Contents
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Illustrations
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Edmund Gardner
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John M. Bullard
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About the Transcription / Permissions / Copyright Information
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Bibliographic Information

Plough Boy Journals

The Plough Boy Anthology

CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER

CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER

of Nantucket and New Bedford

His Journal and His Family

Edited and Compiled by
JOHN M. BULLARD

(Author of "The Rotches" - 1947)

New Bedford, Mass.
1958

© John M. Bullard – 1958

Printed in the United States of America
by
THE CABINET PRESS
Milford, New Hampshire
1958

front
Lydia Hussey Gardner Spooner

To the memory of
Lydia Gardner Spooner
friend of my childhood
who possessed many of her
father's strong characteristics.

Table of Contents

Page
List of Illustrations
Introduction 1
The Journal5
The Journal (Continued)57
Captain Edmund Gardner, Words from Others
      Notes as to Lord Cochrain83
      The Willis Story84
      Obituaries87
The Swain-Gardner Tankard89
Captain Edmund Gardner, His Descendants93
Captain Edmund Gardner, His Ancestors105
[Index]

List of Illustrations

Lydia Hussey Gardner SpoonerFrontispiece
Facing
Page
The First Page of the Journal5
Story of the Sinking of the Union10
The Ship Maria15
Story of the Encounter with the Whale20
Portrait of Edmund Gardner by William A. Wall30
Edmund Gardner's House46
Last Page of the Original Journal55
Portrait of Susan Hussey Gardner by William A. Wall71
Last Page of the Second Section of the Journal81
Photograph of Edmund Gardner85
The Swain-Gardner Tankard89

Introduction

      Edmund Gardner was undoubtedly among the last of a long line of adventurous men from the Island of Nantucket, off the Massachusetts coast, who for more than a hundred years nosed their slow but sturdy ships into many of the far parts of the globe in the dangerous search for whales. As these ships grew larger, more and more of the Nantucket fleet moved to nearby New Bedford on the "continent," as the Islanders called it, and among the last active captains to move was Edmund Gardner. Few other whalemen could have had more exciting adventures than he. Fortunately for posterity, Captain Gardner lived a long life, within a month of ninety-one years, and as he was getting old he took to writing down in his Journal a story of his adventures, his thoughts and his philosophy. For nearly a century this Journal has been treasured by his comparatively few descendants and read with great interest by them and a very few others.

      When John Huston's "Moby Dick," a remarkable moving picture, following extraordinarily closely Herman Melville's great story of the crazed Ahab and the white whale, had its premiere showing at three theaters in New Bedford in June 1956, there was considerable discussion among people who were not familiar with whaling, which had vanished from the local scene for fifty years or so, as to whether a whaleship could actually be sunk by a whale, and whether such close hand to hand encounters between man and monster as were depicted actually occurred. At that time it seemed to me that the Journal of my great great grandfather should be printed, as he was one of the few whose ship was actually sunk by a whale, and as he was also one of very few, if any others there were, to be actually crushed in a whale's jaws and to survive to tell the tale.

      The sinking of Captain Gardner's ship "Union" in 1807 was not as dramatic as the sinking of the "Essex" in 1820 and of the "Ann Alexander" in 1851, as these two ships were sunk in battles with whales, much as Melville tells of the sinking of the "Pequod" by Moby Dick. The "Union" might have been a merchant ship for all the whale knew. She and he merely collided in the night. The "Union" was stove in and she promptly sank, in mid-ocean. A similar fate met the "Kathleen" in 1902. The youthful skipper of the "Union" had to bring his crew to land, over seven hundred miles

2 CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL.

of stormy ocean in open boats, under many hardships, and he did so successfully. He was only 22 at the time. Melville says in chapter 44 of "Moby Dick" as to this event, after telling graphically of the sinking of the "Essex,"

      "Secondly: The ship `Union' of Nantucket was in the year 1807 totally lost off the Azores by a similar onset, but the authentic particulars of this encounter I have never chanced to encounter, though from whale-hunters I have now and then heard casual allusions to it."

      It was partly this remark of Melville's that made me feel more people should be given a chance to read of the "Union." This chapter 44 tells of other sinkings too. The others I have mentioned were subsequent to the writing of "Moby Dick."

      In speaking of Melville, it seems to me unfortunate that when he uses the name Gardner for a Nantucket whaling captain (not as master of the real ship "Union" but as master of the mythical "Rachel") he spells the name Gardiner. Though Melville had never been in Nantucket, he had sailed from, and stayed considerably in, New Bedford, and should have known that the Gardiners came from Maine or Long Island, and not from Nantucket.

      By the time the second tragedy occurred a little over eight years later Captain Gardner knew much of the world well. When so terribly injured off the coast of Peru, he knew not only what port he should make but of a doctor, living in the hills above the port, who was destined to save his life. This was certainly fortunate for his descendants, for a third tragedy, just after his return home from this adventure, was the loss of his only three living children, all young boys, by death from whooping cough. Those of his children who survived were all born after his return from Peru.

      Another item of interest in his adventurous, though comparatively short, career on the sea was his being one of the first two whaling captains to bring his ship into what he called the Sandwich, and we now call the Hawaiian, Islands. The other captain, Folger, and he were keeping their ships the "Balaena" and the "Equator" hunting together when this event occurred.

      Edmund Gardner was still quite young, 42 years old, when he decided to quit the sea. His last voyage was not in pursuit of whales, but was a trading venture to the north of Europe, ending in a very stormy voyage which landed him in New Bedford on New Year's Day 1826. Thereafter he gave up the sea.

      It was on September 7, 1826 that he moved his family to New Bedford, occupying a house on Second Street that he had bought

CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL. 3

in May from George Bliss on land which had belonged to William Rotch, necessitating a deed from William Rotch to Edmund Gardner. In the spring of 1857 he moved to his last house, on the north-west corner of Walnut and Sixth Streets. This house is still standing. As can be seen from the Journal, his activities in New Bedford were many, ship owner, proprietor of a cooperage shop, candle manufacturer, speculator in oil, and bank director among them.

      Nothing further out of the ordinary occurred except for his breaking his leg during the construction of the Fort (now known as Fort Rodman, formerly Fort Taber) on the end of Clark's Point in New Bedford, on November 3, 1864, five days before his eightieth birthday. although this injury troubled him for the rest of his long life, he surmounted it with great courage, as he did all his other vicissitudes.

      Captain Gardner had very little schooling but he overcame this handicap extremely well with the sole exception of his spelling. He used an entirely phonetic system, and did not always spell the same word the same way. There has been quite a controversy in the family about this spelling. My great grandmother, Lydia Hussey Gardner Spooner, copied the first section of the original Journal and parts of the second in longhand and corrected the spelling. She felt that the spelling reflected on her father and wanted the original destroyed. Luckily she did not have her wish, particularly as she edited the Journal in places, putting in small bits of information which were undoubtedly correct but which her father had neglected to mention. Many of Captain Gardner's grandchildren and their children felt the spelling should be preserved in any reproduction, and some still so feel. With this in view, at least two independent typed copies were made, one of the two duplicated many times. These are supposed to preserve the original spelling, but they do not. Miss Ruth Allen, a great granddaughter of Captain Gardner, who owns the original and one of the typed copies, tells me her version does not always agree with the version that I and many of the descendants have. And after careful comparison with the original, I know that our typed version is very inaccurate, sometimes spelling words wrong when Grandfather Gardner, by some great luck, had them right. It has been argued that as he taught school for a while his spelling must have been correct for his day. This is just not so. His phraseology is usually reasonably good, probably because of much reading of the Bible, and he undoubtedly spoke good English. But he certainly did not know how to spell, and partly because it is much more expensive to print and

4 CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL.

harder to read a book with so many words misspelled, I have decided to have the Journal reproduced spelled correctly. I am reproducing photographically a number of pages from the original, so that there can be no doubt how it was originally written. The original of the Journal, including both sections, has been loaned by Miss Allen to the Library of the Whaling Museum at the Old Dartmouth Historical Society in New Bedford and will very likely remain there permanently.

      In typing the Journal in the form which follows, my secretary, Edna B. Bolduc, used great ingenuity, helped out by an Atlas, Portuguese and Spanish dictionaries, and "Yankees in Paradise," a history of the Missions in the Hawaiian Islands by Bradford Smith, endeavoring to get the correct names of islands and foreign ports. In many instances the place name as written is first printed, followed by what we suppose to be the correct name. I am deeply indebted to her for this painstaking work.

John M. Bullard     

New Bedford
June, 1958

front
The First Page of the Journal.

The Journal

      Edmund Gardner. Having for a long time had it on his mind to leave something that his friends and connections might look upon after his leaving this transitory state, where and what his engagements were, commencing with the nineteenth Century.

      I was born and brought up on the Island of Nantucket. Born the 8th of 11th Mo 1784. My Parents were Thomas & Anna Gardner, my ancestors were some of the first settlers of the Island. My Great Grandfather was the first Male white born on the Island, his name was John Swain1, he married the daughter of Peter Folger, her name was Experience Folger. Thus 'twill be shown that my connections were with the first settlers of the Island.

      My Father followed the Sea until the revolution took place separating this Country from Great Britain. After the peace of 1783 he went to sea no more. All my Father's family were born previous to Peace taking place except myself, I being the youngest of ten children. My Father followed farming which we all contributed to in all ways we could to help to provide for our necessities. Two of my elder Brothers followed the sea, and on my arriving at the age of sixteen commenced myself. In 1800, 10 mo 22 was my first attempt in Sloop Dove, Reuben Long Master, was absent seven months, was unsuccessful, returned without any remuneration for services. Our destination on sailing was for the Cape Verde Islands and Coast of Guinea but changed after cruising a month or more for Bahamas, where we arrived after a month's passage and having been some months at sea. 'Twas our Captain's intention to go into a harbor for water, wood and refreshments, where we remained several days accomplishing all our expectations. The name of the place we entered was Marshes Harbor, some ten miles or more from the reefs that surround the Keys of the Bahama Islands. The harbor was thribily land locked, like a basin, 'twas a deep indentation into the Island of Abaca.

      Where were some of the remains of houses formerly occupied by freebooters, I was into several of them, and some of gardens still


      1 Tristram Coffin and Thomas Macy, both ancestors of Captain Gardner, and sundry other men came to Nantucket in 1659. It seems very strange to me that John Swain, who was not born until 1664, should have been the first male child born on the Island. However, Starbuck's History of Nantucket confirms the date of his birth and I am told through other sources that he was reputed to be the first male white child. Probably the women in the families of the early settlers did not arrive until later.

6 CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL.

produce fruit, our water was replenish'd from one of their wells. During our stay at this place, (where we found one man and a boy) the man possessed the information of what would poison the fish. He procured the bark from the root of a tree called dogwood, dried the same and pulverized it, it looked much like light colored snuff. I went in the boat for the purpose of poisoning the fish in the hole (as 'twas called). The entrance was just wide enough for the boat to enter, 'twas three hundred yards in diameter nearly round, with mangrove trees around the shores. The snuff was strewn on the face of the water, in a little time the fish would spring out of the water and fall on the face of the water, apparently dead, we picked them up till we had as many as we wanted, some fine large ones, those that were left on water, after a time came to from their magnetic state, with little effort put themselves in a swimming position went off unharmed. 'Twas a new way of catching fish to me.

      While at this locality heard several anecdotes in regard to the time this part of the World was little known or frequented, except by Pirates. Harbour Island was well known to my Captain, where was a favorite resort for those freebooters. At which place was an old Lady who kept house of entertainment, she told my Captain that they had never had such good times since they had thirteen black flags flying, "'twas heavenly times." Had the weather very rugged for several weeks saw little prospect and in the month of May directed our course homeward, where we arrived the latter part of that month.

      Some little time after my return engaged myself for a sailor to Ship Union, Capt. Grafton Gardner for a Whaling Voyage to the coast of Patagonia, performed the Voyage in eleven months, had taken 1500 barrels Whale oil, 'twas a successful adventure.

      The ship was refitted, and I engaged myself to go in the same ship with the same Captain as an officer for the Coast of Patagonia, had much rugged weather and took but small quantity of oil, when the rugged season advanced, left for the West Coast of Africa, where we arrived in the 6th Mo. 1803. While on the South and West of Africa was in the dominions of Hottentots, saw many of them, had some communication with them. In the later part of one day saw some of the natives on the shore not far from the ships, there were several ships in Walwich ( Walvis) Bay at the time, a boat was sent from each ship. The boat from our Ship I was in, I had never seen any of this singular people before. I looked at them, talked with them (by signs), the number of them were three, an old man, one old and one young females. They talked incessantly, nothing could

CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL. 7

we understand, after a little time, someone made a noise like the lowing of cattle, when the young woman repeated the sound, and then laid her head on her hand shutting her eyes imitating sleep, then pointing and following the sun 'till down, then going through the sleeping sign, and when the sun arose the third day, the Bullocks, Sheep, and Goats would be there. True to the signs they came, with quite a number of them to drive and care for the stock. Nearly all, or quite all, was purchased by the different Ships in the Bay. They wanted nothing in exchange for the stock but Backasaw and Tentabar, which meant Tobacco and Iron, which was of more value to them than anything offered. The females had bracelets on their arms of iron and brass, some of them must have been young when they had them put on as 'twould have been difficult to get them over their hands.

      There was one thing peculiar to them, that was the many dogs. I several times counted them and the persons with them, and on an average 'twas twenty dogs to each person. Their manners were singular for seldom or ever do they walk, if the distance is not more than ten feet, they run. When approaching strangers, as soon as they can be heard, call out "tinghoigh" and continue calling till quite close when they stick their spear in the ground, call "or' tinghoigh" and always seem glad to see strangers.

      This singular people have peculiar propensity for filth, they have little clothing, a skin around their loins, the covering for the remainder of the body is made up with filth and greasy substances to close the pores of the skin, they seem to suffer from cold nights. There's another thing peculiar to them, the manner of their sitting, their uniform practice is to sit, or bend down on their feet, through the whole night around a little fire, for fuel is scarce with them. At the time Ships are taking Whales and fresh carcasses drive on shore, they prefer those that have become stale and putrid to fresh ones. Having put my finger on one of their arms which had been well basted with their waterproof the stench was so great that after twice washing my hands with soap, found 'twas not possible to eradicate the stench by washing, had recourse to smoking with a strong smoke. Their color was not African, but a shade or two darker than the Indian, hair curly with many beads wrought into their hair. The Beef they brought to market was fresh in comparison with our long salted provisions, but 'twas not well fleshed neither was it sweet as new Beef generally is, the mutton was better but not equal to Southdown. They must have had scanty pasture. Nothing is to be seen of the surrounding Country but sand hills, the only

8 CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL.

green thing near is at the Gardens (so-called) north of the usual anchorage where Samp is to be obtained. By soaking in fresh water, 'tis made pickles of, in place of something better. The natives all have spears neatly wrought from Iron, which would seem impossible to have been wrought cold without some peculiar process.

      After the season for whaling on the African Coast, left for the Island of St. Helena where we arrived after a short passage, found a large fleet of ships assembled here. For war had taken place between England & France. A convoy was being made up for a homeward passage.

      Five Dutch East India Ships came to this Island for refreshments and water, when they were taken possession of by the Officers of English East India Company, who were in possession of the Island at that time. Those ships were dismantled, sails unbent, rudders unhung, waiting for accounts from home Government of war between that Country and Holland, for as yet there was no war. But should there be, they would be good prizes to the East India Company. Such was the feeling of honor and honesty of that rich company. There were more than one hundred and fifty sail of ships seeking supplies at this little Island. Twenty-seven of them were Whaling Ships. During our stay several ships arrived and some passed the Island. On one day in particular, five ships or vessels were in sight from the Island. When two Vessels are in sight, twas an alarm, three, was a general alarm, when every citizen had to repair to his station and post, for all citizens were soldiers on the Island. All places of business were closed, there was great excitement. On the following day two ships arrived, reporting, two of the ships were French, but no Vessel pursued them.

      A short time after this exciting time we left for the Brazilian Coast, directed our course for the Island of St. Catherine's for provisions, vegetables and fruits, where they were in abundance. The principal articles of food for the inhabitants was Farinha de Pau which translated would be flour of wood. Tis their principal article for food for the inhabitants. A small quantity of farena and a few oranges will make a satisfactory repast for the inhabitants of this Country. The weather is mild, they want but little clothing to protect them from the weather, and live without much exertion. The oranges are of a superior quality and abundant. Don Alloc in his embassy to China, stopped at this place, the oranges were so fine he thought them equal or superior to any he found in China. They served much towards the support of the Brazilians at the time I was there, in 1803. And continues to be, although many changes have

CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL. 9

taken place since I was first in this place. In 1815 was there after a mast for the ship Winslow. Again in 1819 for a bowsprit for ship Balmna. I saw many changes in the time that had elapsed since I was first there. Then coffee was raised in small quantities, but having no open trade with any foreign Country there was little encouragement to raise it, for their trade was through Portugal, their Mother Country. Coffee was selling for six cents per pound, half the price 'twas then bringing at Java. Since free trade has been opened to all Nations, the ports of Brazil have been frequented much. More particularly, Rio Janeiro, Bahia, Pernambuco, and intermediate ports.

      In 1825 I visited three ports in Brazil in all of them were Ships trading, from all parts of Europe and America. Shall refer to my last visiting that Country at a future time.

      In 1804 I engaged myself to Ship Union Silas Swain Master in the capacity of second officer performed the Voyage in twenty-one months bringing a full cargo 1500 Barrels. Arrived in 4 Mo 1806. Some few weeks after my arrival was called on to fill the office of first officer of a Ship then fitting, soon upon it my former Captain called on me wishing me to go again with him as first officer in the same ship. I engaged to go with him in the same Ship as first officer, and sailed in 1806, in the 8th Mo. Performed the Voyage in ten months arrived in 7 Mo 1807. Having been steadily going seven years, and six years in the same Ship, had come to the conclusion to remain at home for a year. I was in my twenty-third year and thought to carry out the law of the old testament, when a young man united his destiny with a young woman, he was exempt from war for one year. I had thought of remaining a like time. Being about uniting my destiny with Susan Hussey, which was accomplished on the 25th of 8 Mo 1807. I had no expectation of the owners of the ship Union would tender to me the Command of that Ship, as an experienced Capt. held himself in readiness to take charge of the Ship. On going to the office of the agent of said ship, with my former Captain, who informed me on the way, he should not go again in the ship, should give up going for the present. The agent then tendered to me the command of the ship Union, which was quite unexpected to me. I told him I wanted time to consider the subject fully, I would decide in a few days, on the third day informed the agent I had concluded to take charge of the ship. I then commenced shipping my Officers and ships company, several of the former crew went in the ship with me. Everything was-hurried up, being late for the Coast of Patagonia, and finally sailed the

10 CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL.

19th of the 9 Month 1807. Nothing particular transpired until the 26 Inst. when a severe gale from the westward commenced, we scud under short canvas three days, at noon of the third day the wind moderated so that we spread more sail, the sea was high and running after us, at about ten o'clock the wind having veered more free. I told my second officer to put another compass into the binnacle, he went down got the compass was just coming from the gangway when the ship struck something heavily, the officer came near being thrown into the after hatchway, he catching by combings.

      I immediately went and looked over the stern of the ship where I saw and heard a large Whale spout twice. Sail was immediately taken in, for all hands were brought on deck by the concussion. The ship was brought to with the starboard bow to windward, hoping the wound would be out of water or partly so at least. The pumps were set to work one company hoisting up casks to get down to the wound. In the meantime I went into the fore peak where shooks were stowed, removed some of them got down to the place broken, which was three feet wide and four feet long at which place the water had flowed so as to wash over the wound or broken part. Twas ten feet from the stern, and six below the wales. I readily perceived 'twould be useless to attempt to save the ship from filling with water. I had one man with me with a lantern. The outside plank, two timbers and ceiling planks were stove in. I sat down where I then was, and calmly made up my mind what was next to be done. Came to the conclusion to do all that could be done with the blessing of God to preserve the ship's company. I then went on deck told my first officer to quit hoisting and come with me to the cabin. I there informed him 'twas impossible to save the Ship, for she would go down, let us do what we would. I then said to the Mate 'twould be useless to be frightened but pursue a straightforward course to save the ship's company and ourselves.

      I then directed him to head up a small cask of bread and have it ready to go into the boat, and that I would prepare a small cask of water to go into the other, both were put into boats before lowering. 'Twas very rugged got one boat down five (one officer) men in the same to keep her clear of the Ship, with a line fast to the ship. I then lowered the second boat, with four men including an officer. Keeping five men, the mate and myself onboard to get another boat from where 'twas stowed, got that one out when we all left the ship. I had previously told the ship's company to take all the fireworks they had and all the tholepins. Had a Compass in each boat, a quadrant, lantern, and everything that could be useful to us, except

The story of the sinking of the Union
The story of the sinking of the Union.

CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL. 11

spyglass and trumpet, but as it proved neither would have helped us. The ship's main royal made a sail for each boat. We left the ship at midnight in two hours after the accident, laying by with a warp fast to the ship. Had concluded to remain by the ship till morning, at 1 A. M. the ship rolled and turned oer, as she went over heard the dog cry, which was the first time I had thought of him, should have taken him with me had I thought of him, he having been with me in the ship on a previous Voyage. When the things began to wash from the ship, we left, for fear of their breaking our boats. We kept before the wind 'till morning then made sails for our boats, and directed our course for the Azores or Western Islands, that being in full view before me from the time I had made up my mind to leave the ship.

      The time we left was 1st of 10 Mo 1807 last 38.40 longitude 41.52. On that day saw a schooner far to windward under double reefed sails but blowing heavy could not get to her. Finding it difficult to keep together with three boats, came to the conclusion to let one boat go, taking eight persons in each boat. I then directed each man to put on what clothes they wanted or needed, then clear the boat of all surplus clothing, for they absorbed much water causing too much weight for the boat, we were continually wet after leaving the ship, the water washing on us. The wind the following night veered to the Southwest blowing heavily had to lay by through the night, it rained powerfully the lightning ran down in streams around us, and a more dismal night was never experienced by any of us and 'tis doubtful if any of the survivors have seen a more dismal night since. In the midst of all this terrific scene, the boat in which I was in shipped a sea, filling the boat half full of water, each man with a bucket threw out the water 'till free, when no more of any consequence came in. But through a long dark and dismal night, none could build on longer time of life than five or ten minutes. Our trust was on Divine Providence to bear us up and protect us from harm. Never was it more fully brought to my view than at this time, "they that go down to the sea, and do business on the great waters, these see the wonders of the Lord in the mighty deep."

      It was fully impressed on my mind from the beginning that we should be favored to reach those Islands. At the time I left the ship, were more than a degree south of Flores, directed my course between Corvo and Flores, to be enabled to make a free wind to one of them should we be favored to make them as expected. Had an observation daily. Our daily allowance of water was three quarts, divided between sixteen at noon of each day after determining the

12 CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL.

Latitude, also one cake of bread to each man for the same time. I soon found they could eat no more bread without they had more water. Some of them begged for more water, which I promised when the Land should be in sight.

      On the 8th of 10 Mo 1807 the wind came from the N.N.East, 'twas thick and dark with squalls, it was really a dark day, our water nearly exhausted, night approaching, my boat leaking so that one man was bailing water from the boat continually. All but the man throwing the water from the boat and myself was laying down. I saw him who was bailing earnestly looking, the sail intervened prevented my seeing what he did. I asked him what he saw, his reply was "I don't know, 'twas something black." " I then looked under the sail and saw the Land a more pleasant sight was never seen. I had awakened my company and told them the land was in sight. I then made a signal for the Mate to come down, he being to windward, when got within hearing I asked him if he saw the land, but he had not seen it. Immediately several of the men called to know if they could have more water. I gave to them three quarts the same as had been daily served to them at Noon, 'twas now 4 P. M. I then told them they should have more when we got into the land. On first seeing the land, 'twas thirty miles distant, bearing from East by South, to South East. The wind breezed on strong with thick weather and rain, had seen nothing for two hours, when the lights broke out suddenly on shore, near the seaside. I then made a division of the last of our water.

      We lay by and rested from nine in evening till midnight, then began rowing from the Southwest part of the Island of Flores, by the south, the shore was inaccessible perpendicular rock for some hundreds of feet in height. I knew of no landing place short of St. Cruise on the Northeast part of the Island. (We passed a landing place on the Southeast part of the Island not known to me before 'twas daylight). On coming to the landing at the principal place of the Island, the Inhabitants came with produce of the Island to market, supposing our ship was nearby behind the land. A Gentleman by name William Greaves was there on the landing, he was interpreter for me, he informed the Inhabitants at the landing of our situation when our boats were taken to a place where they could be taken up from the water to a place of safety.

