found after their arrival, many places where houses have stood, burying places, and images representing a human figure, with other indubitable marks that they were not the first possessors of Pitcairn Island. It is, however, certain that the aborigines left it at no recent period as the trees growing on the house spots could not have arrived to their present size in less than 100 years, perhaps 500."

      Having left Pitcairn Island on March lath, 1822, the Russell got back to New Bedford, her home port, which she had left in August 182o, on October 7th, 1822.

      Though the present publication purports to treat of events in Pitcairn Island only up to the time that the whole of the inhabitants were removed to Norfolk Island, in 1856, it may here be noted that visits to the Island by whaleships from New


England are mentioned, though not in great detail, in the very interesting but not well-known hook by Rosalind Amelia Young, a native of Pitcairn, in which is told what happened in the Island after some of the descendants of the original Bounty folk had found their way back from Norfolk Island to their beloved island home.




This Catalogue of the Publications and Documents regarding Pitcairn Island (covering the period dealt with in the present hook) has, for the sake of greater usefulness, been grouped into periods, and each period has been arranged in chronological order. Thus of necessity, some of the publications (which deal with the whole story) appear in more than one of the groups.

I. (A). THE "BOUNTY" AND THE MUTINY, 1787-1790.
  1. 1. "A Narrative of the Mutiny on H.M.S. Bounty and subsequent voyage of 2,400 miles in the ship's boat from the Friendly Islands to Timor." By Lieutenant William Bligh. Published by George Nicol, 1790.

    This is Bligh's own account of the Mutiny in book forai. It is mainly concerned with the subsequent voyage in the open boat. But it contains the exact description and naines of the mutineers, a plan of the ship, and three charts. There is a copy in the British Museum included in Geographical and Nautical Tracts (which also contains the one traced printed copy of Bligh's Answer to Certain Assertions . . .). A French translation of this was published by Didot, Paris, 1790.

  2. 2. "Voyage to the South Sea, undertaken by command of His Majesty, for the purpose of conveying the Bread-Fruit tree to the West Indies, in His Majesty's ship the Bounty, commanded by Lieutenant William Bligh, including an account of the Mutiny on board the said ship, and the subsequent voyage of part of the crew in the ship's boat, from Tofoa one of the Friendly Islands, to Timor, a Dutch Settlement in East Indies; the whole illustrated with charts &." Published by permission of the Lords of the Admiralty. Printed for George Nicol, 1792.

    This book incorporates the first one. But the "Answcr. . ." is not included.

  3. 3. "A Narrative of the Mutiny" (to which is added an account of the fate of the mutineers). By Captain William Bligh (Voyages and TraveIs). (Universal Library.)


  1. 4. "Narrative of the Mutiny," By Fryer, Master.

    This is an undated manuscript, without any inscription, but it is all in one hand. The name is not given, but is signed at the end "Fryer, Master." Evidently it is an actual autograph account by John Fryer who was Master of the Bounty at the time of the mutiny, and one of those who made the subsequent voyage in the ship's boat. This MS. is in the United Service Institution and was presented in 1887 by the late Hugh Rump of Wells.

  2. 5. "The Mutiny of the Bounty AND Bligh's Voyage in the Ship's Boat to Timor" (from a sailor's point of view). By Edward Beechervaise. From the Victorian Geographical Journal (Royal Geographical Society of Australasia). Vol. xxviii.

  3. 6. "The Dangerous Voyage Performed by Captain Bligh." Printed Dublin, 1824. Anon.

    Mainly a reprint from Bligh's own account, with an added account of the discovery of Pitcairn Island.

  4. 7. "The Muster of the Bounty." The actual document, dated 20th August, 1787, is in the Record Office.

    This gives the whole complement of the ship and the names as registered, with ages and place of birth.

  5. 8. "The Bounty."

    Admiralty description of the ship. H.M.S. Bounty was the Bethia built at Hull 1784. Purchased by the Navy Board 1787 (£1,950) for the purpose of conveying bread-fruit trees from the Society Islands to the West Indies. . . . By Admiralty order dated January 8, 1787. it was directed to register her as an armed vessel by the name of Bounty and to establish her with four short four-pounders, ten half-pound swivel guns, and a complement of forty-five men. Arrived at Deptford May 26, 1787. Docked June 4. Launched August 14. Sailed October 9, 1787. The cost of fitting her was £1,456.

  6. 9. References to the Mutiny of the "Bounty" will be found in the Literary Search Room, the Record Office, in the Naval Records.

  7. 10. "The Eventful History of the Mutiny and Piratical Seizure of H.M.S. 'Bounty'" (its causes and consequences). Published by John Murray, 1831. (Family Library.)

    The author's name is not given, but, as stated by Lady Belcher, it was undoubtedly Sir John Barrow. The preface speaks of the author as the " Editor," and says he has been induced to bring into one connected view what has hitherto appeared only in detached fragments . . . It is illustrated by etchings from original drawings of Lt.-Col. Robert Batty, " Amateur draughtsman."


  1. 11. "The Mutiny of the Bounty." A 14 page review of the above. Published in Missionary Chronicle, January, 1832.

  2. 12. "Pitcairn: The Island, the People, and the Pastor." By the Rev. T. B. Murray. Published 1853. S.P.C.K, Chapters I and II (see No. 53).

  3. 13. "Adventures of British Seamen in the Southern Ocean and the Mutiny of the 'Bounty.'" By H. Murray. (Constable's Miscellany, vol. 4). Published 1827.

  1. 14. "The Voyage of H.M.S. 'Pandora.' Despatched to arrest the Mutineers of the Bounty in the South Seas, 1790-91. Being the Narratives of Captain Edward Edwards, R.N., the Commander, and George Hamilton the Surgeon." With Introduction and Notes. By Basil Thomson. Published 1915. Francis Edwards.

    This book includes both Captain Edwards' story (already given by Delano), and Hamilton's account.

  2. 15. "Voyage Round the World in His Majesty's Frigate 'Pandora' Performed under the Direction of Captain Edwards in the Years 1790-92. With the Discoveries made in the South Seas and the many Distresses experienced by the Crew from Shipwreck and Famine, in a Voyage of Eleven Hundred Miles in open Boats, between Endeavour Straits and the Island of Timor." By George Hamilton (late Surgeon of the " Pandora "). Published 1793. Berwick.

    Given here in connection with the Pandora's part in the Pitcairn story.

  3. 16. "Minutes of the Proceedings of the Court Martial held at Portsmouth on August 12th 1792, on Ten Persons charged with Mutiny on board His Majesty's Ship the Bounty." Printed London, 1794. (Admiralty Library.)

    This is the official report of the proceedings. This copy and the one in the United Service Institution are the only copies so far traced. Bound up with this is Edward Christian's Appendix.


  1. 17. "An Appendix containing a full account of the real causes and circumstances of the unhappy transaction the most material of which have been hitherto withheld from the public." Edward Christian. Published 1794. (Admiralty Library.)

    This document purported to give a full account of the cause of the mutiny and evoked a reply from Bligh. The author was the brother of Fletcher Christian, leader of the mutiny.

  2. 18. "An Answer To Certain Assertions In The Appendix to a Pamphlet entitled ` Minutes of the Proceedings of the Court Martial held at Portsmouth August lath 1792, on Ten Persons charged with Mutiny on board His Majesty's Ship the Bounty." By Captain William Bligh. London. Printed for G. Nicol, Bookseller to Ilis Majesty. Pall Mall 1794. (British Museum. Bound up in Geographical and Nautical Tracts.)

    This contains Bligh's own description of all the persons concerned; copies of letters and other testimonies of the various persons; as to what happened before and during the time of the mutiny. The only printed copy of the work so far traced is that in the British Museum (though other important libraries have been searched, including the Bodleian). The British Museum copy, as shown by the press-mark, was not acquired when published. It was sufficiently well known in 1824 to be included in Walker's Bibliography (British Publications). See above, No. 1.

  3. 19. "Manuscript Duplicate" of the above. (S.P.C.K. Records.)

  4. 20. "Memoir Of The Late Captain Peter Heywood, R.N., with Extracts from his Diaries and Correspondence." By Edward Tagart. Published London, 1832.

    Heywood, a young midshipman, believed to have been detained in the Bounty against his will, and afterwards taken prisoner in Tahiti (by the Pandora), supplies in his diary the best account of his treatment and that of his fellow sufferers at the time of the wreck of the Pandora.

  5. 21. Royal Naval Biography (Peter Heywood). By John Marshall, R.N. Published 1823-5.

    This contains an account of the mutiny and will be found in Vol. II., Part II.

  6. 22. "The Mutineers Of The 'Bounty' And Their Descendants In Pitcairn And Norfolk Islands." By Lady Belcher. Published John Murray, 1870.

    This is mainly concerned with the mutiny and those mutineers who did not go to Pitcairn. The principal materials for the part dealing with Pitcairn were furnished


    by Admiral Moresby. Lady Belcher was the stepdaughter of Captain Peter Heywood, and had access to family manuscripts and personal sources of information. amongst them, the diary of James Morrison (one of the petty officers of the Bounty) and correspondence between Heywood and various relations.

  1. 23. "The Eventful History of the Mutiny and Piratical Seizure of H.M.S. 'Bounty.'" By Sir John Barrow. (See No. 10.)

  2. 24. "A Narrative of Voyages and Travels in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres." By Amasa Delano. (Chapter V. See No. 33.) Printed for the Author, Boston, 1817.

  3. 25. "Pitcairn: the Island, the People, and the Pastor." By the Rev. T. B. Murray. Published 1853. S.P.C.K. Chapter III (see No. 53).


  1. 26. "Hawkesworth's Voyages Round the World." Philip Carteret's discovery and naming of Pitcairn Island, 1773. Vol. I, p. 341.

  2. 27. "Letter to the Admiralty." (Actual manuscript, Record Office.) From Mayhew Folger. 1813.

    This is the actual letter written by Folger, Master of the Topaz of Boston, from Nantucket, March 1813, informing the Admiralty that in February 1808 he had discovered that Pitcairn Island was inhabited. It also contains the information that Smith (John Adams) gavec him the Bounty's chronometer – the same one as was twice used by Captain Cook, now with the Cook relics in the United Service Institution.

  3. 28. "Letter to Admiral Manley Dixon." (Actual manuscript, Record Office.) From Captain Sir Thomas Staines. 1814.

    This is the actual letter written by Sir Thomas Staines, Commander of H.M.S. Briton from Valparaiso, October 1814, to Admiral Dixon (Commander in Chief, Southern Pacific Ocean), making his report of bis return to port after a cruise during which he "fell in with" an island, uncharted but undoubtedly Pitcairn. This gives all details and particulars as to the island, the inhabitants, and his experiences there.


  1. 29. "Letter to the Admiralty." (Actual manuscript, Record Office.) From Admiral Manley Dixon. 1814.