      By Greaves, I was introduced to our Vice-Consul for the U. S. whose name was John Mercelenra Mesquito Permentall and by him was furnished with everything necessary for myself, Officers and ship's company. After landing I cautioned all my ship's company

CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL. 13

to be careful not to indulge too freely in their thirsty state to injure themselves, but take little and often, 'till their thirst abated. I made it a point to drink once in half an hour. I watched the time, what I drank was about equal to three wine glasses full, 'twas two days before my thirst was fully allayed. One of my ship's company indulged too freely and came near being a serious affair with him.

      We got on shore at 9 A. M. After dining I lay myself down "tired nature sweet restorer balmy sleep" and slept about five hours. During the time I was in my boat, slept little, many nights did not sleep, but in the day slept more. Such was my anxiety and that of my company to find relief by some ship or vessel, that they saw many in the night, after calling to me, "here's a ship" they could see her plainly, when I came to look and could see nothing, they could hardly be made to believe 'twas all imagination and would then be quite disappointed. I bad a Lascar sailor with me, the same had been in the ship on a previous voyage, talked broken, sometimes hardly intelligibly. I had a young man with me who previously had tried his hand at making money, by taking six and a quarter cent pieces and manufacturing them into twelve and a half cents, passing them for the same.

      Amongst Sailors," anything that's disreputable is learned as if it were by magic, and treasured up. While in boats, the Lascar said to the young man "Well Green boy, what think now making ninepence out of fourpenny happenna." The Lascar thought 'twas time to make up accounts.

      I remained at Flores six weeks, there being no opportunity of leaving the Island. While there some persons from Portugal came there to pack beef. A Gentleman connected with the enterprise desired the use of one of my boats, with a crew to row, to go to the Island of Corvo, they were gone two or three days, and returned seventh day (Saturday). The Gentleman rewarded them bountifuIly. On the following morning, when I was dressing, a message came to me from the Governor for me to come and take care of my men. When I walked to the square in front of the Governor's House, the first thing I saw was one of my men walking with a musket in front of the house. On inquiry found my men being rewarded for pulling the boat to Corvo had purchased some stimulant, after partaking of it freely, went to the Governor's, knocked down the sentry, took from him his gun, and were keeping guard in his place. I soon made arrangements for them to disband, and all things were amicably settled. Sailors will act themselves when they have an opportunity.

14 CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL.

      I left Flores in a Portuguese Vessel for Fayal, with my Mate, one other officer and five men. Greaves being a fellow passenger, after a passage of twenty-four hours landed at Port Pin, a bay formed by a peninsula forming one side of the harbor of Fayal. Port Pin is a good harbor except for westerly winds, (which blow directly). On landing was met by our Consul John B. Dabney of Boston, he being Consul general for the Azores. He furnishing with what was necessary. I took up my sojourn with Greaves who had been English Consul in company with Parkin for many years, 'till a short time before my arrival there. A young man whose name was Curry by some influential friends in England had been appointed Consul. This created a hardness between them. My having been there several weeks made acquaintance with the principal residents.

      One day a ship was coming into the bay which proved to be a Frigate which attracted the attention of all who assembled near the landing. Parkin came to me before the boat had landed, and desired me to inform Curry of his (Parkin's) appointment to supersede him as Consul for the Islands, he wished him to know it before the boat landed. I informed him I did not like to be the bearer of ill tidings. neither did I wish to see anything unpleasant between them. I then asked Parkin if he had received his credentials, he informed me he had, I then desired him to show them to me, he handed them to me, I read them, by that time the boat was nearby. I walked up to Curry, took him by the arm, saying to him I was sorry to be the bearer of ill tidings, but must inform him of his being superseded as consul by Parkin. He was much confused and excited, saying at the same time "do you know it for a certainty." I answered to him I did for I had seen his appointment. Curry consented to stand with me and not interfere.

      Parkin had told me if he Curry attempted to interfere with the officers of the Frigate, he would throw him into the water. I felt much gratified to be able to prevent a quarrel on the landing. I remained a month or more at Fayal, had an opportunity of seeing and knowing all the local news and what was passing, but at Islands they are dependent for all their news by shipping, all Islanders are hungry for news. Several ships of war called and some English privateers.

      I had been at Fayal a month or more when the Brig Joanna arrived from Madeira bound to Terceira to load fruit for New York. Having wine and citron sufficient for ballast. I joined the Brig (nominally) as Master, to go to Terceira where we had to wait four or five weeks to have our fruit packed, two thousand boxes of or-

The Ship Maria on which Edmund Gardner served as an officer in his early years
The Ship Maria on which Edmund Gardner served as an officer
in his early years.

CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL. 15

anges and lemons. In the orchard where our fruit was packed was a sage tree, which was quite new to me. I think 'twas ten feet in height or more branched out proportionately. I asked permission to take some of it, which was granted by the owner of the premises, and from this tree got all we wanted for our passage to New York. The diameter of the trunk was from five to six inches, 'twas continually growing and in bloom, there being no frost to check its growth.

      When I left the Island cabbages were beginning to head, the date of leaving was 27th of 1st Mo 1808. The owner of the Brig Joanna was William S. Shaw, the former Captain was with him. Shaw had purchased the Brig intending to act as Master himself, but finding me at Fayal desired me to have the vessel put under my charge (nominally). The Captain was an Englishman and could not hold the papers of an American Vessel. My Mate and second Mate and five men joined the Brig as a part of the company. Left Terceira at above date, had a fine run up to the Banks in five days, then took the wind from the westward was twenty-four days to New York, where we arrived on the 10 of the 3 Mo 1808. I took lodgings for a few days at Paul Delano's. I then with my officers and men took passage to New Bedford in Ship Aldebaran which had recently arrived, the long Embargo was on, and no business for ships. We left New York for New Bedford, where we arrived in sixteen hours, a stranger to all persons in the place. Took lodgings at Gerrishes, a tavern near the Commercial Wharf, that now is.

      I remained in this place five days, in which time made several acquaintances, amongst them was David Coffin, then in command of the Ship Maria, subsequently I engaged to sail with him in the Maria as his first officer for the Pacific Ocean on a Whaling Voyage, the ship was then twenty-six years old, and is the oldest ship belonging to the U.S. at the time I am writing, eighty years old, and now performing a Voyage to the Pacific.

      Was absent on the voyage twenty-one months had taken a full cargo of sperm oil 1200 Barrels. The late Samuel Rodman was owner of the Maria, had been owned in the family from the time she was launched. The above vessel was set up for a privateer in the Revolutionary War but finished after peace by William Rotch, Sr., and fitted for a Whaler.

      I had come to the conclusion on my passage home to go no more Whaling unless I could have the command. I named to my Captain if I could not have the command I would go no more Whaling, thinking I could do some other business. The owner of the Maria was desirous of my going in that Ship, would increase my pay, but

16 CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL.

my Captain having learned my views on our way home, felt a delicacy in calling on me to fill the same office. I had stated to my Captain on the homeward passage that I would go as soon with him as anyone were I going in the capacity of first officer, but would not go with him if they would give me the same share he had himself. I had endeavored to serve him faithfully, and I now wished to carry out my own views and whims.

      I had come to the conclusion to wait "the movement of the waters." Some short time after my arrival home the Ship Winslow arrived, the commander did not wish to go again, Samuel Rodman tendered me the Command of that ship. I agreed to go for him and sailed on the 4th of 8 Mo 1810 for the Pacific Ocean, had a long passage out, when near the Western Islands took one sperm Whale making 2100 Gallons oil, proceeded to Cape Verde Islands and from thence shipped the same to New Bedford.

      Pursued my way to the Pacific and arrived on the coast of Chile after a passage of 140 days. I went into the Island of St. Mary's for a few days, having been buffeted with hard weather passing Cape Horn. As we drew to the North had weather more mild, got into the harbor in safety where I found Ship Lady Adams of Nantucket, Elisha Folger Master, who sailed some weeks after me, had a shorter passage than myself. While at this place, traveled much about the Island. On a point of land that was sandy found many eggs larger than the common fowl eggs. The birds having just begun laying, found one and two in a nest. They were all fresh and new, obtained near two barrels. Being on shore one day, saw my ship's company all concentrating themselves, I went to see what attracted them, found they had made the discovery of many plots of strawberries, the ground was quite red with them, and finer I never saw, my sailors had plenty for picking, which was a great indulgence for them. After laying several days, took on board some water, left in company with the above mentioned Ship for the coast of Peru, had favorable winds for several days 'till we were in twenty degrees of south Latitude when discovering sperm whales went in pursuit of them, took two, one to each ship. When I left the Island of St. Mary's in company with Lady Adams 'twas mutually agreed between Folger and myself to keep together so long as both parties were agreed. Having begun our whaling continued with good success, in three months from leaving Chile arrived at the Galapagos Islands, had taken 800 Barrels of Sperm oil to each ship. I was five months out, with no oil on board, when ten months had a thousand barrels. When one year from home had 1100 barrels, had been to

CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL. 17

no inhabited land. I then went to Paita for recruits of vegetables, fruit and other anti-scorbutics. After refitting our ship, went to Tumbes for wood and water, no water is to be had at Paita nearer than nine miles, the expense would be about one dollar a barrel, at Tumbes 'twas obtained without expense. After procuring all we wanted, left to complete our Cargo. In four months and a half took 450 Barrels and arrived home.

      On 28 of 9 Mo 1811 The Ship Lady Adams had a full cargo, and left me wanting two hundred barrels, had rugged weather for some days, took two whales, boiled out the oil, saw nothing for several days, then took three. That was all we wanted. I told my Mate we must get three to make fifty barrels, got three, took them to the ship and when boiled out, had more than a hundred. On the 24th of 10 Mo 1811 spread our sails to the breeze and in ninety-seven days was safely anchored in Newport, R. I. harbor, having been absent less than eighteen months, and obtained 1400 Barrels sperm oil, Officers and ship's company numbered sixteen. Arrived five months before war was declared by the U.S. in 1812. I had heard nothing from home later than one month after I sailed, therefore was very anxious to learn the political state of our Country. When I arrived up to Cape Horn and directed my course to the Eastward met an English ship from London. The weather was moderate, I had a boat lowered and went on board the Ship, when I got on board (after the Captain had given me his hand) my feeling very anxious I said to him, "Is there any war?" His reply was astounding to me, "Walk into my cabin and I will tell you sir," I walked in feeling I was captured, he soon informed me there was no war when he sailed, "but I would have you. take care, for I have been five years in a French prison." I made a short tarry the weather looked threatening. I got to my ship and by the time my boat was up, the wind came on furiously from the W.S.W. Having reduced our sails, sailed rapidly on our way. Had a favorable passage, although we came mid-winter, 'twas a very severe winter but had a fine time in. I could get no pilot, took a fisherman from his boat, he knew where dangers lay, and that was all I wanted of him. I got safely at anchor at 6 o'clock p. m. 29th of 1st Mo 1812. The next morning I wrote Samuel Rodman informing him of my arrival. He that morning heard from a letter from David Coffin of my being in the Pacific with a 1000 Barrels and just twelve hours later received mine announcing my arrival, 'twas the first and last account from me.

      The winter had been very severe, and much shipwreck. The sloop of War Nautilus arrived at Newport with loss of foremast and bow-

18 CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL.

sprit. By what I learned from the Naval officers, I was strongly in the belief we should have war with England unless we retraced our steps, for the stand our Government had taken, it would be difficult to avoid a war. Having been absent one year and a half, heard nothing from home for nearly all that time, was not prepared to judge anything myself relative to the proceedings of our Government, having been in an excluded part of the Globe for news. Five months after my arrival war was declared by our Government against Great Britain, much to the annoyance of seafaring men, 'twas like taking the farmer's farm, for the sailors' occupation was gone.

      During three and a half years I remained at my native place, could do little. Our coast and harbors were blockaded, and we, at Nantucket, lay at the mercy of our friends and enemies. There being no military preparation, not a soldier or a gun on the Island. There were forty-six Whaling ships belonging to the Island, twenty-three were captured, those that escaped capture made fine Voyages, some were captured in sight of the Island. I lived in a very humble way, farming some, but found my means for living gradually being less, therefor came to the conclusion to leave the Island as soon as spring opened. 'Twas now the early part of 1815. Before the ice left our harbor and shores, a boat landed on the west end of the Island, bringing the news that Peace was concluded at Ghent, which was a cheering sound for Nantucket, as well as for the whole Country.

      My ship (the Winslow) had been repaired during the war and laid up. Consequently was quite in a state of forwardness when peace was ratified. I sailed in the 7th Mo 1815 having the officers who had been with me previous to the war, all in the same capacity. We proceeded on three days with brisk breeze when to my surprise found the foremast badly sprung, in consequence of its decayed state. I immediately hove the ship to and commenced fishing the mast. In two hours had secured it in such a manner as to be warrantable to proceed to Brazil.

      Directed my course for the Island of St. Catherine's where we arrived in safety. Immediately stripped the mast, fixed our purchase for taking out the mast, after getting it out and on deck, found 'twas worthless, more than one-half entirely decayed, could pick it to pieces with my fingers. I then had it sawed and cut up for wood. It was several days before I was certain of getting a suitable spar to make another. Having agreed with a Government officer to cut the stick and bring the same to the beach

The story of the Encounter with the Whale
The story of the Encounter with the Whale.

CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL. 19

for a stipulated sum. But they made slow progress in consequence of unfavorable weather and from the many holidays. I had made an arrangement with a Brazilian carpenter to make the mast, he having the dimensions for so doing.

      In the morning after a very rainy day I went to the shore to the officer's house, found him at home with his uniform on, seeing him quite at ease, I accosted him in somewhat decided manner why they were not getting my mast down. The officer (Sabin for that was his name) spoke a little English, I could speak a little Portuguese, both of us being somewhat excited made little progress in understanding each other. He insisting on. "the mast in the beach" which I did not believe, thinking there must be some mistake. Two days before there was much distance for it to come, and it had rained all the time 'till that morning. I then told Sabin I would go and see the mast, 'twas some little distance from his house. When I got where it was, (and now a fair morning) I said to Sabin, where is the Carpenter, his reply was "Carpener no make" Sabin knowing little English and my knowing less Portuguese, we could not fully understand each other. I sent the officer who was with me to the ship with a message to the first officer to bring all the tools that would make a chip, all the saws, and grindstone. Leaving on shipboard one officer, cook and steward, bringing all others on shore.

      I now assumed the command as master Carpenter, lined out the spar and every man at work on it. Soon after commencing the Carpenter came to know why I had discharged him. Then came the truth of the story. The officer Sabin and Carpenter had disagreed. I then told the Carpenter if he wished to be employed to come on, I would give him day wages, I was now boss myself. He came on, all my ship's company was doing something for in fifteen hours' labor 'twas a mast, finished and lowered into the step. During the time my mate was rigging and fitting the ship for sea, I was preparing all necessary stores for the Voyage.

      When I sailed from the U. States, all West India produce was at a high price. I purchased all we needed for the Voyage for less than half the cost in the States when I sailed. When the ship was ready I had all things in forwardness. Two days were used in procuring vegetables, fruit and other necessaries. I had been detained thirty-five days in this place. I sailed and had favorable winds and weather up to Staten Island, after leaving this land had continued westerly gales, could show little sail, most of the time under closed reefs and staysails. In seventeen days gained the length of the Island (thirty miles) then stood wide to the

20 CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL.

south, the wind coming to the S. West, tacked ship and went clown by the Tierra del Fuego and Chilean coasts. I saw several ships on the Chilean coast intending to cruise there. But 'twas my intention to proceed to Coast of Peru, where we soon arrived, being now on far famed Pacific. Had taken more than two hundred barrels of sperm oil in about two months after leaving St. Catherine's, was doing finely. On 21st of 2 Mo 1816, it was a beautiful day, with smooth sea when we saw many whales, went in pursuit of them, my boatsteerers had missed throwing their harpoons five times, when they ought not to have missed. I went into the head of my boat, rowed to my Mate telling him to go into the head of his, then went after others that had not been disturbed, 'twas still weather, were paddling after them, when I got near to one lay down my paddle, took harpoon in hand threw into the whale, took my other harpoon in hand, but have no recollection of what I did with it. I recollect of seeing the Whale's teeth but further I know nothing, 'till getting up from the bottom of the boat. Found I was much hurt and wounded, when I came to my senses after being stunned, called one of the boat's company to cut off the line and take me to the ship. I was bleeding copiously when taken on board, my shoes were quite full of blood. When on board, found one tooth had entered my head breaking in my skull, another had pierced my hand, another had entered the upper part of my right arm, the fourth had entered my right shoulder, from the shoulder to the elbow of the right arm was badly fractured, My shoulder was broken down an inch or more (where it now is), my jaw and five teeth were broken, tongue cut through, my left hand was pierced with a tooth and much broken and very painful. 'Twas favorable I retained my senses, my hand was very painful, many of the bones were broken in the hand.

      The ship's course was directed for Paita when the land was sighted, 'twas thought to be Paita head, but the anxiety of my officers prevented their getting the Latitude, bad they done so, they would have discovered their error. After getting the ship at anchor, they could not tell where they were. I had them put clothes around me and get me on deck. When I had looked around, saw where we were, I was taken down again. We were in Sechura Bay, the headland looking much like the headland of Paita. I took a scale and projected the courses and distances from where we then were to the port of Paita, the distances on each of the several courses. I directed them to be particular and make the exact distances on each course.

CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL. 21

      On the following morning found ourselves on the fairway into the harbor of Paita and soon into anchor. Found there the ship Maria, Micajah Swain, Master, that ship belonging to my owner, he lay still in port 'till I had left for Piura. When Capt. Swain came on board my ship to see me, it was the first time I had any weakness relative to my situation, seeing him in health and me lying on the cabin floor prostrated, it made me feel my weakness. I said to Capt. Swain I was quite unmanned as I could not refrain from tears, so weak was I and unable to help myself. On my first being wounded, my head being so much bruised, I was apprehensive should I fall asleep 'twas doubtful if I awoke again. I therefore cautioned my officers not to let me sleep. After a few hours had elapsed my caution was useless for my extreme suffering prevented all possibility of sleeping.

      My second officer was an ingenious man. I directed him to make splints for my arm and how they should be made. My first officer prepared bandages. When all things were in readiness had some of the sailors called down to aid in setting the arm. My second officer extended the arm. I encouraged him by telling him not to be afraid to pull, that all the bones might come into their proper places. I then told my first officer to press the bones into their places. He did so and I have as straight an arm as any man. 'Twas six days from the time I was hurt to arriving at Paita, which is four hundred miles and fifty North of Lima. From the loss of blood I was very weak, they had to fan me forty-eight hours continually. I often fainted quite away. Since, I have had a fan put into all medicine chests where I have had the direction.

      Soon after anchoring had the Doctor from a Spanish King's Ship. He examined my wounds as I lay on my cabin floor. I talked with him through a linguist. He pronounced my wounds bad, my left hand must be cut off, my head was bad, (did not propose cutting that off) but recommended my having the Chaplain to come and confess me. He evidently thought there was little chance of my recovery. When I learned from the linguist what was the Doctor's advice, I directed my Mate to go ashore and request the Commandant to write to Piura to an old Doctor residing there, to send it express, and let nothing prevent his coming to me. I had made up my mind to have nothing done by the first Doctor.

      It was somewhat remarkable my having knowledge of the old Doctor at Piura. When I was mate of ship, I made the acquaintance of Christopher Almy, Mate of Ship Danube of this place. After I saw

22 CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL.

him he had his leg broken by a Whale, was carried to Paita and put under the care of the old Doctor. The ship went off and left him quite destitute.

      On a subsequent Voyage I went into Paita, while there, I wrote Almy I was there, if he was in want of anything, I could supply him as far forth as in me lay. He answered my letter saying "the Doctor my father as I call him (he was Christened Christopher Almy Ortiz taking the Doctor's name) has gone into the country and my situation will not admit of my giving six dollars for a horse, or I would come and see you" then saying "if you have some camphor and rum to dissolve the same, would like to have it to bathe my wounds, to be left with my friend at Paita."

      This was hi the 8th Mo. 1811 I accomplished my Voyage returning home 1st Mo 1812. On my arrival I found a friend of AImy's from the Country, sent the letter I had from the son, with my endorsement to his parents.

      After thirty-six hours the Doctor from Piura came onboard my ship to see me. After asking me some questions relative to my bowels being open, said I must be taken ashore. My mate had procured a house, but when the Doctor saw it, he objected saying he wanted me near his lodgings. He had a niece living in the town, she gave up her best room to me. I had someone from the ship to stay with me. I remained ashore, the Doctor attending me. I told him if he thought it best to take my hand off, "to off with it," for I had full confidence in him.

      He was sixty-nine years old, educated in Spain and had much practice since. He insisted at all times he could save the hand, and he did. He remained with me six days, when I made preparation for my journey, had my cot suspended between two mules, one before me, the other behind, my cot swinging between them, 'twas a very easy way of traveling. The Doctor attended me on the way, with a hundred mules in the caravan, had an awning over my cot, the sun being powerfully hot at the time of starting at 3 P.M. (the most traveling being done in the night, it being so much better for the beasts). The distance was a little short of fifty miles, and in that distance there was not one green spot to be seen. There were some trees two feet in diameter which were dead. There had been no rain for twelve years. The sand had blown into all the romantic forms of snowbanks. We traveled 'till nine o'clock, when halted gave provender to the mules, rested for two or three hours, when we again started, arriving in early morning. 'Twas just coming light as we approached the town, something looked strange of a light appearance when first I saw it, could not devise what it could be, but on a nearer view, found

CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL. 23

'twas females beating the seeds from cotton. During the day 'tis too warm to do much, the cotton was laid on the sand and the seeds beaten out with two sticks. 'Twas said each morning more than a thousand were thus employed. The heat of the day was intense, many days in the early part of my being there, my thermometer ranged at 110° in the shade in my window where the sun never came.

      Before leaving Paita a number of ships and vessels came into port in the evening, causing great consternation to the inhabitants, the Country was in a revolutionary state, the vessels were supposed to be enemies, and such a scene I had never witnessed, that of children crying, mothers running with one child in arms, leading another or two, the barking of dogs, squealing of pigs, with all the din of the inhabitants of a town expecting to be sacked. I was at my house, could not move if the town was fired into. I therefor waited the event. Soon persons began to enter my house with trunks of valuables, desiring me to claim them as my own. About ten o'clock 'twas ascertained the ships that had arrived were commanded by friendly persons, 'twas a confused time all night. Next day I told the Governor had one hour longer elapsed before learning whose ships they were, I should have been Governor.

      There was such a scene as I had never witnessed before. On a subsequent voyage was in this same port of Paita, when Lord Cochrain arrived with several ships and vessels for the purpose of plundering the place. There were six Whaling Ships in port, three American and three English. Cochrain's fleet came in the morning. After anchoring, their ships put springs on their cables, bringing their guns to bear on the town, commenced firing into the town, my ship lay in an exposed situation between the castle and the war ships. I commenced to get my ship underway, one of the English ships was underway when a shot was fired from the commodore s ship bringing him to. I then thought 'twould be useless for me to attempt leaving and dropped my anchor. 'Twas not a comfortable situation to be between two fires or cannonading. In a short time after landing their men, the flag was hauled down at the Castle, when the men headed by their officers entered the town for plunder. I was told his Lordship was at the head of the plundering expedition. We all lay still 'till the following morning, finding 'twas useless laying there longer got my ship underway, with a determination of going to sea if not stopped by the plunderers. I took up my anchors, set little sail 'till passed the flagship, then spread my sails and went out. All the captains of the other five Whalers remained onboard his Lordship's flagship, when near noon this plunderer came on deck, when they all had liberty to withdraw without much satisfaction. I jeered those

24 CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL.

Captains afterwards for their attendance on his Lordship. I had not an exalted opinion of Aristocracy for in this case 'twas the strong triumphing over the weak. There were some small things for so high sounding a name as His Lordship, for while he was on shore sending on board his ship his ill-gotten plunder, I was on board of his ship and saw what came, among which was a female's wardrobe, which I recognized, the owner of which had done much for me in my wounded state. I could but feel sorry for her. She had come into town from Piura to remove her household affairs to that place, finding me there stopped one day to take some things I had for the Doctor's family, in doing which she lost all her clothing and many other useful articles of household affairs, stolen by Lord Cochrain. The bandits with him were mostly English but all had assumed the name of Patriots.1

      At a later period of the Voyage in attempting to enter the port of Callao was prevented doing so by the fleet of Cochrain. Foster was in command of the blockading squadron. I boarded the Independantia, Foster's flagship, found he had his wife onboard, she was the sister of Cochrain. After communicating with the American Frigate Macedonian, found I could get nothing from the shore, Captain Downs informed me 'twas useless to try, he would have aided me had there been any prospect of obtaining what I wanted, vegetables, fruit and water. I then went to Tumbes where I obtained all and everything I wanted at a fair reasonable rate, much to the refreshment of self and ship's company.