    Dated from H.M.S. Cherub (Rio de Janeiro) reporting Sir Thomas Staines' discovery of Pitcairn Islanders. There is also another letter with this, of November, addressed to K. Croker, Esq., quoting another letter from Sir Thomas Staines (not preserved) with his account of John Adams.

  2. 30, "A Narrative of the Briton's Voyage to Pitcairn Island." By Lieutenant J. Shillibeer, R.N. Published 1818.

    This is written in the form of a narrative. It is illustrated with etchings from drawings by the author done on the spot. These include the often reproduced portrait of Thursday October Christian.

  3. 31. "The Quarterly Review." Three articles dealing with Pitcairn Island, 1810, 1815, 1816.

    The name of the writer of these (probably Sir J. Barrow) is not given, but they deal with the discovery by Folger, the island and the people, Porter's cruise, etc.

  4. 32. "A Journal of a Cruise Made to the Pacific Ocean in the U.S. Frigate 'Essex,' in the years 1812, 1813, and 1814." By David Porter. Published 1815, Philadelphia.

    This was the famous Essex which harassed the British shipping in the Pacific during the war with the United States and for which Staines was seeking when he came upon Pitcairn. This book does not actually mention Pitcairn, but mentions several of the vessels which at some time called there.

  5. 33. "A Narrative of Voyages and Travels in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres and a Voyage of Survey and Discovery in the Pacific and Oriental Islands." By Amasa Delano. (Chapters V and VI.) Published 1817, Boston.

    Amasa Delano was born in 1763 at Duxbury (the old town of New Plymouth). His father was a soldier and fought for George II against the French and Indians. Amasa was also a soldier; later he went to sea (on various privateers -- 1779) and subsequently the ship Massachusetts was launched at Quincy and then began the voyages of this book. He was a personal friend of Mayhew Folger, and wrote: "I have also lived a considerable time with Captain Folger the first person who visited the family on Pitcairn's Island and from whom most of the information concerning the state of it has been derived. He very often conversed with me upon the subject and gave me a number of details which have not before been printed." In another place he


    says that when at Timor he found in the possession of the Governor a manuscript history (the same as that edited in 1915 by Sir Basil Thomson (which see), No. 14 above) of the cruise of the Pandora written by Captain Edwards, of H.M.S. Pandora.

  1. 34. "Calcutta Government Gazette" (1819). (Re Henderson (or Elizabeth) Island.) India Office Records.

    Issues of May 6 and July 22, 1819, give the accounts of the two visits of the ship Hercules (Port of Calcutta), Captain Henderson, to Pitcairn in January and July 1819. These accounts are important as establishing the dates of the calls of the Hercules at Pitcairn, and incidentally the naming of Henderson Island (also called Elizabeth Island). Beechey claimed for the wrecked crew of the whaleship Essex the first finding of the island, but that was in December 1820, whereas both the Hercules and the Elizabeth (to which ship the discovery has also been attributed) had been there in 1819. The date of the call of the Elizabeth at Pitcairn (March 5, 1819) is established by the entry in John Adams' Prayer Book. Owen Chase (1st mate of the Essex), in his account of his experiences on Henderson Island (which he thought to be Ducie Island), mentions that the crew found the name of Elizabeth (without a date) cut on a tree near where they landed.

  2. 35. "Narrative of the Most Extraordinary and Distressing Shipwreck of the Whale-ship Essex of Nantucket; which was attacked and finally destroyed by a large Spermaceti-Whale in the Pacific Ocean; with an account of the Unparalelled Sufferings of the Captain and Crew in the years 1819-20." By Owen Chase (1st Mate of the Essex). Published 1821, New York.

    This pamphlet is given here in connection with the prominent part taken by Henderson Island, and it is largely quoted by Captain Beechey; it supplies several decisive dates as to the visits of the Hercules, Captain Henderson, and the Elizabeth to Pitcairn Island and the neighbouring islets.

  3. 36. "'John Adams' Prayer Book." Devotions on the Lord's Supper together with a service of Holy Communion. Published by the Religious Tract Society.

    This book, now with other relics of the Bounty in the Museum of the United Service Institution, is there labelled as having been "the 'Bounty' Prayer Book"; but as all accounts agree that that was a Book of Common Prayer, this must be a mistake. The book at the Museum was presented by the Rev. W. H. Holman (Chaplain of H.M.S. Portland who acted as Chaplain at Pitcairn in 1853). A label inside the book, in Mr. Holman's hand, asserts it to have been the book always


    used by Adams for public morning and evening prayer. An inscription written on the last page of the book -- "John Adams his book given him by Samuel Henry Rapsey of the ship Elizabeth 5 March, A.D. 1819 -- "is of particular interest, as it establishes the date of the visit of the Elizabeth and is apparently the only record of it. Sir Everard im Thurn suggests that this ship was from Boston, Mass. – Bossum, Master – mentioned by Prof. Latourette, and that Rapsey was a mate.

  1. 37, "A Description of Pitcairn Island and its Inhabitants." By Sir John Barrow. Chapter VIII. Published 1845. Harper, New York.

    Sir John Barrow was Secretary of the Admiralty. This is an entirely separate publication from his other book above, though much of that is incorporated in this one. This is largely made up of extracts and quotations – the letters of Sir Sydney Smith, Lieutenant Fitzmaurice, Sir Thomas Staines, and the log of the Topaz (1808).

  2. 38. "Pitcairn: the Island, the People, and the Pastor." By the Rev. T. B. Murray. Chapter IV (see No. S3). Published 1853. S.P.C.K.

  3. 39. "The Mutineers of the 'Bounty' and Their Descendants in Pitcairn and Norfolk Islands." By Lady Belcher (see No. 22). Published 1870.