      After my little digression I resume my narrative. On arriving at the town of Piura just as the sun was rising, many persons had assembled to see the stranger and wounded man, the street was one dense column. The Doctor had sent to his daughter to prepare a place near his own residence, which she had, directly in front of his office. I had two rooms in front, one for sitting room, the other lodging. I had many things sent me by citizens in the way of fruit and flowers. It was some days before I was sufficiently rested to be able to walk around the town. When I had gained some strength went to all parts of the town, found it much shaken from earthquakes that occurred a year and a half before my being there. Many of the houses and all the churches (nine in number) were badly broken. One was less injured than the others, in consequence of the Padre (or Priest) never ceasing to ring the bell, such was their belief (at least they said so). 'Twas seldom I was without fruit of some kind. The little children would come with a particular flower with a stick stuck through them with another transversely forming a cross. They were fragrant so that my home was always perfumed by flowers. Two little boys


      1 For another point of view as to Lord Cochrain, see page 83.

CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL. 25

came often to see me. I was much pleased to have them come and I always gave them fruit or something to induce them to come again, if without, gave them sugar. If they were missing, their mother knew where to find them. The early part of my being there 'twas very warm but it gradually grew cooler, so dry was it, that there was no moisture in the earth, but the air was very pure, hence the name of the town Piura.

      The streets were narrow, making it always shady. For the first month or more, I never saw the thermometer lower than 84°. Few persons were seen in the streets after ten o'clock in the morning 'till after four in the afternoon, at which time the breeze would draw up the valley of the river from Sechura Bay which brings up the sea breeze, which was quite invigorating. I usually went to the River before the sun had risen over the Cordilleras when 'twas comfortably cool. Sometimes prolonging my walk, I was out later than 'twas my intention and found the sand so heated by the sun as to make it uncomfortable for my feet and often sought the shade.

      I had been at Piura nearly six weeks before I heard an English word spoken (except in my own family). One morning going to the River, I met a man in a singular costume for that Country. His appearance induced me to salute him by bidding him good morning. He responded readily by replying "good morning sir." 'Twas quite a treat to me to hear my native language spoken. I made inquiry where he had learned the English language, and he informed me he had been in England, a prisoner five years. His profession was that of a Comedian. He was to perform the coming evening and gave me an invitation to be present, for which I thanked him but should not be able to attend on account of my health. And another important point 'twould have been trying to the Doctor for me to have attended any such exhibition for I believe him to have been a truly Religious man.

      I had been at Piura some six weeks, which was the time the Doctor had thought 'twould take for the bone of my right arm to knit strong enough to set the shoulder. I had up to that time had both arms in slings around my neck, being entirely helpless and had my food put into my mouth. The Doctor decided that my arm was well set and had done nothing for it, but apply different splints. I had gained slowly but steadily, my strength was somewhat improved. I found I could get my hand to my head to feed myself and could write, not supposing I should ever be able to do much more, told the Doctor my shoulder had partially knitted, would now have to be broken up, I came to the conclusion to have no more breaking, and so informed the Doctor. My head was quite healed up, my jaw was much better,

26 CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL.

my hand was still painful. One of the bones that was broken, one end of the same rose up, the other end being confined held it stationary and made it very painful. I called the attention of the Doctor, telling him he must cut it out. He declined at first, but after several sleepless nights, I importuned him more urgently, when he cut some in the morning, and at night some more. The following morning he took the bone out, from which time I was free from pain. The suppuration of my hand had, unperceived by me, run nearly all the flesh from my arm. On attempting to lean my elbow on the table, I perceived it hurt me. On examining my arm, I found there was little beside skin and bone left, and it is still smaller than the other.

      After being in Piura a month, I was at a resort near the Hospital, where many assembled in the afternoon to meet the refreshing breeze drawing up the river. A caravan that had just arrived from Paita were going to water their beasts, one of the men called to me "Capitan to Fragata es en Paita." Not regarding him, he repeated his call. I then called him to me, asking him how he knew my ship was at Faith. (Had of necessity to speak Spanish, no other language being spoken.) The muleteer informed me my ship was in Paita, had taken five whales, had lost one big one. I then asked him how he knew all this. He informed me "Mudo oblace tutear." My mate had enjoined it on all the ship's company not to inform me what they had done. I had one man who was a mute, the mate never thought to caution him. 'Twas from him the Spaniard was informed. I was fifty miles in the Country, learned through a deaf and dumb man my ship was in Port, had been successful. I had directed my Mate to return to port after one month, by that time 'twould be decided whether I should recover, in case I did not 'twould be necessary to take the boy whom I carried with me.

      Three days before the ship arrived directed a letter to my first officer at Paita, directing him not to bring the ship to anchor but go off for two months more. After the bone was taken from my hand, it improved rapidly. Before the two months had passed, I was much better and concluded to go down to Paita. I joined a caravan, started in the afternoon and arrived the following morning and had been three days there when the ship came in. I found the Spaniards of South America the most benevolent people I had been acquainted with, many of them tendered to me all the assistance 'twas in their power. Many of the females picked and prepared lint for dressing my wounds. Many little delicacies of fruit and flowers were sent me. During my stay in the Country, I witnessed the entire change of the water in the river, from being quite a stream diminished that much of the bed of the river

CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL. 27

was dry for many weeks. I often traveled miles on the bed of the river, 'twas hard smooth sand. I crossed the river to a Village on the other side. While there I saw a whirlwind coming towards me, 'twas not large when first I saw it but increased in size and strength 'till I was alarmed. Its course was direct for me, taking up everything in its way. In my weak state, I felt 'twould be impossible for me to stand up. I got to a small tree, set myself down on the ground with my arm around the tree, holding my hat with the other hand. I think I should have suffered had it reached me, for large limbs of trees were in its vortex, which had been twisted and broken from the dry trunk of the lifeless trees, when it passed me 'twas two hundred feet in diameter or more and five or six hundred feet in height, making an awful appearance and rush of wind. It passed not more than two hundred feet from me, and I was thankful for the escape. After being in Piura five or six weeks, it rained in the Mountains when water came down the river in the afternoon, by the next morning 'twas three feet deep. When the sound came that the river was coming, some four thousand of the citizens went up to meet it, making it a holy day which was the eighth in succession. The following day floating craft came down with the current.

      I had been more than two months in the Country and my health and strength had improved. The place I was at contained nine thousand inhabitants, with nine Churches, many of them much injured as were many of the dwellings by earthquakes. The Doctor informed me the River had never been dry until after those shocks, which cleft the bed of the River, when the water settled immediately down, and had occasionally been dry since. When the water came from the mountains, the citizens repaired to the River to bathe, so cold was the water, their teeth would rattle with cold, but 'twas esteemed beneficial to health.

      There was no other order of Christians but Catholics, many of them very zealous and Church-going people. The Doctor attended Church daily at two o'clock in the morning, was very devout and I believed him a good man. The principal spiritual adviser came often to see me and was desirous of my embracing the Catholic belief. He came not long before I left to pour his benediction on me and to enjoin it strictly on me never to go after another whale. He said to me if he could talk my language he could convince me of my error and could not bear for me to leave them in my heretical state. The Padre Gupualyan (for that was what he was called) I believed to be sincere in his zeal and regard he had for me.

      It caused much pain to lift my hands above my head, therefor

28 CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL.

had my clothes fitted with strings to put them around me and tie. My outside covering was a sheet with a place open in the middle to put my head through, it then hung loosely around me making a Poncho not unlike those worn by the South Americans. Some of their Ponchos were expensive and beautiful. Having previously made arrangement to join a Caravan, started in the afternoon (I rode a mule), on a very warm and clear sunny day. I had a thin coat, turned down my cuffs, but such was, the power of the sun that my hands were blistered. I had been unable to wear much clothing 'till a short time before leaving. The first time was what they called Easter, 'twas in the third month. For three days they were dressed in cast-off clothing, slouched hats and shoes, at the expiration of that time (in commemoration of our Saviour laying in the tomb) on the third day Judas was stretched across one of the principal streets in effigy, stuffed with combustibles. When the explosion took place, it caused exceeding joy and merriment. On the following morning, everyone came out in their best attire and all were jubilant. I, among the rest, dressed myself for the occasion in my best, which was pleasing to the citizens. I had made the acquaintance of a Gentleman and be came to my house to walk with me. He seemed acquainted with everyone and introduced me to many of the townspeople, which made it more pleasant for me afterwards. The son of a Governor of an interior province had recently been married and came to Piura to make their bridal tour. I was introduced to them at the house where they were stopping. The sister of the bride desired to know of my friend if I spoke Spanish. He answered in the negative, and then the inquiry was made if I comprehended their conversation, and they were told no. The company soon began to make some comment on me. After a time I made answer to one of their remarks, when the shout was deafening from all the company. The females bore down hard on my friend for his deception. Whenever I met any of the company afterwards, they were sure to mention the affair.

      I had improved much and was desirous of getting on board my Ship. I had been at Paita three days when my ship came in. It had taken fifty barrels of oil in the last cruise. After a few days, I got all things that were necessary and left, went to the Galapagos Islands. After making some little stay at those Islands, I directed my course for mainland. When near and in the vicinity of Isle of Plate, saw many whales and took two hundred barrels in a short time. My water being nearly expended, I directed my course for Tumbes, where we replenished all our stores that were then needed.

Portrait of Edmund Gardner by William A. Wall
Portrait of Edmund Gardner by William A. Wall
belonging to Henry Forster.

CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL. 29

On leaving went up near the Lobos Islands and found the fishing ground very cheering, took nearly all we wanted to complete the cargo, then directed my course for Paita to procure fresh supplies and to fit the ship for passing the Cape and making our passage home. I found myself much debilitated, and the idea of passing Cape Horn bore with weight on my mind. As we approached the southern clime, my strength improved and the fears of bad weather off the Cape were quite dispelled. Our course was rapid towards home, had a pleasant passage, more so than any before, was a few days more than three months from Paita to New Bedford, where we arrived in safety, having been absent twenty-three months and procured a full cargo of sperm oil, 1450 barrels, and returned my whole ship's company in health. On the early part of the voyage, for some misdemeanor, had to punish one of my men, from which time he behaved himself like a man. Soon after my arrival, I met the above named man. He then asked me to give him a recommendation, saying "I hope you will say nothing of what took place on the voyage for you served me just right." He was decidedly one of the best men I had with me. I told him the day previous to punishing him (for some offense) for the next offense I would punish him. His reply was "we are not to be punished on board of this ship." The next day he tried it and on the same day I punished him. Having all hands called, I then addressed him by telling him the laws of his Country were open for him if I had not done him justice, he could have it on his return, having all his shipmates for evidence in the case. I believe he ever considered me his friend as he often came to see me. Thus ended my last voyage in Ship Winslow in 6 Mo 1817.

      Having made some remarks of going to the Galapagos Islands, which are celebrated for some things, there's a peculiar kind of turtle which live on the land. They are called terrapin. They are really land turtle and they don't go near water unless 'tis to drink. In the rainy season, they take water into a reservoir nature has prepared for them, to be sufficient for six months. They are a singular animal, they masticate nothing, bite and swallow in the form 'tis bitten off. They are fitted for their situation and condition. They drink through the nose, and when a little fresh water has been caught in the cavity of a rock, they set their nose on the end and draw all the water from the rock. The reservoir or bags that contain their water in the dry season becomes fat, not unlike the leaf of the hog, but different from it in another respect. The fat which is yellow and sweet as new butter will not shorten pastry any more than salt water. I have often tried it

30 CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL.

without any favorable result. There's one thing more I consider remarkable, that their blood should be cold. When first I visited those Islands (some short time before going there) I made inquiry whether their blood was hot or cold, but no one could inform me. I noted it down. A few days we spoke with a ship from those Islands and they gave us a few terrapin. When the cook dressed them, I stood by and found 'twas different from my expectation. The blood was cold and was uniform with the temperature. When the temperature is cool, then their blood vibrates more sluggishly. In one case, I had one put down below when passing Cape Horn. On some occasion had to go down where the terrapin was and they found him dead and they asked should it be thrown overboard. The word got to me and I said no and ordered him taken into the cabin where there was a fire. His feet were stretched out, his neck its full length from the shell and his eyes closed. After remaining before the fire more than an hour, the first appearance of life was his opening his eyes and after some little time had elapsed drew up one foot, then the other, and before the day had passed, he was traveling around the cabin. He probably would never have moved again had he not been warmed or thawed out. As we drew up into cool weather, the blood thickened and ceased to vibrate. When we arrived into a more genial clime, he became active as is usual for them to be. They go slowly but determinedly and never cease trying to go where they want to. I had one that tried three days to get upon the water, but when it would get part of the way up, the lurch of the ship would make it slide down to the lee side of the deck, then it would turn and walk up and go through the same effort as before. It would lie still through the night and commence again in the morning. On the third day, he succeeded, which seemed to satisfy him. After looking around, he was taken down, but he never wanted or tried to get up again. The time they will endure without victuals or drink is astonishing. I had one on ship board more than a year without having anything, unless he drank water when it rained. They become very poor in flesh after six months and the meat loses its sweetness. The account I have thus noted would seem fabulous were there not many living witnesses who would corroborate this my statement.

      I was born and educated a friend or Quaker, consequently opposed to war from my youth up, in all its parts for many years, and still am in the way it's been carried on since 1861 between brethren, to the distress and suffering of thousands and still likely to continue.

      I do think we might learn wisdom from the poor terrapin. They

CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL. 31

fight, as does every specie of animals, and worse than animals the human race that's endowed with rational faculties, and Christian professors, seeking to destroy each other in deadly combat. There's one kind of fighting I must advocate, which we may learn from the terrapin, which is the only good way of fighting I have yet known. They meet for battle with beginning to raise their heads, each raising his head, stretching up his neck, standing on one forefoot to enable him to get his head a little higher. Whichever gets his head the highest is conqueror, the vanquished lowers his head, turns off, and neither of them touches the other. Thus ends the battle, which is the only good way of fighting. Some of them are large and strong. I attempted at one time to drive a large one to my boat. He went moderately for a quarter of a mile, when be did not choose to go any further. I then sat down on him, my friend who was with me did also, and after a time he started with both of us sitting on him. Our united weight was not less than three hundred pounds. Such as this was too heavy to carry to the boat. I have known them to have been killed weighing hundred pounds to the quarter. They are excellent food and have never known a person to die from being fed on the meat of terrapin. Their eggs before the shell has been formed, often taken from them when dressed, and put into an oven pan, when full two-thirds of the bulk of the eggs would be fat. No lard could be finer for frying fish, and I have heard of its being salted and being used in preference to rancid butter for bread.

      The cotton plant or tree grows spontaneously on those Islands, doubtless might be cultivated and made productive. The leaves make very good tea and have known a ship's company to be fully restored from the scurvy by drinking the tea made from the leaves of the plant. So much attached were they to it, they preferred it to new tea on its way from China. I have one thing more to say relative to the terrapin. Their natures are all alike at the different Islands, but they differ in their appearance at each Island. A person acquainted with those Islands would readily know from which Island terrapins were taken from. The liver of those from Charles Island is delicious, more so than others.

      Having returned in an invalid state, few days passed without ill feelings caused by my weak state. It seemed doubtful to me if I should ever be able to do much more. I, however, came to the conclusion to try and do something for the support of my little family. I had three children, the eldest six years, the second four, the third and youngest near two. Soon after my return, they were all attacked with whooping cough. Two of them sunk under their malady, one recovered but had not gained his strength when the fever set in, which

32 CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL.

terminated his existence. We buried all three of them in less than three months, leaving our house desolate. 'Twas a severe dispensation but could do nothing ourselves but put our trust in divine Providence, where our whole support and strength lay.

      I commenced a school for young men to instruct them in mathematics and navigation and had a pleasant company of young men. There were twenty-five of them, subsequently all of them commanded ships but one, and he probably would have had he been strictly a temperate man. I also kept an evening school at my house for younger persons and in different branches. The emolument was small but had no other resource. I continued through the winter hoping something might appear favorable for me.

      After the spring opened, I received a letter from one of the owners of the Ship Winslow, which was the last ship I had sailed, tendering me the command of a ship that was being built in New Bedford. My health was slim, but after mature reflection I answered the letter received, accepting the command of said Ship. Through the summer, I made preparation to sail in the fall. I joined the ship some six weeks before sailing and had everything fitted and prepared to my entire satisfaction, and sailed 12th of 11 Mo. 1818. We had a rugged uncomfortable time off this coast, had been about two weeks out when we discovered the bowsprit badly sprung. I secured it and went on our way with a determination to go into Brazil to procure another. I arrived in fifty days at the Island of St. Catherine's, where I procured a suitable stick, bought the tree standing, cut the roots and felled the tree. By so doing, I got the whole length without any risk of its being shaken. When it was down ready for transporting, I had all my Ship's company to assist and we hauled it three miles by tackles. Part of the way we had one tackle on the back of another. We got it down, made and put in, and sailed in ten days.

      On my arrival at St. Cruise had to go in my boat fourteen miles to the principal town by water, but landing on the north side of the peninsula called on the Captain of the Port and walked to the town, half a mile distance, saving three miles rowing. On my way over to the Office of the Chief Judge, I informed the Captain of the Port it was my desire to enter and clear my Ship at the same time, which would supersede the necessity of my having to come again to the town. The Captain informed me it could not be done. I queried with him why it could not be done. His answer was it never had been done. I then asked him if he would state to the Judge what I wanted in the same way I had stated it to him (the Capt. of the Port spoke English fluently and assured me he would make my statement in Portuguese to the Judge). On his doing so, the Judge's immedi-

CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL. 33

ate reply was "it cannot be done" I wanted nothing but a stick for my bowsprint. I then informed him it was common occurrence in my Country, and after quite a demur, the Judge came to the conclusion to do all I wanted him to. When we had left the office, the Captain of the Port said "this is the first vessel that ever entered and cleared at a Brazilian Port at the same time." The following day after my entry and clearance I commenced preparing the bowsprit. It was hard wood, called in that country oilier. It was something like the teak of the East Indies, hard crossgrained wood and heavy, would sink readily as a stone. I made all possible despatch and sailed for the Pacific. We had the usual westerly gales to contend with in passing Cape Horn. On arriving on the Coast of Chile and Peru, I had unfavorable accounts of the Ships that had been cruising in those localities. I proceeded down the coast, finding nothing encouraging, came to the decision of going into the North Pacific. Before leaving went into Paita to get some supplies. While there, Lord Cochrain came with a fleet of Patriotic Ships firing on the town and then plundering the same. Finding we could get nothing from the shore concluded to leave, his Lordship prevented our landing after he had taken possession of the place. I then steered off towards the Galapagos Islands and before getting there took one hundred and fifty barrels of sperm oil. After leaving these Islands directed my course for the Coast of California in company with Ships Equator, Folger and Triton, Wood. We sailed to the North as far as San Francisco, found rugged weather and nothing prosperous. We steered down the coast and took some oil. The two ships in company concluded to go into anchor at Ceros Island. Having a lame knee, it was less care for me to remain out. I had one man complaining with scurvy and fearing I might have more had made up my mind to go to the Sandwich Islands. I had prepared my ship with all light sails when I met the Equator. I informed him of my intention. He thought it was too late to go off there and get in time on the West Coast of Mexico. I informed Folger what my determination was. So little did I expect him to accompany me that I wrote my letters for him to forward to the United States if an opportunity presented. He took my letters and then said "if I conclude to go in company with you, I will stand on, if not, shall tack in for the land." I gave orders in the morning to put the ship on a W.S.W. course putting on all sail. In a short time after the morning, I discovered he was following. We made the best of our way to the Sandwich Islands where we arrived in six-

34 CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL.

teen days, had a pleasant passage to the Islands and arrived at Hawaii 19th 9 Mo 1819.

      I received a letter from G. D. Gillman of those Islands desiring me to give him a statement of my first visiting those Islands. I accordingly wrote him the following date:

      "New Bedford 20th 11 Mo 1857 Being on the Coast of California in Ship Balmna of New Bedford in company with Ship Equator, Elisha Folger of Nantucket. Scurvy making its appearance in my ship's company, I came to the conclusion to put off to the Sandwich Islands for refreshments. I left California 3d of 9 Mo 1819. I came to anchor in Kealakekua Bay, Hawaii in seventeen fathoms water. While at this place heeled my ship to paint the bends and kept all the natives on one side of the ship, having previously installed one of the Natives as shipkeeper with a rattan for his badge of office. He had in his possession several recommendations from shipmasters of his efficiency of clearing the ship of natives when troublesome. One day I think there must have been more than two hundred on board, when they became much excited, making a great noise. I was somewhat alarmed, stamped on the deck and called on the shipkeeper to clear the ship of Kanakas. He accordingly drove them from the deck in five minutes into the sea. I then suffered but few to come at a time. The next day a native who had been in Boston came on board and he spoke good English. I desired him to make inquiry what was the difficulty with the natives the previous day. He soon came and informed me that the natives of the district where the ship lay wanted to have all our trade and would not suffer others from other districts to interfere. Their intention was to monopolize all the trade with us. I then found that the Sandwich Islanders possessed the same feelings as ourselves and ready to contend for their supposed rights.

      "After being there a week I was on deck early in the morning when one of the Kanakas called in an animated manner `mokee, mokee'. In looking to the westward, I saw a large sperm Whale spouting. I immediately called to Captain Folger of the Equator and told him there was a large sperm whale, that I would send two boats if he would send two, and we would divide what we obtained. He agreed to the same and our boats left at 7 A. M. in pursuit and were soon out of sight north of the harbor. I did not like to send all my boats, not having full confidence in the natives of that place. We saw nothing nor heard anything until 4 P. M., when two canoes arrived in the bay paddling very fast and came to my ship. The Kanakas wiped the perspiration and talked very fast, being much excited. I could understand nothing. One of them shut his eyes and laid his head on one side in his hand. I then called to Capt. Folger and told him our boats had killed the whale (for we had remained on board our ships in the absence of our boats). He asked me how I knew. I answered him the natives had told me so. I immediately sent another boat to help tow the whale to the ship. In two hours they made their appearance, with fifty canoes helping tow. Our boats were absent the whole day, reaching the ship after sunset. The next day we commenced cutting in our fish, and I have no doubt there were as many natives around our ship as Capt. Cook had around his ship when first he visited those Islands. All the canoes were called into requisition far and near, and hundreds came swimming, not having any conveyance. While cutting in, we had to be careful to prevent

CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL. 35

cutting the Kanakas for as soon as we had taken off the blubber they commenced (with our leave) to tear off the lean from the carcass and fill their canoes as fast as they could tear it off. They had a great festival from what they got from the whale.

      "After laying till 1st of 10 Mo. left for Rahina (Lahaina) Mowee (Maui) for water, where we found Butler a resident, formerly from Martha's Vineyard. Also a Chief called Governor and sometimes John Adams 1 . He seemed to be principal man at Maui. After taking in our water went to Woahoo (Oahu) to leave letters to be sent Via Canton. The ship Paragon, Wilds and Ship Eagle, Meek were nearly ready to sail for China.

      "There was a little incident which occurred while at Kealakekua when we were boiling through the night which I will relate. Both ships were making much light from the tryworks, so at times to light the whole bay; it was a natural conclusion with the natives that we must want fuel. In the morning canoes came to my ship bringing wood for sale. They were somewhat surprised to find we were not in want of wood. The oil obtained from the whale was one hundred and two barrels. Left Oahu 10th of 10 Mo 1819 for Coast of California. I shipped two Kanakas from Maui and had them the remainder of the Voyage and took them to New Bedford. Their names were Joe Bal and Jack Ena, the two names comprising that of my ship Balsena. Much notice was taken of them, singing their national songs and airs. They were the first brought to this place. On a subsequent Voyage I took them back to Maui and left them there, they preferring to stay at their own Island. They were well fitted with clothing for the Voyage. I gave them all the clothing that had been furnished them by the ship, which was sufficient for three years. We had been but six months from home.

      "On a subsequent Voyage I visited Kealakekua and was visited by Comocow 2 the principal chief in the province or district. He came often and dined with me. In the early part of the day I went on shore to view the place where Captain Cook was killed. After examining the fatal spot I went towards my boat and on my way saw Comocow and many others partaking of some freshly caught fish. The fish were in a large bowl. Their chief called for packi (salt) which was put on them (the live fish), when they jumped from the bowl. After they fitted them for eating, the Chief invited me to partake with them. I declined, giving him to understand that I had eaten on board my ship. He looked me steadfast in the eyes and said plainly, "you lie " I could but smile for this was the extent of his English. He had learned this much from sailors and nothing more."

      On leaving Maui I discharged my Kanakas and these with the desertion of one man left me three 'short of my complement of the ship's company. I took two natives from Maui, one from Oahu and one from Onehow (Niihau). The names I gave them were Henry Harmony, George Germaine, John Jovel and Sam How. I finished recruiting at Niihau, where we took as many potatoes and yams as we needed. I bought twenty barrels of yams and the same quantity of potatoes of George Tamoree at Attowai. I took my order from


      1 Chief Kuakini or John Adams, as he had been dubbed at the time John Adams was President of the United States, was Governor of the Island of Hawaii. He lived at Kailua on that Island.

      2 Chief Keeaumoku or Cox, brother of Chief Kuakini or Adams, was Governor of the Island of Maui.

36 CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL.

him to receive them from Niihau. My order was in the shape of a Kanaka which by the way was the only kind of an order that could have been delivered, for on arriving at the west side of the Island found the surf too high to land, but sent my boat to take my order near the shore and despatched it through the surf and presented it. The articles were all collected and another day when it was smooth my boats landed and took off all we wanted. Three iron hoops would load my boat with potatoes and yams, having the hoops cut in pieces for change. One hundred pounds of iron hoops procured more vegetables than $160. had at the other Islands, so many ships having resorted there for supplies. On my first visiting those Islands two hundred pounds of hoops purchased all I wanted, but the natives had learned the value of money since my first visit to those Islands in 1819. Previous to this date no Whaling ship had ever been at any of those Islands.

      I left Niihau 6th of 4 Mo 1822 for japan and was absent from the Islands five months, having taken 1500 barrels which completed my cargo, 2150 barrels of sperm oil.

      I had a fine passage to the United States, in twelve months had taken fifteen hundred barrels and made my passage home. On my arrival found business of all kinds depressed and sperm oil was never at so low a figure. The settlement of the voyage was made up, figured on 37c per gallon the lowest rate of any cargo that ever came to this country. I drew my share for myself and for my interest in the ship (having a small interest in said ship) and stored my oil for a higher price. After remaining at home four months took the command of the Ship South America of Nantucket. Having sailed from New Bedford from 1808 to 1823. I still held my part of Ship Bal, na that was now freighting from New York.

      I sailed from Edgartown in Ship South America 21st of 8 Mo. 1823 for the Coast of Patagonia. Soon after sailing, I found the ship made too much water and after having a strong fair wind, I found the rate of leaking had doubled. I then directed to have the ship pumped morning and evening and went on our way and stopped at the Island of Pico, where we obtained a bountiful supply of vegetables and fruit at a very favorable rate, four barrels of whale oil paying for all our supplies. Being late for the season, we drove on as fast as possible, arriving on the whaling ground in two and a half months and had 270 barrels of oil 60 of which was sperm. We fished on till about the middle of 2 Mo. 1824. The whales then left the ground where we were cruising, about thirteen hundred miles from the Coast of Patagonia. I had all sail put on with the

CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL. 37

intention of going on with the Coast, but found my ship continued to increase the leak. In taking the last 800 lbs. it had leaked seven hundred strokes of the pump per hour. On the morning of the 24th, finding the leak increased, after I had had my breakfast, I laid it before my officers, if they were not satisfied, I would carry them in on the Coast and stay till they were all satisfied. My own mind was fully made up but wished my officers to be fully satisfied. I had not asked their counsel before. They were fully united, all of one mind, and that was for me to do what I thought best. I then directed for the studding sail booms to be put up and all things prepared for making a passage. In eighteen days we were at Bahia (San Salvador) where we were detained thirty-five days. After discharging cargo in part, I heeled my ship, stripped off some of the sheathing, found some of seams open and had calkers and carpenters come with their companies. After making some examination, the boss carpenter and boss calker conferred together and said (they not knowing I understood) "We will do nothing unless he will discharge his ship entirely and we shall have a good job." They could both speak English fluently and did not know I understood Portuguese. One of them stated they could do nothing for me unless they went through thoroughly. I then asked them if they would do what I wanted and stop when I told them to. They then said they could not answer to the underwriters. I then asked them if they would do what I wanted them to and nothing more and they said no. I then told them the sooner they took their men on shore the better, and that I would do what needed to be done myself. This brought about a parley. One said to the other (in his native tongue) "He will have nothing done." They then concluded as they were there with their men to do what I wanted them to. I asked them what they had to do with underwriters and who called them to the ship. I then told them I would have nothing done different from my direction and remained on the stage all the time they were at work. Having done all I wanted them to, I called for their bill for labor, which amounted to one hundred thirteen dollars. Had they pursued their course, the expense would not have been less than from six to eight thousand dollars. I left this place 6th of 4 Mo 1824 for the United States. I had stopped much of the leak, so I was satisfied to proceed. I was expecting to leave the next day when to my surprise I was informed by the Consul a communication from my ship's company had been received protesting against the ship's seaworthiness (no officer with them was under any obligation to have a survey). I told the Consul it was my wish for him

38 CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL.

to appoint a survey even if there was no legal necessity. He accordingly did so and they remained on board an hour to ascertain the amount of leak per hour.

      Nine of my men had refused to do any more duty until the ship should be thoroughly repaired. When I left the ship, I instructed my first officer not to give liberty for any to leave the ship but not to stop them from going, but see they took nothing but what belonged to them. I also told him to send the boat for me at 6 o'clock in the morning, sending me a list of those on board. By the Mate's list, I found nine had left. A ship had been sold and her men were transferred to me by the Consul, making my full complement. Several of the deserters applied to me to join the ship again. I told them they had deserted the ship once, 'twas not worthwhile to join the ship for if I had occasion to go to another port, they might desert again. Therefor I thought it better for them to look out for themselves and not desert twice in one voyage. I had thirty-seven days' passage from Bahia to Edgartown, where we arrived on the 12th of 5 Mo. 1824.

      I took passage in the Packet to Nantucket, somewhat surprising my owners for they were desirous of my spending the whole season on the Coast of Patagonia. While on the fishing ground, I had an opportunity of writing by a homeward bound ship. I had never mentioned my ship's leaking (my intention had been to remain on the Coast of Patagonia until the sixth month), but when I was writing the Agent mentioned, "I shall not stay late on Coast, particularly should my ship prove more dropsicaI." I thought it would put them on their guard, but I did not want to alarm them. The evening I anchored in Tarpolin Cove, the pump was going one third of the time. The previous day I had carried sail with a brisk breeze, which increased the leak fifty per cent from what it had been on the passage. I had been absent eight months and a half and had taken 1500 barrels and a small quantity of bone. Oil was eighteen cents per gallon and bone six cents per pound. These prices were not remunerating, I therefor made up my mind to go no more whaling and accordingly have been no more in this business.

      I remained at home until the last of the year when I sailed in Ship Phebe Ann of New Bedford on a trading voyage to Brazil. Our first port was Pernambuco, where we arrived in one month and a half. The cargo was an assorted one, consisting of oil, salt, dry goods (domestics), fish, wine, hams, and cheese. On my arrival, I found the market was fully supplied and a heavy, dull market for my cargo. I disposed of what I could and then went to Bahia,

CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL. 39

where the market was well supplied, sold another portion of the cargo, and as there was no sale for the balance, I made up my mind to leave for Rio Janeiro, where I arrived after a short passage. I found the market fully supplied there too, but after a time sold all my cargo except the salt, which I found would bring nothing more than the ballast I should have to buy. I therefor kept the salt in and invested my funds in hides, horns and coffee.

      I will now give a description of the harbors of each of the ports before mentioned. Pernambuco looks more like art than nature, for the recife 1 which protects the shipping is something like five or six miles in length, nearly level with the sea, at spring tides it flows over making it rugged for the shipping two or three hours, but after the tide ebbs off, it is like lying in a dock all still and quiet. It was a very healthy place when I was there. Fruits and vegetables of tropical growth were fine and in great quantities. They also have excellent fish from the banks not far distant. There's an inner harbor where vessels are taken to repair, quite like going into a basin. The depth that can be carried over the bar is not over thirteen feet. My ship drew that depth and on crossing the bar stopped for a short time, having all the between decks cargo on board the ship heeled easily on one side, floated and went over the bar, where there was water enough. All ships and vessels were moored to the recite.


      1 Recife is the Portuguese word for reef. The capital of the State of Pernambuco is now known as Recife.

      During my stay at this place, there were many holidays and among them was Carnival, on which much preparation was being made, balls of wax filled with water of various colors were prepared for weeks before. On that celebrated day no business was done. It was a common thing on persons meeting to throw wax balls containing water into each other's faces. Some were on verandas with syringes holding more than a quart, pouring the contents on the passersby. On that day, I was dressed for the occasion in an entire black suit (no business could be done this day). I walked up the principal street of the City, several females were in a veranda and as I approached where they were, I heard one of them say "no 'twill not do for he is a priest," (or rather a padre), so I passed on. The next who came was drenched, but I escaped, being taken for a spiritual guide. During the holidays, Ray and Bryant, who did my business, invited all who were consigned to them to spend the day at their country seat, about three miles from the City. It was late before we finished dining and I remained through the night for in

40 CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL.

that country I would not travel nights. In early morning I made up a party to ride to the beautiful little village of Babareba, where we arrived just as the sun was rising. A gorge through the mountains made a pass for us when the town opened to us, the sun showing full on all the buildings, an open square in front of a spacious church, which was white, surrounded with everlasting verdure and with orange trees well stocked with fruit. I think I have never seen a more beautiful sight as when it first opened to our view. A chain of mountains encompassed the village and there was but one pass into the town, which we went in on. After riding through the town, we returned to our lodgings, breakfasted and returned to the City and left shortly for Bahia, which is a magnificent City containing one hundred thirty thousand inhabitants at the time I was there, 1825. There was but little accommodation in the business part of the City, being one principal street with some short transverse streets near the landing and along the water. All business was done in the lower part of the City.

      After business hours were over, all retired to their places of residence. Many had their horses in waiting while others rode in a sedan carried by two negroes. The way to the upper City was very steep up a zigzag road making many angles in getting to the top of the hill. Once you arrived at the upper City, it was beautiful, a fine breeze making it comfortably cool. There you had in view a splendid City extending over a large space, no part being compact.

      On such public demonstration while I was there, the City was illuminated. From my Ship the sight was imposing. There were fourteen ranges of windows one above another at one view on the side of the abrupt hill. Much of the city was not visible from the shipping. The dock yard and public landing were surrounded with a double range of lights. At the time I was there, shipping from all countries were there, more than a thousand sail. The harbor and bay are splendid and capacious enough to accommodate many thousand ships. It i,s a good harbor, above the usual anchorage for twenty miles or more. At one time, far above the shipping, the humpback whales were taken in large numbers, but of late years few have been taken. I went up the bay on a sporting expedition, where were many sugar establishments on extensive scales, mills for crushing the cane and all necessary fixtures for completing the sugar making, that being the principal business around that part of the country. Sugar, coffee and hides made up the cargoes for the many ships that were loading for different parts of Europe. More than thirty sail of Hamburgers were near my ship, also many Bre-

CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL. 41

men and North European vessels, most of them for the Mediterranean. After selling all the cargo I could find a market for, I settled my business and cleared for Rio Janeiro, took ten cabin passengers of different nations. We had light moderate weather but favorable wind and smooth. My passengers were forward near the bowsprit. I saw they were playing roughly and I said to the mate it would end in a quarrel, and very soon one of them accidently injured another's shirt frill. In retaliation, the sufferer tore the other's frill away from his shirt. Then commenced the combat, one of them was an English Merchant, the other a Brazilian Government Officer. As soon as they were in full combat, I went forward and asked them if they knew what they were about. By this time, one or both were bleeding freely. I took the Brazilian by the collar and separated them, telling them I would have no such acts on board my ship. One of them was very insolent so I called on my mate in a decided manner to bring some irons and if they would not behave themselves, I would make them. When they found they were to be shackled, they gave up. In a few days we arrived at Rio, when both of those passengers came and made an apology for their behavior. They both seemed to be ashamed of their acts.

      On our arrival at Rio, I found a larger fleet of shipping. It was said there were near fifteen hundred sail in this port. At this place I sold the balance of my cargo except the salt, which would bring nothing more than stone ballast, and so I decided to keep it onboard. I then invested most of my funds in hides and horns and the balance in coffee, and then left for New Bedford on the 23d of 5 Mo 1825. We had a pleasant passage of thirty-four days, had no occasion to reef our sails. It was a summer passage in every sense of the term.

      I remained long enough to load the ship with oil. With the hides between the decks, the ship was entirely full in every part. We sailed in just one month after my arrival from Brazil for Hamburg.

      We had a pleasant passage to the English Channel and from that time had many unfavorable winds. We had many days of contrary winds and made slow progress, being off Dover with a strong breeze several days. The wind becoming more favorable, we put through the Straits of Dover and on the third day arrived at Cuxhaven, and from there got up the river as soon as winds and weather would permit.

      In going up the Channel (never having been there before), I made many observations. I had often heard the people of England were much excited and feared Napoleon's landing on their Island,

42 CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL.

but I supposed it was more newspaper accounts than anything real. It was said Napoleon had promised his soldiers he would pay them off in the Minories in London and many other reports were in circulation, but these are the facts that came within my own knowledge, from personal observation. Along the Channel coast watch-towers were built for the express purpose of giving the intelligence by telegraph should there be a landing at any point. This confirmed to me that they were frightened and that, not a little.

      I lay my ship near to the Town of Folkestone, and my being so near the shore, a party came from the town, had a large boat launched and they came on board, bringing with them the morning papers from London, which was quite a treat to me having so late a paper. They remained on board two hours and I furnished them some excellent cigars, which was compensation for the news they had brought us. One of the party was a Lieutenant in the Navy and the others were Government officers. The Lieutenant's house was near the town, and the gentlemen with him were his guests.

      Soon after arriving at Cuxhaven, I had a visit from the Broker. I could not accompany him to the City until we had passed Stade, where we came to anchor, repairing on board an English ship and then to the office on shore to pay the dues to the Hanoverian Government, where all vessels have to report that are bound up the Elbe to Hamburg. The Master of all foreign vessels have to go to the stationary ship and from thence to the office in the Hanoverian territory. English vessels make no stop, sending their papers by a boy to the Ship and Office and continuing on their way. The boy had to get to the City in the best way he could. I made the best of my way to the Office, despatched my business there, was soon on board and under way until the tide had gone. I then took passage with the Broker for the far famed City of Hamburg. Everything was new to me (even in an old City), never having been on the Continent of Europe. I took my lodgings at the Boom House, that being the central place for business men. George H. Busche was a passenger with me to his House, and I applied to him to aid me in my business. Busche was a German and had now entered as a partner in the House of Harder Peterson & Co., which was an old finn handed down for several generations.

      As soon as my ship was at her berth, I began discharging, being in haste because of the lateness of the season, and my destination was to load iron at Gottenburg. The cargo was soon out. Having my hides out, I had a good offer for them and on consulting with my consignee, the sale was made. It proved to be a favorable one.

CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL. 43

I visited many of the places in the City and was introduced at Bersen Hall, where much of the business of the City is transacted. On change hours a great collection is assembled, so much so there was one dense column of people. All principal merchants have their stand, where they can be found on change hours. Sabbath days are gala days. Many thousands walk out of the City and those who are not in at a given time have to pay toll at the City gate, after six o'clock about two cents, at a later hour a higher price for entrance, and after ten o'clock none can enter without a pass or some particular favor.

      Hamburg is called a free City and so it is in many respects. My cargo paid but little duty, the City government relying on the merchants for a faithful report, the duty being so small that no officer of Customs is employed. Everything coming into the City gates has to pay a duty. Beef in the markets was from seven to nine cents per pound, but a short distance in the Danish territory I could have had it for from four to five cents per pound, but if I purchased in the city I was allowed a drawback so as to make it equal to the price in the Danish dominions, the free citizens having to give the high price. I went to visit the Hospital, which is said to be, by the Germans, the eighth wonder of the world. It was erected by the merchants of the City with a. fund for the support of the same. Water was thrown from the Alster into their reservoir and from thence led to every room in the building. There were nearly four hundred rooms and an arrangement by which more could be added if needed. I went through all its parts. In the female department, I saw an old lady one hundred and five years of age. All the patients looked clean and well provided for.

      I visited the anatomical hall and saw more surgical instruments than ever before. Paintings of some of the extraordinary performances in surgery looked natural and were explained to me by the surgeon. Having been to a dinner party out of the City, there was no American but myself, but many of them spoke my language and one of them spoke it well. He said to me, "I don't like these parties very well for they cost too much. This will cost me ten or twelve dollars." It was a large gathering. It was a large party. Some of the nobility were there and many of them had their servants in attendance. This gentlemen said "I have to pay them all something." I said, "I have no money with me," and his reply was, "you need none, you don't understand the language and you had better not understand. I would not if I did not speak German." So accordingly, I did not understand and therefor saved my money.

44 CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL.

This paying of waiters is gratuitous, but it is expected, being the custom of the Country. On our way to the City, I stopped at a place of amusement where for the first time I saw a railroad. There were four tracks, two for the cars to descend and two for them to be returned on. Our party all had a turn of going down this inclined plane. The velocity was great, equal to a mile per minute. My companions urged me to go down, a car accommodating two persons, but I declined saying I had had many broken bones and if I ever had any more it would not be from going down on that track.

      The City is well arranged for business, there being Canals through the City. Their buildings are so arranged that lighters come to the rear of the buildings, discharge their freight into the warehouse, the front being on the street, and there are the offices. The families reside in the upper stories. The average height of buildings is five stories, but many are seven. This City is said to be so densely populated that no more than two-thirds could stand within the City walls were it free from buildings. I went to the orphan's asylum for boys, where there were five hundred. They were all in school. They each had two suits of clothes and in the apartment where their best suits were it was so arranged that each had a place to hang up his clothes, each being numbered, so that all knew their place for their clothes. There was system throughout the establishment in everything. While I was there plums were brought for the children, twenty bushels at least, as it was the season for that fruit.

      As soon as my ship had the proper ballast, I left the City and dropped down the river on my way to Gottenburg, having written to merchants at that place desiring them to have my cargo in readiness as I was in haste because of the lateness of the season. I had a short but rugged passage. I arrived in three days and found my cargo in readiness and commenced taking cargo as soon as possible. I soon had all on board and was ready to leave, but the wind came from the westward, which was unfavorable. I remained waiting until the 23 of 10 Mo 1825, when we left with a favorable wind, several vessels leaving the same day.

      After getting out fairly into the Skagerrak we met many vessels coming down from the Baltic. The number I could count was more than sixty. After passing The Skaw the wind breezed and was less favorable. The following day it was blowing a gale and we were the head ship, and I stood boldly in for Norway. At 5 P. M. we took a Norwegian pilot from a boat and made a favorable wind for

Edmund Gardner's house on Walnut and Sixth Streets, New Bedford
Edmund Gardner's house on Walnut and Sixth Streets, New Bedford. The children on the left are Sarah S. Bullard and John T. Bullard, great grand-children of Edmund Gardner, and those on the right are Clara Allen and George H. H. Allen, his grandchildren.

CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL. 45

the port of Arendal and came to anchor in twelve fathoms of water. We found ten or twelve vessels in the harbor, where it was doubly land locked. The passage being very narrow, the harbor seemed small. The land was high, which also caused the harbor to look small. The two following days seventy sail of vessels came into anchor from several nations. The second day there we went to the principal town where we found an American Consul. He was also Consul for England, France, Holland and Germany. There were three American Ships in port, which was more than had ever been there before at one time.

      Norway is a hard sterile country. During my stay there, I ascended a high mountain on the south or sunny side and found blackberries. They had changed to red and matured sufficiently to vegetate from the seed, but the season was too short for them to ripen. A Norwegian Captain of my acquaintance lived near this place. His vessel was in another harbor. He came inland in his boat through the pass. He had a fine house on a little Islet in or near the harbor. If they wished access to their neighbors, they had of necessity to go in a boat. The steps were stone from his house to the water, where a boat was fastened. This Captain told me he often caught codfish from his front steps, where there was thirty fathoms of water directly below them.

      I sailed from Arendal 27th of 10 Mo 1825 for New Bedford and had a hard time in the North Sea with contrary winds. On the fourteenth day after leaving Gottenburg, I took my departure from Foula Isle, one of the Shetland Islands, on the 5th of 11 Mo 1825, and continued my course to the westward. My Ship being small and deeply laden with iron, the water made a fair breach over her, had very hard weather and the ship labored hard. It leaked some and for twenty days my bed was not dry. My men were wet so much that their hands and feet became sore. I then put off to the south and passed in sight of the Island of Corvo, had it been day instead of night. Soon after passing the Island, the wind veered to the Eastward and we then made our way to the westward with fine pleasant weather. We passed south of Bermuda and when to the west of it steered to the North and on the seventy-first day from Gottenburg arrived at New Bedford on New Year's Day 1826. Nine vessels left Gottenburg in the space of six weeks, five went into England to repair, two arrived in this Country and the other two were never reported. I had fully made up my mind not to get caught in the North Sea in the next winter but had formed no definite plan for proceeding. It was winter and difficult to get to the

46 CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL.

Island of Nantucket (where my family was). However, I got there in nine days after my arrival, where I remained for the winter, feeling thankful to Almighty God for preserving me through the many trials both by sea and land to meet my family, who were ever ready to welcome me to the fireside.

      When spring came, it was necessary for me to do something for my growing family. I was called on by two firms to take command of ships which were being built. I informed them I could decide nothing until I had settled up my last voyage.

      After coming to this place in 3 Mo 1826 I wrote those persons who had tendered to me the command of their ships, thanking them for their favorable opinion of me as a commander but declining their offer. For while I was in New Bedford some of my friends had suggested it might be better if I quit the sea and do some business here to prevent my having to return to it. I was ready to listen to anything that would divert me from the life of a sailor, having spent much of my time on the ocean for more than twenty years. Much of the time in rugged weather, I had little rest or comfort until fair weather, having had so many broken bones, I had little refreshing sleep. When quite exhausted, I would fall asleep, but it was not refreshing sleep.

      Taking all things into consideration, I came to the conclusion to try what I could do. I had little capital but had many friends. After I had fully made up my mind on this subject, I wrote my wife informing her of my determination, which gave her much satisfaction for we had a little family of four children. On the Island I could not do anything for their support, and I would have to go again to sea if I remained there.

      I was interested in one Ship the Balaena, which had sailed for the Pacific Ocean. I then bought into Ship Hector and came to New Bedford and assisted in fitting her for sea. During that time I purchased a house and got in readiness for my family. The ship sailed the early part of the 8 Mo 1826 for the Pacific Ocean.

      I returned to the Island and made preparation to remove my family and we left Nantucket 7th of 9 Mo 1826. I now wanted occupation, found little to do, but had expected to make a sacrifice in changing my pursuits. I, however, found some little employment in fitting ships for Samuel Rodman, Sr., and others. In 1827 the Ship Rodman was built by Charles W. Morgan and others. I took a small interest in the Ship. She sailed in the fall of 1827, was called Rodman and commanded by Robert M. Joy, who returned

CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL. 47

after an absence of thirty-two months with a full cargo of sperm oil 3000 barrels.

      Previous to the sailing of Ship Rodman, I had purchased the effects of George Brayton and continued to carry on the business of coopering in the same place where it had been for several years. I then connected gauging with coopering. For many years what I did in this way met my current expenses. All the interest I had in shipping returned with remunerating voyages, which I was thankful for.

      In the latter part of 1830 I went to New York to purchase the Ship Woodruff Sims for William R. Rodman, came to New Bedford with the ship and there fitted her for a whaling voyage to sail from Havre, from which she left on first Mo 1831. I continued my coopering through the winter, which furnished me with employment, had from five to ten hands employed in making casks for the coming season, which required a large capital compared with my means. In the fall of 1831 I went to Philadelphia and purchased the Ship Tobacco Plant for William R. Rodman and others. I was interested in this ship, which was fitted for a whaling voyage, sailing the latter part of the winter, performing the voyage in twelve and a half months, making a favorable return. My means were not great, but all things that I was interested in proved favorable, not great returns, but such as I was satisfied with, having come to the conclusion food and raiment were all we really needed and the great secret of living was to be contented with our lot in life, whatever it might be. Frowning and faultfinding would alter nothing, but if we had but done our whole duty and try to make up for shortcomings. I often reflected on the many blessings meted out to me. I continued to carry on my coopering, furnishing many ships, some from other ports.

      In 1834 Elisha Dunbar & Co. with myself came to the conclusion to build a live oak ship, provided we could get a satisfactory man to command her, wishing to secure a Captain before contracting for materials for building. Robert M. Joy had performed two voyages in Ship Rodman and had been building a house for more than a year, and he was fixed upon as the man we would like. Accordingly I wrote him we contemplated building and if he intended going to sea again, I thought such a ship as we intended to build would be a desirable ship. I wrote him that I hoped he would say his intention was to go no more, and in that case we should not build at that time. In reply, he said, "You may go on with your ship. When your ship is ready, I will be ready."