  4. 40. "Voyages and Travels of Fletcher Christian before and after the Mutiny of the 'Bounty' in 'Letters to a Friend.'" (Fictitious.) Published London 1797.

    There is a copy of this book in the York Gate Library, which collection is now in the Adelaide Library, South Australia.

  5. 41. "The Island: or Christian and His Comrades!" By the Right Hon. Lord Byron. Published 1823.

  6. 42. "The Death of Christian and the Mutineers." Extracted from the above. Published in The Mirror, June 1823.

    The story is founded partly on the mutiny of h is Bounty and partly on the tradition connected with a cavern within the harbour of Vavau in the Friendly or Tongan Islands.

  7. 43. "Pitcairn Island: a romantick operatick Ballet Spectackle, founded on the recent Discovery of a numerous Colony, formed by, and descended from the Mutineers of The Bounty Frigate. First performed at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, on Wednesday, April 17th, 1816. With new and select Musick, new


    Scenery, Dresses and Embellishments." Printed by C. Lowndes, Marquis Court, Drury Lane. Sold at the Theatre only.

    Sir E. im Thunt possesses a copy of this and an original playbill. Names of the leading mutineers appear among the dramatis personae, but otherwise the plot is purely fictitious. The item is interesting as showing how soon after the discovery of the Settlement its fame was a topic of the day.

  1. 44. "Jack Adams, The Mutineer." 3 vol. Novel. By Captain Frederick Charmier, R.N. Published 1838. Colburn, London.

    The leading circumstances of the story and the dates are remarkably faithfully told, but the dialogue and the details are, of course, fictitious.

  1. 45. "Pitcairn Island Register Book. Births, Deaths, Marriages and Remarkable Family Events." The Actual Manuscript. S.P.C.K. Records.

    The document which is now reproduced.

  2. 46. "Arrivals." The Pitcairn Island Shipping List. The Actual Manuscript. S.P.C.K. Records.

  3. 47. "Narrative of a Voyage to the Pacific and Beering Strait to co-operate with the Polar Expeditions: performed in His Majesty's Ship Blossom under the command of Captain F. W. Beechey, R.N.; F.R.S.; F.R.A.S.; F.R.G.S.; in the years 1825, 26, 27, 28." Published by authority of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, 1831.

    There are two chapters {fifty pages) devoted to Pitcairn Island; and here is given in full Adams own story of the mutiny, taken from and signed by himself. Beechey was the artist of the often reproduced portrait of John Adams.

  4. 48. "Historical Records of Australia." Governor's Despatches to and from England. (The Removal of the Pitcairners to Otaheiti (Tahiti), 1831, by H.M.S. "Comet," Capt. Sandilands.) Series I, vol. xvi (1831-2).

  5. 49. "Accounts of the Pitcairn Islanders." (journal of the Royal Geographical Society for 1833.)

    From Captain Hon. W. Waldegrave's Private Journal in the Pacific, and Captain A. L. Sandilands' Despatch


    to the Government of N.S.W. respecting the removal of the Pitcairn Islanders.

  1. 50. "Tahiti and the Pitcairn Islanders." Article in the Missionary Chronicle (London Missionary Society). Published 1832.

    This article relates to the first removal of the Pitcairners – to Tahiti – the reasons and the causes of its failure. The L.M.S.

  2. 51. "A Description of Pitcairn Island and its Inhabitants." By Sir John Barrow (see No. 37). Published 1845. Harper Brothers, New York.

  3. 52. "The United States Exploring Expedition During the Years 1838-42." By Charles Wilkes, Commander U.S.A. Navy. Published 1845, Philadelphia.

    This book gives much information as to the whale fishery, in which many of the ships which made a practice of calling at Pitcairn were engaged.

  4. 53. "Pitcairn: The Island, the People, and the Pastor." By the Rev. T. B. Murray, M.A., F.S.A. Published 1853, S.P.C.K.

    The author was Rector of St. Dunstan-in-the-East and Prebendary of St. Paul's. He was Assistant Secretary of S.P.C.K. 1835-42, and one of the four joint Secretaries 1842-S9, in which year he died. He was the personal friend of Rev. G. Nobbs (Chaplain of Pitcairn), and was the recipient of the Register Book and other relics. The second half of the book is devoted to Pitcairn Island and the inhabitants (the first part dealing with the mutiny and the finding of the settlement). Some of the later editions deal with Norfolk Island. First and second editions appeared in 1853; twelfth edition in 1860, and the revised (and somewhat different) edition (by Rev. C. C. Elcum) 1885. Last edition 1909. The book is now out of print.

  5. 54. "The Mutineers." A poem. By John McGilchrist, M.D. Published 1859.

    The story of the mutineers, founded on Sir J. Barrow's book and suggested by Lord Byrons' poem.

  6. 55. "The Mutineer." A Romance of Pitcairn Island. By Louis Becke. Published 1898.

    A novel based upon the story of the Bounty, with Christian as the hero.

  7. 56. "John Adams' Prayer." Original Autograph. (S.P.C.K. Records.)

    The prayer written by Adams and used by him for Sundays. This was presented by his grandson, John Adams of Norfolk Island, to the Rev. T. B. Murray. A


    facsimile was reproduced in Mr. Murray's book, and one has been made again for the present publication.

  1. 57. "Pitcairn Island and the Islanders in 1850." By Walter Brodie. Published 1851.