48 CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL.

      We accordingly went on procuring all necessaries for building, were ready to commence the later part of 1834, worked for a month, when the fears of a war with France, in consequence .of nonfulfillment of treaty stipulations with the United States, made us suspend our building for five months, Accounts being more favorable at that time, we started working on the Ship with as many hands as could be profitably employed. The articles for construction were brought together from many parts of the world, timbers and beams from Georgia, Wale planks from Connecticut, Keel and some other parts from New York, planks from New Jersey for the bottom, Deck planks from our immediate neighborhood, some other parts from Society Islands. So many different places contributed various articles towards building a ship. We commenced work in earnest in the sixth month and in five months the Ship was built, fitted and prepared for a three year voyage. At this time, the accounts from France were more exciting than at any time before. Our provisions and stores were all on board, to lay the ship up would be destruction to many articles of stores, so we came to the conclusion to let the ship go, giving the Captain a power to sell the ship in case of war. The name of the Ship was Roman, commanded by Robert M. Joy, and she sailed 12th of 11 Mo 1835 for the Pacific Ocean. The total expenses amounted to $50,000., a large sum to be invested in a fishing voyage. After the sailing of this ship (I then was in my 52nd year), I decided not to invest in any more ships and never have, a period of more than twenty-seven years.

      Our Chief Magistrate, Andrew Jackson, had made his demand on the French Government to fulfill the treaty stipulations, which had been due a quarter of a century. It was thought by our President time for settlement had come, and if not complied with, he recommended taking of French property to satisfy the demand for the balance due from the French Government. There was quite an exciting time, but the French Emperor thought it was better to settle the demand than to have a war with the United States.

      The above ship went on the voyage without molestation and procured a full cargo of sperm oil 3000 barrels and returned in three years and three months. The net return was more than one hundred thousand dollars, an excellent return. During the absence of this ship, I had established a manufactory for oil and candles, which I had in full operation on the arrival of the Roman. This kind of business was congenial to my feelings as the returns were quicker. I continued several years on a small scale, but my sons left me in

CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL. 49

pursuit of business in Ohio, and I found it was taxing my time and strength too much, and the profits of manufacturing became less. I then came to the conclusion to quit the business and I did so, selling all my fixtures and articles to be used in manufacturing. Having now arrived to near the age of man.

      The ship Tobacco Plant in which I was interested made several voyages, but never made great percentage on capital employed. On the last voyage that ship was fitted, it was long out with little success. They went to Hawaii (Sandwich Islands) for recruits, where one of the ship's company set the ship on fire and finished the voyage. The ship and effects were sold and all the business relative to that ship settled up. This was the first adventure of the kind in which I had been interested that had not proved lucrative. I still adhered to my promise never to be interested in another ship since building the Roman, but I still retained my interest in four ships. I determined it would be better for me in my advanced age not to have any interest in navigation but invest funds I might have some other way. The voyages had got to be so long, I should be four score years before a voyage could be accomplished. I therefore concluded to sell my interest in shipping as fast as it came in. The Hector came in first and I sold my part under the hammer. It brought a small price, but I was better satisfied than to continue my ownership in that vessel.

      I was interested in three other ships, which were all at sea. One sailed 10 Mo 1858 and the other two 8 Mo 1859 and 11 Mo 1859.

      In 1861 when several of the Confederate States concluded to break up the Union or perpetuate slavery, they attacked Fort Sumter, which had small supplies. The small garrison had to surrender as all succor was cut off by confederate fortifications. Our troubles had now fully begun and had carried on since 4 Mo 19th 1861 with various results.

      I mentioned in the foregoing narrative of my ancestors being some of the first settlers of the Island of Nantucket, and they were so, although I cannot trace my pedigree to all my connections with the first settlers. I think, however, from what I learn that John Gardner was one of the first of the Gardners who settled on the Island. The Island was laid out in twenty-seven shares, and several proprietors of those shares took in others to share with them. It was long since my arriving to manhood that it was held in shares. The greatest owner or proprietor held the name of the share. They annually met in proprietors' meeting and voted where and what quantity of land should be laid out for a corn field. It was generally

50 CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL.

twenty-five to thirty acres per share, making the contents from six to eight hundred acres in one continued cornfield. It was tilled the second year for oats. Each farmed in his own way. When it was once laid out, it was for two years' use for each proprietor. I think I have never seen so extensive corn and oat fields in any country I have visited as at Nantucket. The crops were small, few manured their land, for two years was all the claim they had to it. It was hard cropped and became barren. The swamps were nearly all laid out to the proprietors of the shares, which contained excellent quality of peat, enough to furnish the inhabitants with fuel. Many of those swamps produced cranberries spontaneously in all parts of the Island.

      Fish of many kinds could be taken all the year round when the weather was suitable to pursue them. Added to these natural advantages, the Islanders possessed one excellent trait of character not exceeded by any, and that is economy in all things. They lived the best with the smallest amount of any people I have ever known. Many of their houses have an unfavorable exterior but on entering them you find perfect neatness. I have yet to learn of a person visiting the Island who was not satisfied with their sojourn. All the visitors to the Island I have spoken with expressed themselves on the great hospitality of the people. Doubtless, some will say I am prejudiced in favor of the Islanders. Be it so, none will decide differently when they become fully acquainted with the people. The men are a roving class of people. I have never visited any port where I did not find Nantucket men most commonly commanders or officers of ships or vessels, most of them possessing character and reputation.

      At one time my ship's company was made up mostly of Nantucket young men. I had no trouble with them, could send them on any duty without an officer, or let them have my boat to go on shore, fixing the time they were to return, and they punctually returned at the stated time. Other Masters were surprised at my having such confidence in sailors, but I knew my men.

      I had the following information from William Rotch, Sr. When he went to England to make overtures to the British Government to establish and carry on the whalefishery from England, he gave his terms to do so. One of the dignitaries asked what he had to give in return for his stipulated demands. His answer was "nothing but smart enterprising young men from Nantucket " The terms of stipulation not meeting the views of the officials in England, Rotch went across the Channel to France, where to his surprise all he asked was

CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL. 51

granted, even the liberty of conscience to worship in his own way although France was a Catholic Country. On his return to England, he was met by a delegation ready to accede to his proposals, but he informed them it was too late as he had entered into an arrangement with the French Government to establish the whalefishery at Dunkirk. Rotch commenced transferring his ships to France, some making voyages to Greenland and returning to the Port of Dunkirk. They were all commanded by Nantucket men. I will here relate a singular transaction of a Nantucket man who was at sea when the war of the Revolution commenced. He arrived and escaped capture but found his wife had left the Island with her parents, who had settled in Saratoga County. He joined his family there and purchased a farm, remaining there during the war. After the peace, he went with his team with the produce of his farm to Hudson, with the expectation of being at home on the third day after leaving. Not finding a market for his produce and learning William Rotch, Jr. was fitting a vessel for Greenland from New Bedford, he took his produce there in a vessel and sold the same to Rotch. While settling for his produce, the Captain (Morse ) came into the office and said to the owner of the ship, "I know not where I shall get a first officer." This man from the country (who commanded before the war) said, "I will go, give me my terms." The agent asked him what his terms were, he named them. They were accepted and they sailed for Greenland, performed the voyage and returned to Dunkirk. This man (Worth) took charge of a ship, performed a voyage into the Indian Ocean and returned to Dunkirk. He refitted his ship and sailed soon for the Pacific Ocean, where he made a successful voyage and returned again to Dunkirk. Soon after he came to this Country and settled down on his farm. When he left his home, he expected to be back in three days but was absent five years and performed three whaling voyages. Such was the enterprise and activity of a Nantucket man.

      I sailed two voyages with Grafton Gardner, who was first officer in ship Minerva of Nantucket, Seth Coffin, Master. On a passage towards the coast of Brazil, Captain Coffin had his leg broken by a sperm whale. He gave direction how to proceed in amputating his leg. When they had all things in readiness, he gave direction to force the flesh up, so as to cut the bone as high up as possible for the bone not to project out too far and prevent the healing over the end of the bone. The leg was taken off and arteries stopped, all well but one. Some time in the night following, the Captain called his first officer to get under his berth and see if his leg was

52 CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL.

bleeding through his bed. He found it was, so he then directed him to get a spoon and note the time before the spoon was full. He did so, and he decided at that rate he could not live until morning. He then told them they must get him up and take up that artery better for he should bleed to death before morning. They got him up, took up the artery, secured it thoroughly and he had no further difficulty. They proceeded on the voyage and completed their cargo in good time. This Captain Coffin performed one voyage using a wooden leg. He was a mechanical genius and made all his wooden legs. He found it was trying to him in rugged weather to be on a wooden leg and on his return went no more. He was for many years one of the selectmen.

      I will mention one occurrence that was said to have taken place while the boats were in pursuit of whales. One of the men left onboard to take care of the ship didn't do promptly what the Captain had ordered him to do, so the Captain, not having anything convenient to punish him for his neglect, took off his wooden leg and threw it at him. The sailor threw it overboard and with one leg he could not pursue him. I have often heard the above statement but will not vouch for its accuracy. On the voyage when he was hurt, this Captain Coffin took two sperm whales with but one fin each. When the second was taken, he remarked to his Mate should they take another minus a fin, he should think it was a judgment on the sperm whales for breaking his leg. He had an iron constitution and lived to be an old man. He had four sons who were Ship Masters.

      I mentioned several anecdotes relative to Nantucket men, which I heard when quite young and retained some of them, having heard my father relate them several times. I will here mention one which I believe to be correct in all the essentials. George Hussey (for distinction called Montsier), whose father contributed largely towards establishing Harvard College, was entered there as a student when he was of suitable age. The President had established a standing rule for the College when differences should arise it was not the first blow that began a quarrel but the second, the first being given from the impulse of the moment. Nassemus, brother of the President's wife, and Hussey had some disagreement. Hussey suffered himself to be struck once, twice and thrice, as he stated in his defense before the Committee of Examination. He then took Nassemus by the hair and pounded the ground with him. The ground being frozen, it was severe punishment, but he did not strike him a blow. When the case came fully before the trustees,

CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL. 53

Hussey was expelled as it would not do to expel the President's brother. Montsier was a man of strong mind. At one time, he was in the power of pirates and was confined in the forecastle of their vessel when a quantity of brimstone was burnt. He had a gimlet in his pocket and bored through the bulkhead where he got fresh air. When they opened, expecting to find him dead, they were surprised to find him living and suffering no harm. There was some division among themselves, some thought him a good man and ought to be set at liberty. The final conclusion was that he should jump as high as he could three times and curse Cotton Mather, which he did. Subsequently he said he cursed Cotton Mather from teeth and outwards but them in his heart. He was a man of decision and good common sense.

      It has been said he was the author of a play of names on the Island, when he was on the stage of action, which is as follows:

The Rays, and Russells, Coopers are
The Knowing Folgers, lazy
A learned Coleman very rare
And scarce an honest Hussey,
The Coffins fractious, noisy, loud,
The silent Gardners plodding
Mitchells good, Barkers proud,
And Macys, eat the pudding.

      I had it from a person who dined with him, when they had two kinds of food on the table, he asked which he should help him to. The answer was "I don't care which," and he laid down his knife and said "Do thou make a choice, if thou chooses that thee don't want." He was a man of great decision himself and wished others to be so.

      I shall make some few remarks on the character of the Folgers, who were early settlers. Peter Folger married Mary Morrill, who came to this Country in the family of Hugh Peters, from which sprang a large number of early inhabitants of Nantucket. Benjamin Franklin's mother was the daughter of Peter Folger.

      The family of Folgers has been celebrated for their knowledge for several generations. The great mathematician, the Honorable Walter Folger, Jr., represented his district in Congress. In calling the names of the members in the early part of the session, his name was called, Walter Folger, Jr., Esq. The call of Junior associated youth and when he answered to the call, all were surprised to see a man more than sixty years old and much bleached by time. From that time during his being in Congress, he was called the Young Mr. Folger. He filled his place with uprightness and fidelity.

54 CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL.

      Some few years after my quitting the sea, in 1826, I was called on by a physician to know if sailors lived as long as others ( for few old sailors were seen). My answer was that Jack Tar sailors did not live as long, but persons following that profession did live as long as others. I made inquiry relative to five brothers at Nantucket, by the name of Folger (I was acquainted with them all) as to what had been their early occupation. I found they were all mechanics, all had followed the sea and all had been Ship Masters. Their average age was eighty-two years, which was good evidence that seafaring men lived as long as others. As a further proof, my father was a mechanic, followed the sea until he commanded previous to the revolution, but after peace he went no more. Two years after I quit the sea and settled down in New Bedford, the summer of 1828 I sent for my father to come and make me a visit. He came and when I met him as he landed, I asked him if I should have a carriage to take him to my house. His answer was he had rather walk if it was not more than a mile. He was then ninety-two years old, stopped with me three weeks and enjoyed his visit well. He had not been off the Island of Nantucket for fifty-four years, and when he had been last in New Bedford there had been only two houses and one other building. My father lived two years after visiting me and died at the age of ninety-four, and he had never used glasses. Nor to my knowledge had he ever had a doctor.

      In 1862 in eleventh month, when on a visit to Nantucket, a friend of mine handed me a list of names of one hundred nine then living on the Island who were seventy-three years old and upwards, fifty-eight of them to my knowledge had been seafaring men. In 1849, when first the astounding account was received from California of the discovery of gold in fabulous quantities, many of the young men left the Island for Ophir, many of them being out of employment. The whaling business had been on the wane for several years. The time necessary to procure a cargo of oil was so long, the expenses so great, that many voyages came short of being remunerative to adventurers, hence the dull prospect for young men of Nantucket.

      Being on my native Isle two years after the great discovery of gold, I was shown a list of names of men who had gone from the Island to California. They numbered more than seven hundred, and at a subsequent visit, I was informed more than a thousand had left for the land of Gold.

      Many of them had settled permanently with their families. The number of men who had left made quite a blank in society, and the

Last page of the original Journal
The last page of the original Journal.

CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL. 55

business was much depressed from the several causes. Many of the most active energetic young men had gone, which made it hard to get first rate men for commanders and officers. Some ships then in the Pacific Ocean were deserted by their ship's companies. In some instances, the Officers left, in one case or more, the Captain left the Ship, at least there was one from New Bedford. It was difficult having subordination in whaling ships. Some here and at the Island let their ships lay by the walls, and many were sold out of the service. Most of the persons left on the Island were old men and boys with the females. During my visit to the Island at one time, in going a distance of two ordinary squares in the evening, I noticed that I met one man, two boys and twenty-seven females. At this time there was as much wealth belonging to the citizens of the Island as at any period since the settlement of the Island, but much had been invested in stock off the Island, and much of the wealth was in few hands. Some were advanced in years, not wishing to engage further in business. The young men must leave the Island or remain unemployed, which was a hard case for them. The Island in its palmy days had employment for six or eight thousand persons, who could be supported by the business of the place. When dull time came, persons migrated to other parts. The year I quit the sea I also left the Island (oil had got to a low figure), and persons of my acquaintance who left at or near the same time took with them two hundred fifty thousand dollars, which was much felt in the business community, and retarded enterprise.

      The present state of affairs was gradually approaching. Several of their ships had made bad voyages. A short time previous to the great emigration to California, a destructive fire swept through the town burning many dwellings, and more places of business. The length of the fire was half a mile, some of the finest dwellings in the town, and many were destitute with nowhere to lay their heads. Some valuable oil and candle factories were destroyed. I heard the estimated loss was near or quite two millions, which was the most severe loss by fire that had ever been witnessed since the Island had been settled. From or before this great calamity all business was waning and has continued to until there's now but eleven or twelve ships belonging to the Island. Fishing and farming were about all that was doing. Recently, however, the cultivation of cranberries has been pursued to good advantage since the high price of that fruit.

New Bedford 8 of 11 Mo 1862,     
Edmund Gardner       

56 CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL.

      At the end of 1862, on his seventy-eighth birthday, Edmund Gardner signed and closed his journal. He apparently at the time considered it closed for good as despite certain events that were well worth noting, such as his breaking his leg in 1864, just before his eightieth birthday, and the death of his beloved wife a year and a half later, he did not take up his pen again until 1870. In that year he wrote a second version of the journal. And thereafter from time to time he added a little more; his last entry being made in 1874, a year or so before his death at the age of ninety. Because so much of this second version is repetition and because of the added expense of printing it entire, I have edited it, leaving intact his second story of the sinking of the "Union," his encounter with the whale and his sojourn with the Peruvian doctor; and keeping all that I could find of interest that is new, and much of the Captain's wonderful philosophy of life, which he dwelt on more and more as he got older. The xxxx indicate the passages that have been omitted. If anyone is desirous of reading the parts that are missing from this compilation, he can find them in the original journal or in any one of the many typed copies; one of which is in the Genealogical room of the New Bedford Free Public Library.

CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL. 57

The Journal (continued)

1870

      In 1862 when everything was in commotion I laid down my pen, not supposing I should resume it again, but after a quietude was restored, and my making a retrospective view of what I had written, came to the conclusion to add a supplement to the foregoing. In the outbreak in 1861 throwing everything into confusion the Southern States came out in open rebellion based on slavery. Their views were to carry slavery into all States and Territories. It was their belief they had sufficient strength and power to carry out their intention, doubtless it was a deeply laid plan, having been maturing since President Jackson put an end to nullification in 1832. (When put in motion by South Carolina) President Jackson was elected by the strength of the Democratic party, but true to his obligation was President of the Union, he knew no South, no North, but acted himself, trammeled by none.

      Martin Van Buren had been a prominent man in his or of his party, in the recess of Congress, was appointed by the President Minister to the Court of St. James, when the Senate of U. S. assembled instead of confirming the Minister, he was rejected, (the Senate was politically opposed to the President). On the second Election of President Jackson, Van Buren was elected Vice President by the States, and people, to preside over that body who had rejected him as Minister to the Court of St. James, such was the political wire pulling by the friends of Clay and Webster for the Presidency, all of which proved abortive, and a sad repulse.

      The very acts to destroy the popularity of Van Buren brought him more fully into view of the public and the next Presidential election Martin Van Buren was elected Chief Magistrate by the voice of the nation. During the four years of his administration the whole pressure of the opposite party was brought to bear on coming Election, with log cabins and hard cider popular feelings are contagious. Harrison had been a prominent man in our Country, but had retired to his Farm on the Ohio, from which he was called to preside over the Nation. He was elected but soon had a higher call that caused the Nation to mourn.

      All parties were desirous of gaining the ascendancy. During the

58 CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL.

administration of Jackson, I attended three Caucus Meetings, one for each night in succession (There were three parties in Massachusetts) at the end of the third, came to the conclusion I would have nothing to do with political movements, and have never attended a political meeting since, much to my own satisfaction. The outs all want to get in, when installed pursue the same course of their predecessors, who in turn find fault with reigning people in power. I have made these remarks in advance of my biography as they were fresh in my mind when I quitted writing, then in my seventy-eighth year, and am now in my eighty-sixth, eight years having elapsed since laying down my pen. All things being in confusion with the din of war in our midst.

      As I had stated before was born and lived at Nantucket until sixteen years. It was a Commercial place and most of young men looked towards a seafaring life. I had imbibed the idea of commanding a Ship, it was on my mind a polar star for direction, during my early voyages, did all in my power to gain preferment. I was young full of activity in all things on my first voyage in Ship Union took one sperm Whale went to Cape Verde Islands to ship the oil home, at the Isle of Mayo found a Vessel bound to the United States by which it was shipped. During the time there my Captain had a call from Captain Jack (he was a native of the Island had spent much time in the States, spoke good English) Jack brought a friend of his with him, on coming up the ship's side caught his stocking to a nail in accommodation ladder, this friend of Jack's (wore shorts & white stockings) his complexion was dark. My captain invited them into his cabin, the rent in the stocking showed the black leg, which annoyed him exceedingly, after my Captain and Jack had gone down, this friend of Jack's called on me for a piece of chalk. I furnished him with some, he chalked his leg, the stocking being white the chalk soon filled up the breach. A fellow sailor originally from those Islands was with us, the occurrence was often brought up to him, as being the Portuguese way of mending stockings.

      After leaving those Islands proceeded to the Coast of Patagonia a rugged cold unpleasant coast, where in four months procured 1500 Barrels whale (or black oil) and left for home, our ship not being coppered made slow progress, was three months making a passage, arrived midsummer.

      After being some time at home engaged myself to perform another voyage in the same ship as an officer, taking the place of one who went another way, so that all but myself were the former

CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL. 59

officers. It being late fitted from Edgartown (Martha's Vineyard) sailed 20th of 10 Mo 1802 for Patagonia had a dull passage, when Islands. Went to St. Pago and procured fruit and vegetables they being antiscorbutic. Sailed from thence for Patagonia on arriving near the Canary Islands took a sperm Whale making about seventy barrels which was shipped Via New York from Bonavesta, C. N. on the coast found many ships, and few whales, and much stormy weather, the time there took one hundred barrels, the weather proving more rugged left for the west coast of Africa, after a stormy passage anchored in a roadsted called Sandwich harbor, but in reality there's no harbor and lay wide from the land to avoid the rollers that heave in at times, when no ship is safe in less than ten fathoms water. Seeing nothing encouraging went from thence to Walvis Bay making a short stay, went down the coast in company with ship Harriet, Fosdick of Nantucket. It was necessary for two ships to be in company to unite their strength in towing to ships what whales were taken. Previous to the Right whale coming in, took two hundred barrels of humpback oil to each ship. Then came the Right Whales being a resort to rear their young, they go North into bays and sheltered places in June and return in August and September at which time the parent is poor, will not make more than half the quantity as when they migrate North, the calf accompanying them is quite grown on their return, have been known to make twenty barrels oil, often more than the parent whale. There's one thing remarkable, the fondness of the parent whale, by harpooning the calf when the mother is submerged and entirely out of sight, the calf being unable to withhold respiration as long as the mother, gives an opportunity of harpooning him, and true to a mother's feeling, will never leave so long as the calf has life, so that care is taken not to destroy the life of the calf until the mother is secured, should the life of the calf be taken the mother will make every effort to go off, but will never leave while there's life in the young.

      There were many Ships and few whales we made up five hundred barrels altogether when the season was over, which was one third of a full cargo, my Captain came to the conclusion to go to the Island of St. Helena to procure some provisions, and thence to the Brazilian coast, and accordingly did so, by going to St. Catherine's where fruit and vegetables were in abundance.

      The Island lies near the main land, is fifty miles in length, is settled on both sides of the strait, that separates it from the Continent. It was settled in early date by Portuguese. The productions

60 CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL.

are various, mandioca (which is their staff of life,) sugar cane, from which is manufactured sugar, molasses and rum, also rice, coffee in large quantities is now raised. Coffee was at a low figure when it all passed to the Mother Country, tis now open for trade for all nations, and all kinds of fruit and vegetables are to be found. Tis a fine secure harbor when above St. Cruise Port in four or five fathoms water. In a westerly direction from the anchorage is the Village of St. Michael (on the main) at the head of the bay, all through this strait there's plenty of fish, at one time I counted more than a hundred boats. From the many fish, farena, and oranges of the finest quality, a satisfactory repast is made, they live in a simple way, their wants are few, and easy to be obtained. The strait between the Island and main land is more than fifty miles in length, there's a channel for vessels drawing an easy draft of water. I have visited this place of resort, at four separate times, much around is familiar to me, the distance to the principal town and port of entry is thirteen miles by water, the only way to approach the principal town or Capital of the province. In going to the Capital pass in full view of a fall of water from the mountains some ten or fifteen miles distance, tis said to be more fall than Niagara, but much less water. Tis in full view from the City. Our ship was near to Main land where we made acquaintance with the villagers, during our stay, a marriage took place to which several were invited, I amongst the rest, it was some four or five miles in the country and dark, were some fifty er more, instead of standard bearers, we had lantern bearers, a kind of wood that burned freely was lighted and carried in hand, it lighted the whole road, with much merriment went to the place appointed and returned late in the evening, after a pleasant excursion. Such little occurrences are very pleasant after being buffeted by the surrounding Ocean for many months.