    Walter Brodie (author of Past and Present State of New Zealand) was stranded on Pitcairn, having been left behind there by the ship on which he was a passenger (the Noble) March 1850. This book is made up of extracts from his Journal kept at the time, and of copies from various other documents. He says "My time was principally occupied in getting material for an account of this virtuous and interesting community, which I feel myself bound to make public." He has also given some extracts from the Register, from which obviously other writers have drawn, and this is interesting as he was the first writer who had access to the original. This book also contains a full account of the "Joshua Hill " episode, together with copies of all the official correspondence regarding this matter. Brodie has an autograph entry in the Pitcairn Register Shipping List.

  2. 58. "Sermon." By the Rev. G. Nobbs. Published 1852.

    This sermon was preached by Mr. Nobbs at the time of his visit to England at St. Dunstan-in-the-East, and repeated at St. Mary's Chapel, Park Street, and afterwards printed by request. This sermon is interesting as containing a good deal of historical reference to the story of Pitcairn and the people. It is incorporated in Mr. Murray's book.

  3. 59. "A Week at Pitcairn." By B. Toup Nicolas.

    Mr. Toup Nicolas was British Consul at Raiatea in the Society Islands, and he visited Pitcairn in an official capacity on H.M.S. Virago in 1853. His account of his visit is taken from his private diary, the extract being sent by him to Mr. Murray, who incorporated it in his book.

  4. 60. "The Pitcairn Islanders and the Mutiny of the Bounty." Article by Dr. Robert Brown, F.R.S., F.R.G.S. 1880. (Published in Cassell's Family Magazine.)

  5. 61. "The History of the American Whale Fishery from its Earliest Inception to the Year 1876." By Alexander Starbuck. Published 1876 by the Author, Waltham, Mass.

    With the assistance of this book the whole of the Pitcairn Register Shipping List has been checked and verified by Sir Everard im Thum. See also Appendix II.

  6. 62. "Mutiny of the Bounty." A Story of the Pitcairn Islanders. By Alfred McFarland (District Court Judge, New South Wales). Published 1884. Sydney. Popular History.


  1. 63. "The Romance of Pitcairn Island." By W. F. Fullerton. Published by Carey Press. No date. (Religious Tract.)

  1. 64. "Minutes of the Proceedings, Pitcairn Island Fund Committee " (1852-58). Actual Manuscript. S.P.C.K. Records.

    This is the bound volume containing all the records of the Committee's work. See Appendix I.

  2. 65. "Correspondence of the Pitcairn Island Fund Committee." Actual Manuscript. S.P.C.K. Records.

    Two bound volumes of all the letters and other papers used by the Committee in their work. See Appendix I.

  3. 66. Parliamentary Reports: Pitcairn Island. 1857.

    The official correspondence regarding the removal of the inhabitants of Pitcairn to Norfolk Island.

  4. 67. S.P.C.K. Annual Reports, 1849-57.

    In the Reports for these years, under Pitcairn Island, will be found all particulars of the happenings and the condition of the islanders and the Society's connections with them.

  5. 68. "Pitcairn: the Island, the People, and the Pastor." By the Rev. T. B. Murray. (Chapters XIII and XIV) later editions. Published 1853. (See No. 53.)

  6. 69. "Pitcairn Islanders' Address to Her Majesty." Original Document. S.P.C.K. Records. 1853. (See Appendix I.)

  7. 70. "Memoir of the Life & Episcopate of George Augustus Selwyn, D.D.," Bishop of New Zealand and Lichfield. By the Rev. H. W. Tucker, M.A. Published 1879.

    In vol. ii. there is a good deal of reference to the Pitcairn Islanders and Bishop Selwyn's relations with them on Norfolk Island. Also the Bishop's own account of the first Confirmation at Norfolk Island, and also the first for any of the Pitcairners. See Appendix I.

  8. 71. "History of the Melanesian Mission." By E. S. Armstrong. Published 1900. London.

    This book throws light on the controversy, during the first years of the Pitcairners in Norfolk Island, as to the wisdom of placing the headquarters of the Melanesian Mission in that island also; and the original objection


    of the Pitcairners themselves to Bishop Selwyn's proposal to establish his Mission among them, and on the eventual acceptance of the Mission as fellow-settlers by the Pitcairners.

  1. 72. "Minutes and Records of the West India Committee," 1779-89. W.I.C. House Records.

    In these will be found all the records of the first inception and the carrying out of the undertaking to convey the bread-fruit plants from Tahiti to the West Indies.

  2. 73. "W.I.C. Circular." (May 1921 and January 1922.) These both contain articles upon the story of the Bounty.

  3. 74. "The Romance of the Bread-Fruit." Article by Sir Algernon Aspinall, C.M.G., C.B.E.

    This is an account of the whole story of the transplanting of the bread-fruit with, incidentally, the story of the mutiny of the Bounty, put together from the W.I.C. Records. (Not yet published.)

  4. 75. "The Mutineers Turning Lieut. Bligh and partof the Officers and Crew Adrift from His Majesty's Ship The 'Bounty'" An Engraving by Robert Dodd. 179o. In British Museum.

    An engraving by Robert Dodd from his own oil painting. The Bounty is shown in the picture and is believed to be a "portrait" of the actual ship. Dodd was a marine painter of note and exhibited in the Royal Academy (1748-1816). The print was made from the engraving in 1790 by B. B. Evans, and dedicated by him to the West India Planters and Merchants.

  5. 76. "Captain Bligh's Second Voyage to the South Seas." By Ida Lee (Mrs. Charles Marriott). Published 1920.

    This is an account of the second search for the breadfruit after all the first trees had been lost with the Bounty. Bligh sailed in the Providence 1791. It is given here as it contains a good deal of reference to the former voyage and the mutiny, and also introduces Pitcairn Island. The sources of information as regards Pitcairn Island are the earlier books.

  6. 77. "History of Early Relations between the United States and China 1784-1844." By Kenneth Scott Latourette. Published 1917. Yale University Press.

    Given here in connection with the whale fishery. See Appendix II.


  1. 78. "Stewart's Handbook of the Pacific Islands." By Percy Allen. Published 1822[sic], Sydney, New South Wales.

    Pages 486-492 deal with Pitcairn.

  2. 79. "Pacific Islands Pilot." Pitcairn Island. Admiralty Publication. Vol. iii.

    This contains a description of the Island and a summary history.

  3. 80. "The Mutineers of the 'Bounty'" The Pitcairn Islanders from 1859-80. Published 1881, by a Native.

    This is an article from an annual periodical with an introduction by the editor (signed S. M.). Preserved in Sir E. im Thurn's cutting book. The writer was Rosalind Young, who was descended from the mutineer Young (and on her mother's side from John Mills (another mutineer)). This article is mainly the account of the return to Pitcairn of those Islanders who were unable to settle down in Norfolk Island (1856 and 1858), and deals afterwards with the later history of Pitcairn Island and its second colonisation. This was subsequently enlarged and published in a book form.

  4. 81. "Mutiny of the 'Bounty' and Story of Pitcairn Island 1790-1894." By Rosalind Amelia Young, a Native Daughter. Published by Pacific Press Publishing Company, 1894 (3rd edition).

    This book, much enlarged from the above-mentioned article, has an introduction by E. A. Gates, who had himself spent over eighteen months on the Island (1892-4), in which he states of the authoress that she had spent practically her whole life "on the Island, a few years of her childhood only having been spent on Norfolk Island. While her lifetime does not cover quite one-half of the time covered by the history of the Island, she had access for many years to one at least who remembered events that occurred before the beginning of the present century. The author's father was the second oldest man of the community at the time of his death in September 1893, and was a grandson of John Adams, one of the mutineers of the Bounty, whose death took place in 1829. She thus had the best advantage for obtaining a correct knowledge of the Island history."

  5. 82. "A Midshipman's Journal on Board H.M.S. 'Seringapatam' during the year 1830; containing Brief Observations on Pitcairn Island, and other Islands in the South Seas."

    By Lieut. J. Ordebar, R.N. Published 1833. London.


Note. -- It would be impossible and unintelligible to attempt to index all the recurrent family names in the Register Book. Only the first bearers of the names are included under e.g. Young, Buffett, Nobbs, etc. From the Shipping List only the names of H.M. Ships and of their Captains are taken with some notable exceptions. Principal places and events are given.

Abraham, Rev, C. J. (afterwards Bishop), 152, 158
Adams, John, 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15, 22, 25-27, 33, 86, 150, 155, 162-3
Adams, John, Prayer Book, 14
Adams, John, jn., 65
    President U.S.A., 5
Arthur (Master of Russell), 12, 13, 159
Australia, 5-6, 16-17, 18, 127, 160 et pass.

Banks, Sir Joseph, 3
Basilisk, H.M.S., 50, 115
Beechey, Captain F. W., 6, 14, 15, 17, 33, 100
Bible, The, 15, 16, 22, 27
Bligh, Lt. William (afterwards Admiral), 2, 3, 10, 156
Blossom, H.M.S., 6, 15, 17, 33, 100
Bounty, H.M.S., 2, 7, 9, 11, 14, 16, 25, 31, 52, 59, 72, 73, 84, 86, 150, 154-6, 163-4
Bread-fruit, 2, 3
Briton, H.M.S., 5, 11, 12, 14, 26, 32
Brodie, Walter, 19, 25, 132
Buffett, John, 6, 8, 12, 14, 17, 18, 20, 22, 24, 26, 30, 33, 36, 39, 41, 67, 127

Calcutta, 8, 13
    S.P.C.K. Committee, 13
California, 27, 71, 160
Calypso, H.M.S., 125
Carlton, Hugh, 132
Challenger, H.M.S., 18, 19, 101
Cherub, H.M.S., 11
Christian, Fletcher, 4, 5, 8, 9, 16, 23, 29, 46, 150
Christian, Thursday October, 25, 31
Church at Pitcairn (and School-house), 24, 58, 59
Cockatrice, H.M.S., 81, 141, 143, 148
Comet, H.M.S., 16, 35, 101
Communion, The Holy (first celebration at Pitcairn), 8, 81, 82
Communion, The Holy, Plate for, 146, 147
Cook, Captain James, 17, 21, 46
Curaçoa, H.M.S., 44, 105
Cyrus, The, 11, 12, 33,

Daedalus, H.M.S., 78, 142
Daphne, H.M.S., 68, 71, 126
Delano, Amasa, 5. See Bibliography
Denison, Sir William, 148, 149, 152, 154, 157, 158
Diamond Jubilee of the Settlement, 25
Dido, H.M.S., 26, 89, 90, 148, 157
Dillon, Captain W., 81, 82, 142, 148
Ducie Island, 4

Edwards, Captain Edward, 3
Elizabeth (Henderson) Island, 13, 14, 25, 48, 74, 75
Elliot, Captain Russell, 19, 20, 38
Essex, The (U.S.A. Frigate), 10, 14
    (U.S.A Whaleship), 14
Evans, John, 6, 12, 18, 22, 26, 41