      Cotton is raised in large quantities, the only way they had to free it from seeds was to place it on a large pillow nearly square, stuffed hard, laying the cotton on the pillow, with two sticks, it was beaten till free from seeds, and then still more to prepare the same for spinning. So expert were the females with their sticks, as to imitate a fandango tune, late in the evening and early mom the serenade was kept up, plainly to be heard at our Ship in still weather. After a short stay left for Patagonia, in ten days arrived where whales were plenty, found them shy not easy to be taken after, one time captured one, as soon as life was extinct sunk down like a stone, the following day killed another that went clown in a similar manner, in a few days two others were killed which sunk, my

CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL. 61

Captain seemed quite dejected he was fearful they would all sink, but the fifth taken and saved by boiling out the oil, before saving another sunk four more, the tenth was saved and taken onboard after which went on, sinking six more, making fourteen, and took onboard fourteen, making a thousand barrels in forty days, which filled out Ship's 1500 barrels and left for home New Year's Day 1804. Our ship had been long at sea and the bottom foul made a long passage, arrived the early part of April having been absent more than seventeen months and obtained a full cargo of oil. Went to Edgartown to lighten preparatory to crossing the Nantucket bar when and where we were soon discharged. Young men after being in prison so many months are full of excitement and activity but soon ready to enlist for a similar enterprise. There seemed little beside for young men with no capital and nothing to fall back on, they must do something.

x x x x x

      My Captain had come to the conclusion not to go again in the same ship, 'twas far from my expectation of having the command of the ship tendered to me, to take the command, when several persons of more experience were ready to take command of the Ship Union. When the Agent tendered to me the command of that ship, it placed me in a trying situation, for the command of a ship was at that time the height of my ambition, which I had been striving for, to reject it, some time might elapse before another opportunity would present, and offset to that, and an inclination to reject the offer I was at the time on the point of consummating my Marriage. If I took command of the ship a short time would elapse before sailing. Was united to my Wife in the eighth month and sailed in ninth month.

      I had an excellent first officer, my other officers were fully competent to fill their places, had nine Sailors in number who had been in the ship a previous voyage. My first officer and myself were twenty-two years, the other officers two and three years our junior, with all the vigor and activity that young men have as a general thing at those ages. Nothing looked burdensome in our apparent hazardous enterprise, we sailed on rapidly on our way until stopped by coming in contact with a whale in the night of the first of the tenth month at lO P. M. after three days high winds and sea, were sailing at the rate of eight miles per hour, when meeting the monster of the deep going in the opposite direction, breaking a big place in the ship, fully portrayed in my foregoing narrative. When finding how much the ship was broken 'twas impossible to do anything for the preser-

62 CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL.

vation of the ship, the next thing was to pursue a course under the guidance of Almighty God, and am fully persuaded that under that direction was enabled to pursue a straight forward course as a ray of light. There was no time during my being in boat that I despaired arriving at the Azores or Western Islands, was supported by that unerring guide who supports in all things and at all times, when we put our trust in him alone who is able to support in all trials we have to surmount. More of our water was turned out to lighten my boat than was my intention, water was in one boat, the bread in, the other, being the only way to preserve the bread from salt water as the water was continually coming into boat. I think at no time while in boat were my clothes dry. When I ascertained the small quantity of water, came on an allowance, three quarts for twenty four hours, and one cake of bread for the same time, but soon found more could not be eaten without more water, and that we had not, my ship's company called for more water, my reply to their demand, was when we saw the land more should be given them. The time for dividing bread and water was at noon, after making my observation which was enabled to do every day while in boat, some days were dark and lowery not looking likely to get a Latitude, when at noon the sun would come out enabling me to get an observation. The first forty-eight hours blowing fresh never left steering the boat, a high sea, my fear was the boat would be turned over, being quite exhausted had to call my second Mate to take my place, and after that called them in course to take their turn in steering. There's one remarkable occurrence, when leaving the Ship took my watch with me, but had not wound the same, when daylight came in attempting to see the hour found I had neglected to wind, consequently the watch had stopped. I wound and set it when I made my observation at noon found my time exactly right by the watch. Our distance made in boats was seven hundred miles in eight days. Saw but one Vessel in that time, directed my course between Corvo and Flores hoping when we saw the land to get to one of them.

      When the land was discovered, the first thing was a general call for more water, agreeable to my promise served to them another allowance in four hours after that at noon. After getting under the lee of Flores made another division of the remainder of the water. The land was first discovered at 4 P.M. of the 8th 10 Mo 1807 got to a place of landing at 9 A.M. of the 9th. The inhabitants came in great numbers to dispose of the products of their plantations supposing our ship nearby, when they learned our situation, sent a

CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL. 63

pilot with me to the port a little cove at the head of which was a beach, when landed enough Islanders came to take the boats into a field. Soon after landing the Governor called on me (recognizing me when at this Island the previous year) he was kind to offer anything he had to make me comfortable which was kind in him.

x x x x x

      On arriving at St. Catherine's took the mast out and found it useless, had it cut up for fire wood. After some days had elapsed found a Military officer who had a suitable stick for the mast, a long way in the Mountain, no road near to where the stick was, and a deep ravine to cross seventy feet deep. I was told they could get it over and I had to take their word for it, when it came to the ravine trees were fallen to form a Bridge, with tackles from the ship hauled it over where a road had been cut more than two miles, where a team of many cattle could be brought to bear on it, after many hard days' labor it was brought to the beach (almost made round being eight squared before) by dragging over the ground and rocks, the time was much retarded by many rainy days, some fine days were holidays which must all be kept and often the following day would be rain again, the many detentions used up thirty-five days before being ready to leave. While there traveling up where the mast was on the road saw two files of ants going different ways they went into a garden where was an orange tree, a company was on the tree cutting or biting off the leaves on the tree, while those below were taking their loads of green leaves, or parts of leaves, (for it was bitten into suitable pieces for a load). Those going down with their loads so near together were they, forming a green, when going up to the garden, they were of a dark hue, the files were a foot apart, quite close in the files. The ant heap was full half a mile distance in the forest and some eight feet in height. Sabin was with me when those marauders were crossing the road, looked at them for a time, then calling them "diables" stamped on them breaking ranks entirely, but not conquering them, in a short time their ranks were filled and they marching on their way, as regally as before. In passing a few days after by the same place, saw the tree minus a leaf with several hundred oranges on the tree looking lonesome.

      After getting my ship in readiness for sea bought the privilege of going into an orchard and picking all the oranges we wanted, I paid six dollars for ten thousand, all my ship's company had all they could take care of. Had plenty when quite down the Peruvian Coast.

64 CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL.

      I will here make a little digression being in perfect health, ship in fine order, had a rough time in passing to the westward of Cape Horn after going down the Peruvian Coast on the far famed Pacific and fine weather. In two months from leaving the Brazilian Coast, had made the passage and had two hundred barrels of sperm oil. So vain was I, supposing no man could do more than myself, and many could not do as much, relying too much on my own strength.

      On the 21st of second month wind light and smooth sea saw many whales but made little progress. I then went into the head of my boat directing my first officer to go into the head of his boat, soon upon it got up to one of those monsters of the deep, in the act of wounding him he stopped throwing his jaw quite over me wounding me on my head, one hand, breaking my right arm, and left hand badly lacerated, my jaw and five teeth were broken, my wounds bled copiously, when my senses were fully restored found how little consequence I was, having built on my own strength. I had one redeeming quality left, when I reflected on my situation, if I recovered should ever be a cripple, but on mature reflection if the thing was to do over again, should pursue the same course, had my situation by any act of immorality, I must have sunk under it, but on mature reflection the result has ever been the same. I have been a cripple since 1816 having many things to contend with, and many poor feelings, was unable to do much, after getting to Piura where the Doctor resided, slowly improved but was very weak, my weakness of body and mind had a powerful effect on me particularly at one period, myself fifty miles in the Country, my Ship at sea, the surrounding inhabitants desiring me to become a Catholic, instead of consoling me in my weak state, told me in case I died no one would touch me, but tie a rope to my legs to haul me over the hills to be eaten by the buzzards. A short time after my strength improved and no such thing had any effect on me. There were many of a Catholic spirit, and am fully persuaded good Christians, ready to render me all the assistance in their power, I received much kindness from many, and in many ways. One morning the Doctor was dressing my wounds, a passerby stopped, after a time said to the Dr.

      "how can you do anything for this man, he being a heretic," he laid down his probe, and gave him quite a lecture

      "you tell of his being a heretic, he is better than one-half of you, I would do for him as quick as I would for you"

thus showing fully the liberal views of my Doctor. I found those who had been educated were more liberal than others, a large por-

CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL. 65

tion had little education. While at this place got general information of the place, and quite an acquaintance with many of the principal persons, one by the name of Manuel Dages was very friendly to me, often calling on me. One day being in a place of public resort where many were assembled amongst which was my friend Manuel, the Governor came on his steed, a fine saddle horse, he came up and spoke with me, when Manuel entered into conversation with him, previous M was desirious of knowing what were my religious views. I told him I was a Quaker (I could understand much more than I could talk) Manuel said to the Governor.

      "this Captain is a quake,"

the Governor in reply

      "what need you care, you're always concerning yourself with other people's business,"

this gentleman had something for everyone, all knew him, was a privileged person with all.

      There was a freebooter traveling through the Country having fleet horses, plundered many persons and Caravans, he was called Pluma, (the interpretation would be quill) he took from those who had, giving to those who were destitute, consequently he was not molested by the poor, and the rich dared not attack him. Twas said he rode through the Town of Piura while I was there, was quite an excitement I did not see him, and have some doubts his being there, for they do not have to get ready to be frightened, they are always ready.

      In walking through the street saw two females on a veranda, one spoke to me inquiring of my health (I had then made some progress in talking the language) one asked me if I knew Don Jose, I answered in the negative, when they expressed his whole name, I then understood whom they meant, one of them told me that was his house, and bid me come in, the other told me not to. I inquired if Don Jose was there, one insisted my coming in the other opposed it, finding the house divided went in, after I got into the house found it was a piece of artifice to get me to come in, conversing with them fond Don Jose had taken one of the family for a companion and resided at Matoppa, they informed me when they wrote they wished me to write their Brother, and he would come and see me. I wrote, they sent mine with theirs, but heard nothing from him, from what I learned he did not desire to see any of his former acquaintances, had got into a state of a miserable man, dreading to see any of his former acquaintances. He, however, became less

66 CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL.

sensitive saw many of his Townsmen having got calloused. My Doctor told me this Captain practised as a `Medico' for some time, the last he saw of him had an abscess, and his finances were in a low state, had nothing to give for services.

      The head Priest often came to see me and have no doubt of his being a sincere friend to me, gave me some good advice and thought he could convince me of my error if he could speak my language, his sympathy was sincere for me.

      I now began thinking of joining my ship, was improving fast, joined a Caravan to go to Paita. I started in the afternoon and traveled through the night, being the pleasantest part of the twenty-four hours to travel, so hot was the sun when we started (altho my hands were covered) when I arrived at Paita found my hands blistered, I arrived one hour after sunrise. In coming through the defiles in the Mountains, I lay down the reins of the Mule and let him take his own way, there was a single passway. On getting into town found no Ship, it was about time for the Ship to come in agreeable to direction given to my first officer by letter.

      During my residence in Piura, had my food from the Doctor's, everything was sent by his approval. The citizens were kind to me in many respects, sending me fruits and flowers, my house was quite fragrant by the many flowers sent daily, and seldom was I clear of fruit, little children would bring oranges, some would bring a slice of watermelon. Silgualiers was a bright yellow fruit have never seen it in any other place, it was refreshing.

      In my walks to the River where I daily went before the sun rose above the Cordilleras 'twas then comfortable. I had to pass a wall built of brick such as was their houses, the wall was some fifteen feet in height, I passed saw nothing near the base of the bare wall, the next morning found a shelter of a bullock's hide, and a blanket awning was put up against the wall, there was a man, his wife and some four or five children, a pig, and chickens and a dog, these constituted the family, they were there more than a month, and I left them there when I left the Town. Such things show us how little we need if we bring our minds to our condition, they seemed to be perfectly satisfied in their situation. The third day after getting down to Paita, the Ship came in, had taken some oil all together five hundred barrels, had taken two hundred fifty while I was on shore. I lay by for a few days to get vegetables and fruit, then went on our voyage, and to the Galapagos Islands, the Doctor had interdicted my eating salted provisions, at Paita got all I could with my limited means, all things were high in price. Some friend

CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL. 67

unknown to me sent to my boat two dozen fowls, a pig and a jar of wine. After leaving went towards the G. Islands to replenish our wood and take some terrapin. While at Charles Island my boats going early after terrapin while I was taking my breakfast my steward came down informing me a boat was coming, and soon they were on board. I went on deck found the boat came from a Patriotic privateer, the commanding officer was a Frenchman, could speak some English. I was a short time out from Paita had many refreshments. Soon the officer informed what he should take from me, 'twas useless for me to object, he took everything he wanted which I had, they were put together, I had no thought but things would be taken as I was entirely in their power, was pleased to find they wanted no more, my fear was of being plundered of articles much needed by ourselves. But to my surprise, the Officer demanded to know what the price of all the articles were, I soon made a catalogue of each and all the articles, summing up the aggregate of all he had taken, 'twas readily cancelled in Spanish dollars, much to my surprise and satisfaction.

x x x x x

      When ready to leave had a dread of passing Cape Horn, as we drew up into a high south Latitude found the air bracing the dread of the rugged boisterous passing the Cape made its exit, and we making our way satisfactorily, on getting North of Falkland Islands it fell off calm for the whole day, about the setting of the sun, a favorable breeze sprung up, setting all sail that was required. The Main top-gallant sail was set and not taken in until our arrival in N. Bedford. Studding sail was spread in crossing more than fifty degrees of Latitude, without being taken in, we had a summer passage in every sense of the word, arriving the early part of the sixth month. I went home to Nantucket where my family was, after ten days returned to settle up my Voyage, found the Agent had gone to the Yearly Meeting. With Benjm. Rodman I went to the Yearly Meeting at Newport in 1817 for the first time of attending that Meeting, there was a large collection. Among the Ministering friends there were Jesse Kersy, Stephen Grelett, altogether there were near forty public friends, (Males) as was said by one who knew in my hearing. I spent a week in New Bedford. After settling my business, went home to Nantucket, feeling somewhat depressed but thankful to be restored to my family. Soon after I got home my three little boys came down with whooping cough, two of them sunk under the disease, the third rallied for a time, being weak fever set in and soon terminated his existence; we were from the Island at the time,

68 CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL.

on returning, our home was a dreary one, to have three Children taken from us in less than three months of the interesting ages of six, four, and two years, it drew a cloud over our feelings and our home seemed desolate. I had no business and but slim health, felt the necessity of doing something, accordingly commenced teaching some young men Navigation and Lunar Observations, the emolument was small better than doing nothing. I had twenty-five who attended school, twenty-four of them subsequently commanded, and but for mistake the other would.

x x x x x

      On my arrival the owners of Ship Balaena were desirous of my deciding on going again in the same ship. I informed them should never agree to go another Voyage before having seen my family, after which I would decide. My family were at Nantucket there I went and found them in health, after a week or ten days came to New Bedford and finally concluded to go again. I asked how long before the Ship could be ready, they decided in three weeks after the cargo was all out. I then fixed the time to sail on the first of the eighth month 1821 and finally sailed on the fourth and in six months was at Sandwich Islands with six hundred barrels of sperm oil. Left the Islands in the fourth month for the East Coast of Asia, where we took a full cargo in fourteen months from home, and then twenty-three thousand miles to sail in the direction I intended to go. I went to Sandwich Islands disposed of my surplus provisions and stores, and sailed for the United States had taken 2150 Barrels sperm Oil.

x x x x x

      Before returning to Nantucket came to the conclusion to move my family to New Bedford, and accordingly did, in the fall of 1826, where I now reside, having lived forty-four years much to my satisfaction and that of my family. Was fully satisfied that an entire change in my business should make some sacrifice, as I did. Other things opening to fill the blanks, was willing to forego many things for the enjoyment of the home circle of friends and family, had been going for the last six years, most of the time leaving my family with too much care, my wife's health was delicate. When receiving a letter from me from New Bedford stating my intention to go no more to sea, but try to live at home, on returning to Nantucket my wife expressed much satisfaction, by saying it was the best letter she had ever received from me.

      I bought the effects of Geo. Brayton and continued to carry on the business of Coopering with the addition of Gauging that with

CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL. 69

the interest in Shipping met my current expenses. In the fall of 1831 was interested in purchasing the Ship Tobacco Plant, and fitted her to Indian Ocean made a voyage in year with fair return, tho not great that ship made several voyages never made great returns but always made a small advance. I continued to carry on my Coopering so long as I could find it remunerative, but when it did not pay, sold out to my Boss Cooper, giving him all the support I could in his way, he had carried on the business for me sixteen years. I now wanted the building to use for Oil and Candle Manufactory. I fitted for that purpose and carried it on for several years, but not having business for my sons to be employed, they went to Ohio, Cincinnati. I had advanced in age and all the care come on me found 'twas too much for me, sold out my fixtures and quit the business.

      My business now was principally in Ships which I was interested in, had several remunerating Voyages and making an average of the time since quitting the sea, had gained a little each year over and above my current expenses, which was satisfactory to me, my mind being fully satisfied that contentment with what we have is a sufficiency, for food and raiment is all we can have, and nothing can we carry with us. My wife being in delicate health the Doctor recommended her journeying, and we had all things prepared, my Carriage was fitted for the occasion and started had driven but few miles when we had to stop and rest four hours, went on easily was absent six weeks, traveled seven hundred miles returning quite improved, my family physician called after our return, finding the improvement, said candidly

      "your journey has done you more good than all my skill and medicine together, and was I in your place I would go every year." So candid was our Doctor, we did not go every year, but went many journeys went into twelve States and Canada, and always returned improved. Was four separate times at Saratoga, hoping the water would eradicate the salt Rehum, which was extremely trying on my wife's hands and arms, the water seemed to alleviate the disorder for a time, but seemed there was no cure for that troublesome disorder. I have known few or none more troubled than my wife. One winter after locating in New Bedford, had every nail off from both hands at the same time, and before they were well, some of them were off the second time.

      In 1861 when the Confederate States being about to break up the Union, or rule, all the Navigation in which I was interested was at sea, two Ships came home. The Captain sold the Ship Rodman at

70 CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL.

the Isle of France, the business being badly managed, as there was a clear loss of $25,000 by bad management. The Ship Roman was all I had an interest in, was desirous of selling, but could not find a purchaser without too great a sacrifice, at last concluded to fit out, was absent long, but obtained seven hundred Sperm, thirty-two hundred of whale oil, with a fair proportion of bone, had on the voyage three Captains. One cruise North had an entire new set. On the return of the Roman sold half my interest in that Ship, have one-eighth which is all the Navigation I have.

      On the 3d of 11 Mo 1864 rode down to the point a Fort was being built, the principal engineer being an acquaintance, had often invited me to come, this being the first time I had found him there, after showing how they progressed, having his child in his arms went up on a plank which was placed on a brow, at the end of that plank were two planks, thinking I could walk up on two when at the end of second plank stepped on the same, the moment I stepped on second, up it tipped, (having no bearing) and I was precipitated down ten and a half feet, landing on stones, my weight being 230 lbs. breaking my left leg and bruising me much. Had I been alone would not have fallen, the Officer being ahead of me took from me all care as to my stepping.

      I was eighty years old wanting five days. The most extraordinary thing, subsequently was, had never a sick day, lay on my bed was not moved for six weeks, tis now five years and am still gaining, my leg swells daily, through the night it subsides, one other unaccountable thing is, for more than two years it has pained me no more than my other, nor does the approach of stormy weather have any effect on it, for which am very thankful.

      My activity being much circumscribed have had to content myself by passing much of my time at home, having amused myself reading, writing. In the fifth month 1868 having been so much confined at home, had a desire to change the scene, and an effort to visit New York, and a friend of mine, also, attend the Yearly Meeting in that City for one week.

      I had improved so much as to enable me to move about some with a cane, had left crutches, had used one crutch and cane for the last year. From this time used only my cane in making my little journey. After the Meeting adjourned, went to Poughkeepsie spent a few days, visited Vassar College for females, went from thence to Albany for a few days, thence to Springfield, and the following day to Worcester, after a few days left Worcester for New Bedford via Boston arriving in good time without anything

Portrait of Susan Hussey Gardner by William A. Wall
belonging to Henry Forster
Portrait of Susan Hussey Gardner by William A. Wall belonging to Henry Forster.

CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL. 71

to mar the journey having changed the scenes by meeting many old friends, and making some new ones. Having found no inconvenience by leaving home. My Son being here on a visit from Cincinnati accompanied me to Martha's Vineyard to the Campground spent two days and returned, this being summer had pleasant time.

      In latter part of summer went to Nantucket to the Fair, spent some ten days, in those changes found it was exhilarating to my spirits, and a change is good for us all, after being much confined. In winter, nights, and wet weather, was confined to my house, having little courage to be from home at these times.

      In 1869 found I had gradually gained in strength, and in the sixth month, attended Yearly Meeting at Newport, R. I. where I had not been for five years, 'twas a great satisfaction to be able to spend a week at Newport, and returned home improved of the asthma. At the house I sojourned being near the seaside, after a few days perceived a change in the asthma, my daughter also perceived the change for the better.

      After being some little time at home went to Plymouth, the place of landing of the Pilgrims for my first visit, to this celebrated place, where I saw the rock on which they first landed, also visited Pilgrim Hall and many of the ancient land marks. On the day I spent there a Monument was erected in memory of fallen townsmen in the late rebellion. Being fully impressed that the salt air had improved my respiration, concluded to go to Nantucket via Camp, and did so, being absent two days or three, found my breathing more free. In the fall went again to Nantucket and am still of the opinion that the salt air has a salutary effect on my breathing. Made my stay near two weeks. Since my return when the weather has been suitable, have rode near the salt water, and am still impressed with the belief that doing so is beneficial to me. If my faith continues in the belief of the efficacy of the salt air shall try to spend more time near the Ocean.

      My activity being much circumscribed have had to content myself by reading and writing. On the first of the sixth month 1866 my granddaughter Sarah W. Bullard died on that day, (a short time after being confined), which had a serious effect on my wife, she was not very well, and on the fifth was more unwell, called in her physician, on the seventh in the morning seemed more unwell sent for the doctor, when he came, she was in little distress, soon after the doctor came she had an attack which he called apoplectic fit and was never conscious after. Thus ended a long life, a few weeks short of eighty-two years, we having lived in compan-

72 CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL.

ionship fifty-nine years wanting two months, having lived so many years together, we seemed like fixtures, could not realize our separation, but sad for me, to look back on our mutual satisfaction for so many years, and now separated to meet no more in this transitory state, but trust, we may be again united to part no more forever. I have many soothing reflections to look back on, with much satisfaction, not doubting our many shortcomings will be forgiven, and we enjoy the company of those who have been redeemed by our Saviour whose blood was shed for us and all mankind, that we might all live.

x x x x x

      My son has been located in Cincinnati, Ohio twenty-eight years and more than twenty years in business for himself, has associated himself with a new firm of O. R. Baker & Co. Commission Business, 71 Pearl Street, New York. It was somewhat a relief to me having him near me in my advanced age, he being my only son remaining of eight. John H. a twin brother of his, was taken away in Cincinnati 7th of 2nd Mo 1854 two years after his Marriage. The other six sons died in their youth. I have felt my lonely situation many times, and often, when in the wide Atlantic, and far famed Pacific, hoping I might arrive at the situation I much desired to return to my family with a well grounded hope to leave them no more. I had ample time for reflection in the many Voyages I made, I made ten South Sea Voyages accomplished each one within two years except one, which was two and a half, had a full share of success. The last year of following a Sailor's life, was in making two Voyages, one to Brazil and one to the North of Europe Merchant Voyages.

x x x x x

      Our City is really dull, for at one time there were more than three hundred thirty ships in the Whalefishery and now not more than half that number, which has been our main wheel that has carried others, at the time we were in our zenith. There is a large amount of capital in this Community, seeking investment, which will readily be turned to any source that will be remunerative, the most productive enterprise except the Whalefishery is Wamsutta Mills, there will be invested when the new Mill goes into operation more than two millions of capital employed in carrying it all into operation, many persons draw their support from this establishment and has built up a village for accommodation for operatives employed.