Fanshawe, Captain E. G., 68, 127, 146, 153
Fatuhuku. See Hood Island
Fly, H.M.S., 19, 20, 38, 102
Folger, Mayhew, 5, 10, 11, 32, 159
Fremantle, Captain Charles (afterwards Admiral Sir), 18, l01
Fremantle, Captain J. S., 18, 148, 157
Friendly Islands (or Tonga), 3

Galapagos Islands, 160
Gambier (or Manga Reva) Islands, 18, 104
Good Hope, Cape of, 11
Great Barrier Reef, 4

Harrowby, Earl of, 151, 153, 154, 155
Henderson, Captain, 13
    Island (or Elizabeth), 14, 23
Hercules, The, 13, 14
Heywood, Peter, 4, 8, 9
Hill, Joshua, 18, 19, 28
Holman, Rev. W. H., 7, 8, 22, 25, 80, 81-88
Hood Island (Lord Hood's Island), 17, 36, 144
Horn, Cape, 11

Imogene, H.M.S., 102

Joseph Meigs, The, 74, 81
Juno, H.M.S., 18, 148-9, 157

London Missionary Society, The, 23, 27, 42, 103

McCoy, William, 5, 9, 31
Magistrate, election of first, 20, 38
Manga Reva Islands. See Gambier
Marquesas, The, 17, 43
Melanesia, Diocese of, 153
    Mission, 150, 152, 155
Merivale, Herman, 153, 158
Mills, John, 5, 150, 155
Missionary Packet. See London Missionary Society
Moresby, Admiral Sir Fairfax, 7, 8, 20, 24, 26, 79, 80, 87, 89, 142-3, 146-7, 153
Moresby, Fortescue, R.N., 153, 156-7
Morshead, Captain, 26, 89, 90
Murray, Rev. T. B., 2, 6-8, 26, 94, 146, 149, 151-3, 156-8
Mutiny of the Bounty, 2

New South Wales, 10, 16, 35
New Zealand, 27, 152, 153, 160
    Bishop of. See Selwyn
Nobbs, Rev. George, 7-9, 12, 15, 17, 18, 20, 22-24, 26, 30, 33, 39, 42, 62, 68, 80-81, 83, 89, 92-94, 146, 147-50, 152-5, 156-7
Norfolk Island, 2, 26, 147-9, 152, 154-5, 157, 163

Otaheite (Tahiti), 2

Pacific, Whale Fisheries, 27, 159-64
Pandora, H.M.S., 3, 4
    (No. 2), 24, 127
Patteson,Rev.(afterwards Bishop), 150, 155
Phoebe, H.M.S., 11
Pitcairn Island Fund Committee, 2, 8, 26, 145, etc.
Pomaré, Queen, 17
Porter, David, 10, 11
Portland, H.M.S., 24, 79, 80, 82-83, 86-88, 143-4
Prayer Book, The, 15-16, 22, 27, 86
Prevost, Captain, 84
Price list of articles at Pitcairn, 97

Quintal, Matthew, 5, 9, 32
    Edward, 38-39

Resolution; The (see Cook), 17
Russell, The, 12, 159, 161, 163
Russell. Captain Lord E., 19, 102

Sandilands, Captain Alex., 16, 35
School-house at Pitcairn. See Church
Selwyn, Bishop, 149-53, 156-7
Seringapatam, H.M.S., 15, 101
Sharon, The, 75
Smith, Alexander (or John Adams, q.v.)
S.P.C.K., 1, 6, etc.
S.P.G., 7, 26, 92
Solomon Islands, 152-3
Sparrowhawk, H.M.S., 39, 40, 103
Spy, H.M.S., 62
Staines, Captain Sir Thomas, R.N., 6, 11
Starbuck, Alexander, 159, 161
Sultan, The, 15, 32, 159
Sunday School begun, 22, 41
Swan River, 18
Sydney (N.S.W.), 3, 149


Tagus, H.M.S., 5, 11, 12, 32
Tahiti (Otaheiti), 2-4, 6, 16, etc.
Talbot, H.M.S., 111
Tasmania, 3, 147
Thierry, Charles de, 132
Timor, 3
Tofoa (Friendly Islands), 3
Topaz, The, 5, 10, 14, 32, 159
Torres Straits, 4
Tristan da Cunha, 28
Tuamotu (Low) Islands, 6
Tubuai Islands, 3-4

Valparaiso, 6, 11, 160, etc.
Van Diemen Land (Tasmania), 147
Virago, H.M.S., 26, 83, 84-86, 94, 114, 155

Waldegrave, Captain Hon. William, 15, 35
Waldegrave, Hon. George, 153
West India Committee (see Bibliography), 2
Wilkes, Charles (Commander, U.S.A. Exploring Expedition), 160
Williams, John, 8, 31

Young, Edward, 4, 9, 32
    Rosalind, 89, 155, 164
Printed in England at The Ballantyne Press
Spottiswoode, Ballantyne & Co. Ltd.

Colchester, London & Eton.

Chart to illustrate the story of Pitcairn Island

      See chart in larger format.


Register entries have been reformatted for clarity and greater consistencey in presentation.

Following page 66 the missing register page entries for the period following February 17, 1848 until July 11, 1849 have been provided with those copied by Walter Brodie. The Chart and illustrations have been added to the contents page.

Sir Charles Lucas, 1853-1931




      In Sir Charles Lucas, whose death in his seventy-eighth year is announced on another page, the British Imperial Service loses one of its oldest and most valuable members, and one who was also distinguished as the historian of British Colonial development.