      The introduction of water into the City from seven miles has and will be an expensive outlay for the City, about the same time

CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL. 73

the purchasing the Bridge and repairs of the same (it being in a wrecked state) will be a large outlay on the same. There's one thing I will give full credit for, the repairs and rebuilding have been done in masterly style fit to be examined by any good judges tis now a fine Bridge and free, the only way I shall get any pay from it, will be in riding often over the same, tis a pleasant ride and a refreshing breeze drawing up and down the River. I also see many persons fishing on the Bridge where accommodations are extended to them. Tis lighted the entire distance to Fairhaven and also the Telegraph wires extended to that place. The many outlays have been based by advantages for manufacturing which I am in hopes none will be disappointed on that contemplated source of employment. Several small Companies have started Manufactories that have not proved so lucrative as was their expectation, some have sustained themselves, but from what I learn, few or none have exceeded their expectation.

x x x x x

      Few or none have suffered from personal injury more than myself and but for great care for myself could not have attained my present age. I was more than thirty years of age before I took any medicine and have taken little since. My uniform practice has been when ill, to eat little or nothing. At one period of my time got into a weak state supposing my time would be short, come to the conclusion my time would not be more than a week or two, my bowels were out of order, the weather extremely warm (on the west Coast of Mexico) I quit taking any food and lived on Port wine sangaree with a little ship bread broken into it, at the expiration of two or three weeks, was quite restored, since which it's been my uniform practice to quit eating when ill. Perhaps there's no person whose powers and skill are called into action more frequently than the commander of a South Sea Ship. He is dubbed the old man (regardless of his age) in my own got that appellation at twenty-two years. In the first place the Ship and all pertaining is under his care and direction the large number of a whaling ship's company, all of different dispositions, and all liking to have their own way, the Captain is the umpire between his Officers and between Officers and men, for they all have rights, and order and subordination must be maintained or all will fail. The next in course is the Captain must be a Physician, Surgeon, and Dentist, to keep his company in health. Then comes his many other duties as Mechanic of all things, to build a boat, make a spar for any particular place, to make a sail to fit any place where tis desired, in addition Cordage is made from single yarns and

74 CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL.

ropes made for every purpose on shipboard even for standing rigging. In addition to the before named duties of the Captain, he is always supposed to know his exact position. There are no better Navigators than some of the South Sea Whaling Captains (there are exceptions).

x x x x x

      The strong westerly winds came on and in twenty days sighted the Sandwich Islands, where we remained several weeks, (one week by contrary wind), had a passage to make of more than twenty thousand miles. Saw nothing after leaving Sandwich Islands 'till sighting east end of Long Island, showing how exact was our Astronomical observations in traversing Courses nearly or quite around the compass.

x x x x x

      It is now on the eve of Voting Yes or No whether we will tolerate the sale of Beer agreeable to the decision of the late Legislature when sanctioned by City or Town authorities. I am opposed to intemperance in all things particularly imbibing alcoholic beverage to stupidity, but there's such a thing as drawing the cord too tight that will sever it, all have a right of freedom in this Country, to pursue their own course, if they do not interfere with their neighbor, and the laws of the Country they live in. Many of our Lawmakers are not abridged in their beverage take whatever their inclination or appetite directs, then, is it right, for laws to be made in opposition to our own acts. What was said by our Saviour.

      "Let him without fault cast the first stone."

I am a temperance man in the full force of the term, have never joined any temperance Society, belonged to one by birthright, that's been established more than two hundred years, altho a Clause in our Code of discipline by which it might be evaded by the expression "of its use in medicinal purposes" which might be construed or connived at as to be passed by. The greatest remedy for the existing evil is to convince people of the degredation of the use of all demoralizing beverages, which will do more than restrictions, particularly when those restrictions serve to sour the disposition, when improvement is hard. No person who has strength of mind and moral obligation, but, will leave the practice of partaking when 'twill mislead his brother. Having followed the sea as my profession for many years, from 1800 to 1826 during which period was subjected to many temptations many of which am thankful I was preserved from many of them by an overruling power. When in company and taking draft with my companions was often solicited to take more, I was favoured to decline when

CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL. 75

strongly urged, to take more, "by saying you shall" my reply to such was "I won't" which in some cases caused affront, I never considered in such cases my answer was more uncivil than importuning against my will. It was customary in my youth for all more or less when assembled in social company to take something stimulating twas common practice, and why we were not all inebriates it was wonderful for the practice is mechanical by continuing it. When I first commanded a ship my course was rigid in that particular, had no stated time for it to be served to my ship's company, but when much exposed by wet and cold, gave to them as I supposed it beneficial. When alcohol is seryed to Ship's companies at regular periods, they are expecting and craving the stimulant by such being the practice. On one of my Voyages having been a month at sea, on Saturday night, jack in sailor's attitude, wishing a "Saturday-nights," I affected not to understand him, caused him to explain what `twas he wanted, when fully understood informed him `twas too late to break up for it, and I would settle the thing for all time, had I been inclined to have it served at that time should have countermanded the order, for as often as they came for it so often 'twould be withheld, this settled the thing for the entire Voyage. I have always done all I could for the comfort and convenience for my ship's company when they were exposed, for without them I could do nothing. On my last voyage in making the passage from Gottenburg to the United States late in the season I took sufficient quantity of provisions but having a cold stormy passage consumed my stock faster than was anticipated, coming on this Coast midwinter had some misgivings as to our provisions being sufficient if detained by contrary winds. Had all hands called and made a statement to them of the necessity of coming on allowance, by which means should be able to face the hard winter breezes and arrive at our port, instead of going to the West Indies. There was not a dissenting voice, my Officers and self came on the same allowance as did the Ship's Company, the course adopted enabled us to arrive on New Year's Day 1826 the never to be forgotten day of my seafaring life, and a reception of a devoted family, to soothe me from the bleak winter blasts.

x x x x x

      I got my family located in their place of residence the 7th of 9th month (September) 1826. Having brought my mind fully to my Condition, was now ready to do anything that should offer to gain an honorable livelihood, many times it look'd dark and lowering, but putting my trust in him alone who can support and

76 CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL.

bear us up under all trials, supporting us under all discouragements even beyond our own expectations, my business was not great, but turned to produce a competency for my family with the united aid of a never to be forgotten companion without whose aid could never have prospered as we did, while I was much from home and variously occupied, necessarily, in seeking sustenance for my family, my Companion was training our children in the way they should go to be good Citizens, none could have had a more desirable helpmate for a long life. We lived together fifty-nine years, more time than falls to the lot of man generally, so long had we been united it seemed like fixtures, but alas, to my sad reality, was separated from my Companion and my Children from a devoted Mother. Our family consisted of twelve Children, six died in their youth, and six grew to manhood, and produced much satisfaction to us in our advanced ages, my youngest daughter is now forty-one years. My son John married in Cincinnati lived two years or thereabouts when he was called home leaving a widowed wife. Having many things to bear up under, but have an overruling hand extended over me through a long life. I had little Capital to work with, oftentimes felt myself quite embarrassed to proceed, but at no time when my whole dependence was on him alone who had borne me up and supported me through many trials, was never forsaken in time of need all things proved beyond my expectation. I had many friends who aided me much in my business, having had little experience in Mercantile business had much to learn, for persons trained to a seafaring life have much to learn as had myself, had little opportunity of improvement in Mercantile transactions and many other things.

      I was more than three score and ten years when I purchased more than six hundred barrels of oil on speculation, my funds running low found, from a friend connected with the Customs of New York the quantity shipped from that port to London, prepared my oil and sent the same to London by which I made a small advance on my purchase, but found my age too great for speculating, and in foreign shipments.

      Was often solicited for shipments to the same House, but declined, informing them my age forbid my extending my business and particularly foreign. Having since been decreasing, am drawing my business to a close, to have no existing business on my mind and have arrived to a time of life tis desirable to have no anxious feelings, but trust all things will be right when called to render up my stewardship. Am at this time more than four score and six years, am writing without the aid of glasses, I write without them in

CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL. 77

preference. When reading, the print not good, I use my glasses, can see more distinct with them, good type and clear print prefer reading without them. I think tis a great favor to be thus situated.

      I have recently been perusing a paper called the Commercial Advertiser from the Sandwich Islands March 2d 1871 finding its way to New Bedford in eighteen days. My being in command of the first Whaling Ship that visited those Islands in 1819 when those Islands were little frequented (comparatively) I now find some of the Islands have changed names, and many different names for places at each Island. I find the white population is increasing, while the Native is decreasing, which seems to be the uniform result in all Countries. When first I visited those Islands there were but four white men there as settlers, two Americans, one French, and one Englishman, on my second visit to the Island of Maui, after a few days was visited by the Frenchman (it being his place of residence) he informed me I had been there but few hours when the Indians came to his place, and informed "the crooked handed man had come again," he informed me a French Frigate had been there the Chaplain had christened his family in the holy bonds of the Catholic Church, he seemed well pleased with his situation and place. On my first visit to those Islands found some of their practices had been annulled, particularly human sacrifices, and many others. Some were in full force by their Taboos, one in particular, that of eating bananas by their females, not withstanding the prohibition they would get a secluded situation and transgress as did our Mother, with avidity, I have seen one of those females clear a cocoanut of the bur in less time with her teeth than could one of my ship's Company with a sharp hatchet, the soundness of teeth and strength of jaws well sustained. Oft times have gone on my main and foreyards drop themselves into the water and rise on the opposite side of the ship going beneath the ship for mere sport. Whale's teeth was a favorite ornament for them when first I went to those Islands. Having bought some article from a native in passing into his canoe 'twas accidentally dropped into the water, went to the bottom in seventeen fathoms a native in a canoe a short distance from ship went down brought it up from the bottom swam to the ship to hand it in, I refused to receive it and presented to him, to his great joy and thankfulness, I was fully willing for him to retain it for his activity and perseverance, they seem to be in an element that suits them when in the water are almost amphibious, are sporting half of the day in the water. At Attoi

78 CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL.

I was shown by George Tamoree1 a place where their ancient taboos were eaten, a dining set was formed on the solid rock with all the dishes necessary even a place for salt, all smoothed out and polished in a masterly manner, from appearance it had been long out of use. G. Tamoree was son to the King of Attoi had been in this country educated and served two years in our Navy, he wrote me a note which was well expressed, his father had been subjugated by the great Tamaher2 some years before, was gone when last I was there, his son reigned partially in his father's stead.

x x x x x

      I noticed before 'twas my eighty-seventh year this day, 'twas my 88th birthday. I had all my Children three in number (in N. Bedford) to come and visit me with five Grandchildren and two Great Grandchildren all my children were with me except one, and three Grandchildren in N. York, had a pleasant call from all who were with me to my satisfaction and also to theirs.

x x x x x

      It's something more than a year since I sent to the Mechanics Bank my resignation as a director in that Institution, twas not acted on but I was re-elected for 1871 have been little at the Bank for last year. At the recent annual Meeting of the stockholders a person was chosen to fill my place. I was chosen a director when the Institution first went into operation and remained one forty years nor was there anyone of first directors living except myself at the time the new election was made.

      I am fully convinced young men are superior for business to those advanced, for what they lose in judgment at times, is made up in activity. I have had experience in many things therefore feel I have a right to judge in some. I am fully persuaded we must seek for support from a higher power if we expect to succeed in our enterprise for of ourselves we can do nothing. I never failed of doing all, and even more, than was my expectation, when my whole trust was on God the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who bore me up through all my trials and sufferings. I am living a lonely life with friends around me, waiting the summons to be called hence to be seen of man no more, hoping to join the many spirits made perfect who are in the enjoyment of everlasting peace and tranquillity, having been washed in the blood of the Lamb and cleansed from all impurity.

      I have great thankfulness of heart for many favors meted out


      1 George Tamoree was the on of Kaumualii, King of Kauai Island.

      2 Probably Kamehameha the Great.

CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL. 79

to me daily, in the enjoyment of health and sight, which furnishes me much Comfort and satisfaction, I am Comfortably situated by having all things needful, and many ready and willing to wait on me at all times, still there's a blank that can't be filled, none can realize my great bereavement but those who have passed the like dispensation. Daily I go to our Exchange or, places of business, where I meet many of my business friends of our place, there to hear the news of the day.

x x x x x

      I am not a financier, but the much paper Currency keeps the price of all things up. At whatever time specie payment is resumed, 'twill make it hard for some, there will be some derangement in business - Could a fixed time been named at the end of our troubles with the Southern States, all or nearly all would have shaped their courses to have kept their Bark in a fair way, the cheapness of money has made all things a high price. I am so far advanced can never see things at their former prices unless specie payment is resumed soon. I have nothing to sell, and am living on my income, and those high prices compel me to make close calculations not to infringe on my Capital, am too far advanced to add anything more to it, therefor must be prudent in all things to meet demands for myself and family for the time I may yet be allowed to remain.

x x x x x

      My daughter Clara my son John H. Gardner's widow has come to the conclusion to unite herself in companionship with my Son in Law F. S. Allen which meets the approbation of all friends. They leave New Bedford for Boston there to be united, this fourth of fourth month 1872 and may their days and companionship prove a blessing to themselves, the children, and all friends, that when they are called home they may be received into a boundless and uninterrupted Eternity, where sickness and sorrow are no more known, to meet friends who have gone before, enjoying the blessing that's been meted to them by and through our Heavenly Father, by his dear Son Christ Jesus, who died for all that we might live - Having had some of the asthma for some days, caused me to cough more than usual perceptibly weaker in consequence, not strange tis so for my time is advancing, but many things am thankful for daily and hourly. My sight which remains good and much of my time is occupied in reading and writing. For more than a month the weather has been more winter like than any month through the winter months, so sterile

80 CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL.

has been the weather, have done nothing not even prepared my hot bed, last year at this period (fourth month ninth) had vegetables progressing at which time have nothing this year.

x x x x x

      In the early part of 1872 I lay down my pen thinking I might never resume it again, and have not until arriving to my 89 year, several times I have depressed feeling my time would not be long, but my guide and direction has been meted out to me by the aid of a blessed Redeemer whose hand has been stretchd forth to guide and guard me from all dangers I have had many things, known to none but myself, but trust they have been all for the best. My health has been generally better than the previous year. During the Summer rode much for exercise not being able to walk much was out every fair day and sometimes twice, which I think had a salutary effect on my health with a strict attention to my diet and never to be out when twas wet, more persons fall sick or troubled of colds by wearing damp clothing than from any one cause. Being unable to do anything am much of my time confined to my house and for amusement and instruction read and write much. When I look back to the commencement of the Century and reflect I have been on the stage of action much of the time and viewing the many things that have transpired it seems like a dream - Canals, Railroads, Telegraphs and Manufactories of various kinds are in successful operation, at the Commencement of the Revolution the white Inhabitants in the Colonies were about 8,000,000 at the present time something like 40,000,000 with the increase in population the arts and many things have been brought into operation and use, artizans from all Countries are in our midst. One thing after another comes just at the right time. When I quitted the Seafaring life and settled in New Bedford, found wood scarce, being disappointed where 'twas engaged, sent to Philadelphia for coal and a grate neither could be found here, at the present time there's many thousands of Tons consumed in this place annually. The manufacturing of many kinds are propelled by Coal, there were but two persons in New Bedford who heated their dwellings by Coal prior to my having it in my house, there were many who used it soon after. I know not the date of Telegraph was put in operation but has gone on rapidly throughout the Civilized World, I could but have a desire that Franklin could realize the wonderful change his advance in science had brought into practical use throughout the Civilized World.

      Every thing seems to be moving and advancing in all parts of our Country all kinds of machinery are brought into use to facili-

The last page of the second section of the journal.
The last page of the second section of the journal.

CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL. 81

tate improvements of our Country, which has extended from the Atlantic to the Pacific. Railroads are in full operation transporting passengers, produce, fruit and freight to this part of the Country, such is the advance of my anticipation, I predicted 1819 (when on the West Coast America) China goods would find their way to this Country Via Columbia River (this was prior to California being annex'd to the U.S.). I have recently seen arrivals from China one in thirty-eight days, the other in thirty-four to San Francisco. I made the assertion when on the California Coast not supposing I should live to see my prediction verified, some years have elapsed since Tea has been in New York Market and now can be brought from China in forty days' time over Railroad.

      When we reflect on the time since our separation from the mother Country and not yet a Century tis wonderful to behold the changes and improvements made in the time, no Country has ever made such rapid strides carrying all things to their extreme, it may be well said we carry all thing to extremes.

      Within the last half Century many things have come up for our convenience and support to take a cursory view 'twould seem there could not be as much more to come into action, and why not! Is not this the dawn of improvement and why may there not be as many and even more in the next half Century.

x x x x x

      Whoever these lines come to they may readily say

            "What does that worn out sailor know about things at the
             present day, he is quite behind the age,"

which is really the case, but there's one thing will pass for good currency in the present and ever would, which is truth and honesty, backed by virtue and self respect, which will carry us through many severe trials and land us in a haven of rest where none can make afraid.

x x x x x

      In laying down my pen two years since, thinking 'twas doubtful my resuming it again, having arived at my ninetieth year on the 8th of 11 Mo 1874 am fully of the opinion this will be the finishing of my biography of a long and ardent life passing through many eventful moments.

x x x x x

      On fifth day attended our midweek Meeting when George Richardson & Sarah M. Howland persons somewhat advanced both having lost their previous Companions and were living lonely tis lonely when persons have lived happily for many years to be

82 CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS JOURNAL.

deprived of Companionship none can realize the change but those who have to bend to all powerful decree meted out to all for their improvement.

      I put my signature to their Certificate being present at the solemnity of their proceedings, may they be happily extended to them for their remaining time as twas for my lot 59 years with a devoted Companion. Eight yrs. have passed since I've lived a lonely life and declining health surrounded by many things for comfort and Consolation but a blank remains that nothing can fill but dependence on a blessed Saviour who died for me and all mankind that we might live.

      I shall add little to my sojourn as my time will be short here all is done for my Comfort by those around me for which I am thankful.

Captain Edmund Gardner, Words From Others

NOTES AS TO LORD COCHRAIN

Extract from a letter from William R. Bullard to John M. Bullard from Europe in August 1928.

      "I am enclosing a document which, it seems to me, may be quite interesting. Do you remember, in Grandpa Gardner's diary, what he has to say of Lord Cochrain and his plundering the towns in Peru like a first class pirate? I do not recall the date, unfortunately, but it seems to me the man to whom he refers must be this individual. We only spent a few minutes in Westminster Abbey, but the name Lord Cochrain caught my attention, and the difference in the point of view seemed to me to be of considerable interest. If this is the man, Grandpa Gardner, who was out there, considered him a first class pirate, but at home you can see how well he stood."

      The following is a tablet in Westminster Abbey:

Here rests in his
85th year
THOMAS COCHRAIN
10th Earl of Dundoland,
Baron Cochrain of Dundoland,
of Paisley and Ochiltree
in the peerage of Scotland,
Marquise of Marantum
in the Empire of Brazil,
G.G.B. and Admiral of the Fleet,
who, by the confidence which his services,
science, and extraordinary daring inspired
by his heroic exertions in the cause of
freedom, and his splendid services alike to
his own country, Greece, Brazil, Chile and
Peru, achieved a name illustrious throughout,
the world for Courage, Patriotism, and Chivalry.
Born Dec. 14, 1775.
Died Oct. 31, 1860.

      "On July 27th 1928, while I (William R. Bullard) was )visiting the Abbey, a service to Lord Cochrain was taking place, after which hymns were sung by the full choir over his grave and a large wreath with the following inscription placed thereon.

From the Captain and officers
of the Training Ship Baquidano
To the Glorious
THOMAS COCHRAIN."

84 CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, WORDS FROM OTHERS.
THE WILLIS STORY

The following article appeared in The Morning Mercury, New Bedford, Mass., November 7, 1919

CHEWED UP BY A WHALE
–––––
THRILLING STORY OF ADVENTURE OF FORMER NEW BEDFORD
CITIZEN THAT HAPPENED OVER A CENTURY AGO
–––––

      The following story written by N. P. Willis, appeared in Our Flag in 1857, under the caption "Chewed Up by a Whale." Captain Gardiner lived for some time after his retirement from the sea at the corner of Sixth and Walnut streets in this city. He was the great-grandfather of Dr. John T. Bullard, Mrs. C. H. L. Delano, Mrs. G. H. If. Allen, and Mrs. George D. Kingman.

      The story:

      My most interesting acquaintance at 'Sconset, was a Nantucket "skipper," who had once been chewed up by a whale - his surviving to tell the story, of course, being simply because the dainty leviathan, not liking the taste of him, had dropped the willing mouthful out again upon the clean tablecloth of the ocean. This was 40 years ago; and it is a rare instance, you will allow, of a morsel's proving pleasant company so long after being rejected by a reluctant stomach at sea!

      I should ask pardon, however, for speaking thus familiarly of one of the best specimens of manhood that I ever had the happiness to meet - a sea-captain now in his seventy-third year, as tall, straight, vigorous and cheerful, at this advanced age, as when "a mate" at twenty-five - one of the most respectable citizens of New Bedford, at present, and enjoying a comfortable independence from the capture of the whale that wouldn t eat him and of other whales who similarly left him unswallowed. But I must give you the particulars of the half-mastication of Captain Gardiner - who, by the way, in addition to his singular experience as a mouthful, has the peculiarity of being the son of the first white male child born on Nantucket.

      Newly arrived at the honors of captaincy, our Nantucket skipper was cruising along the coast of South America - just off Peru - when there was a cry from the mast-head - "A whale hot" The direction was given, the sails trimmed for the overtaking of the monster, and, when within a mile, the boats were lowered, each with its crew of six, the captain himself taking the harpoon of the advancing boat which was to make the assault.

      Quietly afloat lay the amphibious Shylock of the sea (the leviathan, I take it, is of the tribe of Levi), and, as the swift boat came within harpooning distance, the inevitable iron, hurled by that strong arm, penetrated to his vitals. Not as usual, however, did the struck monster dive out of sight; but turning and making straight for his enemies, he rolled over his huge bulk to get a fairer grip, and brought his jaws together upon the boat's prow - the forward half of that slight structure, captain and all disappearing like the best part of an apple - tart in the munch of a hungry school-boy. The remainder of the crew, the helmsman and four oarsmen, had jumped overboard; and, as the whale, with another roll, dived down to die out of sight, he threw up the

Photograph of Edmund Gardner towards the end of his life, showing the crippled hand
Photograph of Edmund Gardner towards the end of
his life, showing the crippled hand.

CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, WORDS FROM OTHERS. 85

unswallowed captain - the relief boat pulling instantly to the spot and taking the crushed morsel and the five swimmers safely from the water.

      It was the chewed-up right hand of the captain as he sat by me at table which had first excited my curiosity - (stimulating the inquiries which drew from him, at last, this thrilling story) - the stump, or what was visible below the coat-sleeve, looking like a twisted rope's end, but still retaining clutch enough to carry the chowder-spoon to his mouth. Four of the whale's teeth were driven into him! one entering his skull, a second breaking his collar bone, a third breaking his arm, and the fourth crushing his hand - the remainder of his body being simply squeezed into a jelly. The healing of the wound in the head left a cavity like the inside of an egg-shell; and, though the hair has grown over it (hair still brown and thick, with the stubborn vitality of the un-kill-a-ble Nantucketer), it tells, after forty years, the size of the tooth that did it. I laid the ends of my three fingers very comfortably in the hollow.

      But the after-history of this perilous adventure seems to me the most remarkable part of it. With a crew composed almost entirely of well-grown boys, and the ship lying becalmed in mid-ocean - six days' sail from any port, even with a fair wind - how was this crushed and mangled sufferer to be doctored and cared for?

      Captain Gardiner, providentially, though so nearly eaten up, retained full possession of his senses. His first mate was young, but a very smart lad, and possessed, fortunately, of Yankee aptitude - good at everything; and, with the aid of the sufferer's directions he did the work of a surgeon. The captain ordered him first to make splints, and then to set his broken arm - the collar-bone being left to heal itself, unset, (as it remains to this day, without perceptibly affecting his erect shape or the action of his chest,) and the other wounds being bandaged in the usual way. He was then laid on the cabin floor, and with fans made of the leaves of the logbook, he was kept as cool as was any way possible - for it was the hottest of South Sea weather. Feeling, however, that his life depended on the exercise of his strong will, he gave orders that he should by no possibility be allowed to sleep over five minutes at a time. And, with this vigilant watch kept up for six days, the ship (navigated by his directions, as he lay on the cabin floor,) entered the port of Peru.

      A boat, sent immediately on shore, brought off the emperor s physician, who, on looking at the prostrate man and examining his wounds, advised only that they should send for a confessor. Other prescription, the medical man thought, would be useless, as death was evidently so close at hand. But the captain was of a different opinion. "A physician for the soul is very well, at proper time and place," said he; "but, at present, I want one for the body - and I happen to know of one who will cure me!"

      It so happened, that - in a previous touch at that same port - Captain Gardiner had heard of the sick mate of an American vessel who had been left behind by his sick shipmates, and to whom, as a charity to a suffering countryman, he then offered a passage home. The man's message of reply was that be fortunately stood in no need of the kindness, as he was under the care of a Spanish doctor who lived at Pura, (a village back of the mountains,) and who had taken him to his home and treated him like his own child. And, for this kind old doctor, Captain Gardiner now sent, with all convenient haste - dispensing at once, with any further attendance by the physician of the emperor.