      Charles Prestwood Lucas was born on August. 7, 1853, the youngest boy in a large family of boys and girls, at Crickhowel, a small town of Breconshire, situated in the Usk Valley, in the midst of the picturesque scenery of the Black Mountains and the Brecon Beacons. His native hills and valleys were always dear to him, and, throughout his life, walking there or in other romantic districts was his favourite exercise. His people were of considerable local distinction. His father, Dr. Henry Lucas, was the "beloved physician" of the neighbourhood and took a large share in its concerns; his services to his fellow-citizens are commemorated by a monument in the centre of the town. His mother was a daughter of Archdeacon Bevan, the leading Churchman of the mid-Victorian period in South Wales. While Charles Lucas was still a small boy his eldest sister married Sir Joseph Bailey, the head of a family which derived its wealth from the Glamorganshire coalfields, who lived at Glanusk Park, close to Crickhowel, and who, after sitting in Parliament for more than a quarter of a century, was raised to the peerage as Lord Glanusk, and became Lord Lieutenant of Breconshire.

      Charles Lucas was a studious and precocious lad. In 1865 he won a scholarship at Winchester, being placed first on a roll whick contained the names of several men who gained distinction in after life, such as Lord Parmoor, Sir John Prescott Hewett, Walter Leaf (who renounced the scholarship he had obtained and went to Harrow), Sir Reginald Antrobus, and G. E. Buckle (formerly Editor of The Times). At school he was a steady and successful worker, holding for his last two years the position of top boy, though he was never appointed to the post of Prefect of Hall or official head of the school. He could easily have obtained a Winchester Scholarship at New College, Oxford; but he preferred to try his fortune in open competition, and won an open exhibition at Balliol. There he was up with H. H. Asquith. a year or two his senior, and with Alfred Milner, his contemporary. He duly gained his first classes in Classical Moderations and in Literae Humaniores (1876), and won the Chancellor's Medal for a Latin essay. But he did not stand for a Fellowship, though he was much gratified when in later life All Souls elected him a Fellow, in 1920, because of his great services to Colonial history.

      Charles Lucas had determined to enter the Civil Service, and shortly after taking his degree he passed first on the Civil Service Examination List, as he had on the Winchester roll, and was appointed to the Colonial Office. His work in life was now marked out for him, and he applied himself to it with the steadiness and thoroughness which distinguished his character. He had always earned the respect of his contemporaries at school and college by his uprightness and straightforwardness; but a certain modest shyness, which never entirely left him, had limited the circle of his friends. In the congenial duties, however, of the office he opened out and developed, and before many years had acquired there a high reputation for knowledge and efficiency. The majesty of the British Empire, the marvellous development of the British Colonial system, fired his imagination. He projected and brought out "An Historical Geography of the British Colonies," the introduction to which and several of the subsequent volumes he wrote himself -- a work indispensable to the student of Colonial and Imperial progress. He had a high regard for those of his chiefs, such as Lord Carnarvon 'and Sir Robert Herbert (for many years Permanent Under-Secretary), who were strongly imbued with Imperial ideals, and he warmly welcomed the appointment of Mr. Chamberlain in 1895 to the post of Colonial Secretary. Under him he rose to a leading position in the office, being appointed in 1897 Assistant Under-Secretary of State and head of the Dominions Department. He threw himself whole-heartedly into his chief's plans, including preferential tariffs, for developing and consolidating the Colonial Empire.

      Perhaps this devotion to ideas which were frowned upon and repudiated by the Liberals, who came into power at the close of 1905, cost Lucas the permanent headship of the office, a post for which both his official standing and his unequalled knowledge of the work marked him out. Perhaps the diffidence to which allusion has been made may have been thought to be a drawback. Anyhow, he was twice passed over when a vacancy occurred, once in favour of a distinguished Civil servant from another office, but the second time in favour of a member of his own Colonial service. Thereupon he retired, in 1911, at the age of 58, and in the following year was created, in recognition of his services, K.C.B. He had been a K.C.M.G. since 1907 and acted as Registrar of the Order.

      In retirement, as in office, our Colonial Empire and its history remained his principal interest. He had visited several of the Dominions and had many friends among Dominion statesmen. He fostered these friendships by supporting and frequenting the Royal Colonial Institute, now the Royal Empire Society, of which body he served for several years as chairman. He wrote numerous books on Colonial history: -- "The Canadian War of 1812," "A History of Canada," and "The Partition and Colonization of Africa"; and in his latter years he was largely engaged in editing a great work, "The Empire at War," explaining the record of the Colonies and Dominions in war, partieiilarly in the Great War of 1914-1918. The volumes appeared between 1920 and 1926, mùch of the writing being by his own pen.

      Sir Charles Lucas was a man of high ideals in private as in public life, and he did not limit his services to his fellowmen by his official duties. From his earliest years in London he devoted many hours every week to teaching and other work at the Working Men's College in Great Ormond-street, the institution which was founded by F. D. Maurice and Tom Hughes. In later years he became for a time principally responsible for its management.

      He did not marry; and his house in St. George's-square was presided over for many years by two unmarried sisters, the survivor of whom died in 1923. He rejoiced in a large troop of nephews and nieces, grand-nephews and grand-nieces, among whom, he was a most popular uncle. His eldest sister, the Dowager Lady Glanusk (grandmother of the present peer), to whom he was greatly attached and whom he used to visit frequently at Hay-Castle, survives him.

      * "Sir Charles Lucas." The Times (London, England), Friday, May 08, 1931; pg. 11; Issue 45817.


Lucas, Charles, Sir (ed.)
      The Pitcairn Island register book.
London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1929,
181 p., [3] leaves of plates (1 folded): facsims., map.