86 CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, WORDS FROM OTHERS.

      They arrived safely at the mountain home of the old Spaniard, however, and here, all was comfort and kind care. They only differed on one point. The doctor thought the broken collar-bone should still be set; but the captain resisted. He had felt the broken ends knit where they were, he said, and nature's mending would do for him. And he was right; for, after forty years, he opened his shirt bosom and showed me the ridgy projection of the broken bone, strong and healthy and doing as good service as a whole one, that very day of 'Scanset.

      It took six weeks of kind nursing, to put him on his legs again; and then, with a grateful farewell to the kind old doctor of Pura, Captain Gardiner returned to his ship - taking command, and once more pursuing the object of his voyage. And, soon harpooning the requisite number of unsuspecting whales (who, for lack of a newspaper, had not the slightest idea probably, that it was the very same man whom one of their number had chewed up, boat and all, three months before!) he returned prosperously home.

      For an instance of indomitable energy, this can hardly be outdone, I should think; and, to see the erect, noble looking, and hearty old man of seventy-three, as I saw him, an hour or two ago, walking home to his dinner, with a light step and a good appetite, in New Bedford, forty years after being eaten up by a whale in the South sea - is to get a fine idea of the stuff of a Nantucket whaleman!



      The above is reproduced as it was printed in 1919. There are a number of obvious errors. First Gardner is spelled wrong. Second Mr. George H. H. Allen (there was no Mrs.) and Mrs. Kingman were grandchildren, not great grandchildren, of Captain Gardner. Third the Captain was not John Swain's son but his great grandson. Fourth it was the Captain's left hand that was chewed up and not his right.

      The author, Nathaniel Parker Willis, was a poet, magazinist, novelist, dramatist, traveller and correspondent, who was born in Portland, Maine, January 20, 1806, and died near Cornwall on the Hudson, New York, January 20, 1867.

      Mr. Willis had close New Bedford connections, having married Cornelia Grinnell in 1848. She was the daughter of Cornelius Grinnell, Jr., and his wife, Elizabeth Tallman Russell, but had been adopted by her uncle, Joseph Grinnell, and his wife, Sarah R. Russell. The wedding took place October 1 in the great stone mansion at 379 County Street, in New Bedford, which had been built by Joseph Grinnell about 1830 and was the home of various members of the Grinnell family until 1940, when it became St. John's Academy. This wedding was one of New Bedford's leading social events of all time and was the subject of an article by William M. Emery not many years before his death which appeared in the New Bedford Standard-Times. The bride was nineteen years younger than the groom. He was a widower at the time. They had met in Washington when Mr. Grinnell was in Congress.

      Mr. Willis was a man of considerable note in literary and social circles. He came of a race of printers and publishers. His great grandfather was the proprietor of the "Independent Chronicle," the "Potomac Guardian" and the "Sciota Gazette." His father, Nathaniel (1780-1870), established the `Eastern Argils" at Portland, Maine, in 1803, and in 1817 in Boston he was responsible for the "Recorder," one of the earliest religious papers. In 1827 he founded the "Youth's Companion," which is said to be the first children's paper ever published.

      That was the year N. P. Willis was graduated from Yale, where he made a considerable reputation as a poet. After graduation he was much in Europe. With George P. Morris he founded the "Mirror" which later became the "New Mirror" and the "Home Journal," which he conducted until the time of his death. This magazine is now known as "Town and Country," which celebrated its 100th anniversary on December 22, 1946. In addition to his literary activities, Nathaniel P. Willis led a somewhat tempestuous life, being at one time involved in a duel.

CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, WORDS FROM OTHERS. 87

OBITUARIES

From Evening Standard, September 18th, 1875

DEATHS

      In this city, 16th inst, Capt. Edmund Gardner, in his 91st year. Funeral services at his late residence, 33 Sixth Street on Seventh Day (Saturday) at 3 P. M. Relatives and friends are invited to attend.

Daily Mercury, New Bedford, September 17, 1875

DEATH OF A VENERABLE CITIZEN

      Captain Edmund Gardner died at his residence in this city yesterday morning, at the advanced age of nearly ninety-one years. Born in Nantucket, he came to New Bedford early in life, and was well known here for many years as an enterprising and highly successful ship master. His good fortune was not the accident of what he commonly called luck, but was the legitimate result of unflagging industry, native shrewdness and an indomitable will. It is many years since, satisfied with the fruits of his honest toil, he retired from active labor to enjoy the life of a private citizen. Though he took no public position in public affairs, the influence of his sterling character and blameless life have been widely felt in the community, and the memory of his virtues is a rich bequest to his fellowmen. A biography extending from the close of the revolutionary war to the present time could not but be full of incidents of interest. But the experiences of the enterprising ship master, under extraordinary circumstances and in varied scenes, was singularly entertaining, and it was always pleasant to listen to his graphic description of events in which he took part. To the very last he retained his mental vigor, and the burdens of extreme old age in no wise diminished the charm of a character that endeared him to a wide circle of friends.

From Evening Standard, New Bedford, Friday, Sept. 17, 1875

      Capt. Edmund Gardner died at his residence, corner of Sixth and Walnut Street, yesterday in the 91st year of his age. He was one of the most enterprising and successful ship masters ever engaged in the whaling service, and was one of the last of those old captains

88 CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, WORDS FROM OTHERS.

whose reputation extended world wide. He was a very active man until within a few years, when he met with an accident, breaking one of his legs, but he lost none of his mental vigor, and daily appeared on our streets till within a short time. He was a native of Nantucket, but moved to this city many years ago, and was one of our most respected citizens.

The Swain-Gardner Tankard.
The Swain-Gardner Tankard.

The Swain-Gardner Tankard

      A certain very early piece of American silver which was made by Jeremiah Dummer was in the Swain-Gardner family from about 1689 until 1954, being owned by seven generations of the family, eight owners in all, two of them being in the fourth generation. The Metropolitan Museum in New York was interested in the tankard but did not want it in its own collection as it already had, one by the same silversmith. There were no more males in the family who bore the Gardner name, and after it had been offered for sale to at least one other member of the family, who had not wished to purchase it because it had become so valuable it had to be kept in a bank vault or a museum, it was sold to a lady in Texas, who now has it on display in the Bayou Bend Collection in Houston.

      The following notes were furnished by Mrs. Edmund S. Gardner. The initials referred to are on the base of the tankard.

IS E
John SwainmarriedExperience Folger
b. Sept. 1, 1884
d. Nov. 29, 1738d. June 4, 1739

      Experience Folger Swain died less than one year after her husband's death. She was an aunt of Benjamin Franklin. The silver tankard which was made by Jeremiah Dummer was a wedding present to John and Experience Swain. The IS E initials on the tankard should be JS E for John and Experience Swain. They owned the tankard for 50 years and then it went to their daughter Hannah who married Thomas Gardner Nov. 30, 1724. The initials TFCG should be THG for Thomas and Hannah Gardner as it is known that they owned the tankard for 44 years.

TFCG
Thomas GardnermarriedHannah Swain
b. May 21, 1701
d. Apr. 14, 1784d. Dec. 5, 1779
TAG
Thomas Gardnermarried Feb. 7, 1760Anna Worth
b. May 7, 1736
d. Oct. 4, 1830

90 CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS TANKARD.

      The TAG initials on the tankard are for Thomas and Anna Gardner.

CAG
Charles Gardner, the son of Thomas and Anna Gardner, married Abial Russell
b. Aug. 2, 1789
d. Dec. 2, 1848

      The CAG initials on the tankard are for Charles and Abial Gardner. They had no children and a year before his death (Charles Gardner had lung fever and knew he was going to die soon) he gave the tankard to his younger brother Edmund in 1847. Edmund was born Nov. 8, 1784 and was therefore much younger than Charles.

ESG
Edmund Gardner, the son of Thomas & Anna Worth Gardner, the younger brother of Charles Gardner.
b. Nov. 8, 1784married Aug. 25, 1807 Susan Hussey
d. Sept. 16, 1875

      The ESG initials on the tankard are for Edmund and Susan Gardner. They owned the tankard for 28 years.

EBMG
Edmund Barnard GardnermarriedMartha Thompson
b. March 2, 1822b. 1828
d. 1905d. 1917

      The EBMG initials on the tankard are for Edmund Barnard and Martha Gardner.

ECSG
Edmund Gardnermarried July 16, 1884Cornelia Hotchkiss Sherman
b. May 10, 1855b. Feb. 15, 1853
d. May 1, 1910d. Sept. 11, 1932

      The ECSG initials on the tankard are for Edmund and Cornelia Sherman Gardner. They owned the tankard for five years.

ESG
Edmund Sherman Gardner, son of Edmund and Cornelia Gardner
b. March 15, 1892
d. Feb. 5, 1942

      Edmund Sherman Gardner inherited the tankard when his father died in 1910. He was eighteen years old and his initials were engraved on the tankard at that time. His mother kept the tankard for him until he was married June 12, 1918 to Virginia Newcomb, daughter of Truman and Abby Randolph Newcomb. The tankard was sent to Edmund and Virginia Gardner immediately after their marriage and they had it for 24 years. They had only one child, a daughter, who died in infancy, and there are no male Gardner heirs.

CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS TANKARD. 91

      The tankard became a very rare and valuable piece of early American silver and was exhibited in the Gallery of Fine Arts at Yale in the exhibition of Masterpieces of Early American Silver which was collected by the late John Marshall Philips.

CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER
HIS DESCENDANTS

      1. Edmund Gardner8, (Thomas7, Thomas6, George5, John4, Thomas3, Thomas2, Thomas1 ) was born in Nantucket, Mass., Nov. 8, 1784, the son of Thomas and Anna (Worth) Gardner, and died in New Bedford, Mass., Sept. 16, 1875. He married in Nantucket Aug. 25, 1807, Susanna Hussey, born July 18, 1784 in Nantucket, daughter of John and Lydia (Barnard) Hussey. She died in New Bedford June 7, 1866.

      According to Edmund Gardner's Journal, they had 12 children, six of whom, all boys, died young. The names and dates of two of the sons have not been found.

Children: Born in Nantucket.
2.A son who died at the age of 6 in 1817.
3.Thomas Gardner, b. Nov. 13, 1812; d. 1817.
4.Charles Hussey Gardner, b. May 27, 1814; d. before 1817.
5.Paul Gardner, b. Jan. 21, 1816; d. 1817.
6.Lydia Hussey Gardner, b. Apr. 23, 1818; d. Oct. 18, 1902.
7.Edmund Barnard Gardner, b. Mar. 2, 1822; d. 1905.
8.John Hussey Gardner, b. Mar. 2, 1822; d. Feb. 7, 1854.
9.Anna Worth Gardner, b. Mar. 16, 1824; d. 1885.
10.Susan Barnard Gardner, b. May 5, 1826; d. Dec. 29, 1869.
Born in New Bedford:
11.George Gardner, b. July 27, 1828; d. young.
12.Mary Hussey Gardner, b. May 31, 1830; d. about 1905.

      Another son who probably died as an infant must have been born about 1808 or about 1820.

      Captain Gardner is buried with his wife and daughter Anna in a lot which he purchased on Fir Avenue in Rural Cemetery in New Bedford. This lot is enclosed by a fence with a lot purchased by Dr. Paul Spooner, whose son Walter married the Captain's daughter Lydia. Members of the Thornton and Bullard families are also buried in this lot.

      6. Lydia Hussey Gardner9 (Edmund Gardner8 ) was born in Nantucket, Apr. 23, 1818, and died in New Bedford, Oct. 18, 1902. She married Nov. 12, 1840 Walter Sprague Spooner, born 1816, died Oct. 4, 1841, son of Dr. Paul and Sarah H. (Grinnell) Spooner of New Bedford. Shortly after her husband's death, she went with her infant daughter to live at the house of her husband's sister, Sophia Spooner, and the latter's husband, John R. Thornton, and continued to make her home with them and their son, Walter S. Thornton, all the rest of. her life. In this household, after the death of her daughter, she brought up the latter's children, John Thornton Bullard and Sarah Bullard.

Child:
13.Sarah Walter Spooner, b. Sept. 7, 1841, in New Bedford; d. June 1, 1866.

94 CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS DESCENDANTS.

      7. Edmund Barnard Gardner9 (Edmund8 ) was born in Nantucket, Mass., Mar. 2, 1822 and died in 1905. He married Martha Thompson, born 1828 and died in 1917.

      An article in the "Daily Spy" of Worcester, Mass. dated Feb. 4, 1847, found by Miss Sylvia Gardner among her papers, reports the death on Feb. 3 of Sewall Thompson, son of Mr. S. Thompson, 23. It would seem that probably the man who died was Martha Thompson's brother.

      Edmund B. Gardner was in business in Cincinnati for many years with his twin brother John until the latter's death. As mentioned in the journal, he moved to New York during his father's lifetime and was in a wholesale business there. He and his wife later lived in Hartford, Conn., and they are both buried in Bay View Cemetery in Sandwich, Mass.

Children:
14.Edmund Gardner, b. May 10, 1855; d. May 1, 1910.
14a.Sewall Lincoln Gardner, b. Aug. 25, 1858; d. Nov. 2, 1859.
14b.Simeon Thompson Gardner, b. Aug. 18, 1860; d. Feb. 9, 1862.
14c.Albert Braman Gardner, b. June 6, 1863; d. May 17, 1873.
All the above children are buried in Lot 11, Section 67, of the Spring Grove Cemetery, Cincinnati.
14d.Seymour Gardner, the only child except Edmund who lived for any considerable time, died in 1950 in Lexington, Kentucky. He had been married and worked for one or more insurance companies in the Midwest. His date of birth has not been ascertained, but he must have been one of the grandchildren referred to as living in New York on Captain Gardner's 88th birthday, Nov. 8, 1872. He had no issue.

      8. John Hussey Gardner9 (Edmund8 ) was born in Nantucket, Mass., Mar. 2, 1822 and died in Cincinnati Feb. 7, 1854. He married in Cincinnati June 17, 1851 Clara C. Best, born June 1, 1824, died May 12, 1905, daughter of Robert and Rachel (Wooley) Best. She married, second, in 1872, her first husband's sister Susan's widower, Frederick Slocum Allen of New Bedford.

      10. Susan Barnard Gardner9 (Edmund8 ) was born in Nantucket, Mass., May 5, 1828 and died in New Bedford Dec. 29, 1869. She married Jan. 15, 1856 Frederick Slocum Allen, born Aug. 16, 1812, died May 10, 1896, son of James and Sarah (Howland) Allen. She was his second wife. His first wife was Mary P. Howland who died in 1845. He married third, on April 4, 1872, CIara C. Best, born June 1, 1824, died May 12, 1905, daughter of Robert and Rachel (Wooley) Best, widow of his second wife's brother, John H. Gardner.

Children of Frederick and Susan Allen:
15.Frederick S. Allen, b. Dec. 24, 1856; d. July 7, 1857.
16.Walter Spooner Allen, b. July 16, 1858; d. Mar. 31, 1916.
17.Edith Allen, b. Apr. 12, 1860; d. July 1, 1946.
18.George Henry Howland Allen, b. Oct. 5, 1861; d. Oct. 9, 1931.
19.Clara Gardner Allen, b. Sept. 18, 1863; d. Jan. 23, 1930.
20.Gertrude Allen, b. Mar. 4, 1865; d. Sept. 19, 1873.

      12. Mary Hussey Gardner9 (Edmund Gardner8 ) was born in New Bedford May 31, 1830.

      The book on Nantucket vital statistics, which was compiled from many scattered family records years after the events recorded, says she was the

CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS DESCENDANTS. 95

daughter of Edmund Gardner and Susan Hussey, that she married the Rev. Mr. Girdwood and (later) Isaac Hayes of West Chester, Pa. There are no dates given. She was known to the members of the family who are now alive, and who were old enough to remember in the early nineteen hundreds, as Aunt Mary Hayes. No will or other record can be found in West Chester. At her death some of her property was distributed to the Edmund Gardner family and the fact that the Lowestoft china came broken made a deep impression. John T. Bullard is remembered to have said he gave his share of Aunt Mary's spoons etc. to the Allen family for their rights in Captain Edmund Gardner's burial lot on Fir Avenue in Rural Cemetery, New Bedford. Cemetery records show that this occurred in 1905, presumably shortly after Mary Hayes' death.

      13. Sarah Walter Spooner10 (Lydia H. Gardner9, Edmund Gardner8 ) was born in New Bedford Sept. 7, 1841 and died June 1, 1886 in New Bedford. She married June 10, 1863 John Lincoln Bullard (Harvard A.B. 1861), born Aug. 17, 1840, died July 2, 1899, the son of John Parker and Lucy Forbes (Brigham) Bullard. He married, second, Charlotte Haskell, by whom he had a daughter, Lucy Forbes Bullard, who married Louis P. Bayard.

Children of John L. Bullard and Sarah W. Spooner:
21.John Thornton Bullard, b. Mar. 31, 1864 in Boston; d. Feb. 23, 1927.
22.Sarah Bullard, b. May 20, 1866 in New Bedford; d. Dec. 23, 1941.

      14. Edmund Gardner10 (Edmund B.9, Edmund8 ) was born May 10, 1855 and died May 1, 1910. He married in Chicago July 16, 1884 Cornelia Hotchkiss Sherman, born in Hotchkissville, Conn., Feb. 15, 1853 and died Sept. 11, 1932. She was the daughter of Monroe C. and Ruth E. (Hotchkiss) Sherman.

Children:
23.Martha Gardner, b. Sept. 7, 1886.
24.Edmund Sherman Gardner, b. Mar. 15, 1892; d. Feb. 5, 1942.
25.Sylvia Arvester Gardner, b. Nov. 30, 1893. She has worked with the Medical Society of the State of New York and with Wesleyan University. She is now living at Meriden, Conn.

      16. Walter Spooner Allen10 (Susan B. Gardner9, Edmund Gardner8 ) was born in New Bedford, Mass. July 16, 1858 (M.I.T. 1879 B.S.) and died Mar. 31, 1916. He married Dec. 12, 1899 Idee Tillar, born Jan. 19, 1873, died Sept. 10, 1940, daughter of Joshua Thomas Westbrook and Antoinette (Pruit) Tillar of Little Rock, Arkansas.

Child:
26.Ruth Allen, b. Sept. 30, 1901 in New Bedford. She is now living at 41 Bowdoin Street, in Cambridge, Mass., and is Secretary of the Department of Philosophy at Harvard University.

      17. Edith Allen10 (Susan B. Gardner9, Edmund Gardner8 ) was born Apr. 12, 1860 and died July 1, 1946. She married Dec. 10, 1884 Frederick Prentice Forster, born Aug. 17, 1851 (Harvard 1873), died Jan. 18, 1915, son of Henry and Mary Taber (Swift) Forster, of Charlestown and Boston, Mass.

Children:
27.Dorothy Forster, b. Sept. 6, 1885 in New Bedford.

96 CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS DESCENDANTS.
28.Frederick Allen Forster, b. Feb. 4, 1887 in New York, (Harvard A.B. 1910); d. Oct. 5, 1917.
29.Henry Forster, b. Mar. 21, 1889 in New York.
30.Margaret Forster, b. Mar. 23, 1893 in New York.
31.Horace Waldo Forster, b. Aug. 9, 1895 in Jaffrey, N. H.
32.Reginald Forster, b. May 24, 1897 in New York, d. Boston, June 27, 1958, After graduating from Milton Academy, he served in the Artillery in the First World War and was a Lieutenant Commander in the Pacific in the Second World War. He was connected with the United. Fruit Company for many years and more recently with Warren Brothers.
33.Gardner Forster, b. Aug. 17, 1899 in Nonquitt, Dartmouth, Mass.

      19. Clara Gardner Allen10 (Susan B. Gardner9, Edmund8 ) was born Sept. 18, 1863 and died Jan. 23, 1930 in Fort Leavenworth, Kans. She married Sept. 1, 1892 George Metcalf Kingman, born June 28, 1858, died Apr. 20„ 1922, son of George Frederick and Betsey Whiting (Metcalf) Kingman. Children, born in New Bedford:

34.Allen Frederick Kingman, b. Dec. 18, 1893.
35.Metcalf Kingman, b. July 1, 1898.

      21. John Thornton Bullard11 (Sarah Spooner10, Lydia H. Gardner9, Edmund Gardner8 ) was born in Boston, Mass., Mar. 31, 1864 (Harvard A.B. 1884, M.D. 1887) and died in New Bedford Feb. 23, 1927. He married June 18, 1889 in New Bedford Emily Morgan Rotch, daughter of William James and Emily (Morgan) Rotch, of New Bedford, who was born Feb. 3, 1860 and died Mar. 15, 1949.

Children, all born in New Bedford:
36.John Morgan Bullard, b. June 7, 1890.
37.Helen Rotch Bullard, b. Jan. 25, 1892.
38.William Rotch Bullard, b. Oct. 16, 1893; d. June 18, 1953.
39.Emily Bullard, b. July 20, 1895.
40.Lydia Gardner Bullard, b. Nov. 3, 1896.

      22. Sarah Bullard11 (Sarah Spooner10, Lydia H. Gardner9, Edmund Gardner8 ) was born in New Bedford May 20, 1866. She died in New Bedford Dec. 23, 1941. She married June 18, 1895 Charles Henry Leonard Delano, born in 1852 and died Feb. 24, 1911, son of George and Abby (Leonard) Delano of Rochester, Mass. They had no children.

      23. Martha Gardner11 (Edmundi0, Edmund B.9, Edmund8 ) was born Sept. 7, 1886. Vassar A.B. 1907. She married at Hartford, Conn. July 25, 1908 Charles Glidden Osborne, Harvard A.B. 1907, son of William McKinley and Clara Frances (Hastings) Osborne of Boston and England. Divorced Jan. 1921. She married William Stuart Reyburn at Washington, D. C. Feb. 26, 1921, born Dec. 17, 1883, died 1945, son of John Edgar and Margretta (Crozier) Reyburn. She is living at Old Lyme, Conn.

Children:
41.William McKinley Osborne, b. Chicago, Ill. .June 22, 1911.
42.Harry Widener Osborne, b. Chicago, Ill. July 2, 1915.

      24. Edmund Sherman Gardner11 (Edmund10, Edmund B.9, Edmund8 )

CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS DESCENDANTS. 97

was born in Columbus, Ohio Mar. 15, 1892 and died in Boston, Mass. Feb. 5, 1942. He married in Chicago June 12, 1918 Virginia Newcomb of Chicago, daughter of Truman and Abby (Randolph) Newcomb. At the time of his death, Edmund Sherman Gardner was President and General Manager of the Hartford Electric Steel Corporation and President of the Roxbury Steel Company of Boston. He made his home in Hartford after living in the Orient when first married. Mrs. Gardner is an artist and has lived at the National Arts Club in New York City since her husband's death. A daughter died in infancy.

      27. Dorothy Forster11 (Edith Allen10, Susan B. Gardner9, Edmund Gardner8 ) was born Sept. 6, 1885, Bryn Mawr 1907. She married Jan. 18, 1913 Rutger Bleecker Miller, born July 25, 1878, died Apr. 14, 1947, Yale A.B. 1900, Columbia L.L.B. 1903, son of Alexander Macomb and Anna Grant (Wilson) Miller (U. S. Military Academy 1865). She is living in New York City.

Children:
43.Rutger Bleecker Miller, Jr., b. July 13, 1914.
44.Henry Forster Miller, b. Sept. 16, 1916.
45.Susan Gardner Miller, b. Oct. 4, 1918.

      29. Henry Forster11 (Edith Allen10, Susan B. Gardner9, Edmund Gardner8 ) was born Mar. 21, 1889, Harvard A.B. 1911. He married Aug. 28, 1920 Helena Livingston Fish, born Aug. 18, 1893, daughter of Hamilton and Emily Maria (Mann) Fish, of Garrison-on-Hudson, New York, which, in 1957, is the residence of Henry Forster.

Children, all born in New York City:
46.Henry Hamilton Forster, b. Sept. 20, 1921. A.B. Trinity 1947 as of 1944.
47.Bayard Stuyvesant Forster, b. Apr. 5, 1924.
48.Sheila Emily Forster, b. May 9, 1928.
49.Christopher Allen Forster, b. Oct. 12, 1932.
50.Hamilton Fish Forster, b. Oct. 12, 1932. A.B. Harvard 1954.

      30. Margaret Forster11 (Edith Allen10, Susan B. Gardner9, Edmund Gardner8 ) was born March 23, 1893. She married in Brookline, Mass., on July 20, 1954 Robert East Apthorp (Harvard 1908), son of John Vaughan and Mary (Sargent) Apthorp. She is living, in 1957, in Marblehead, Mass.

      31. Horace Waldo Forster11 (Edith Allen10, Susan B. Gardner9, Edmund Gardner8 ) was born Aug. 9, 1895. He married Nov. 12, 1921 Elizabeth Catesby Jones, who was born June 13, 1894, the daughter of Catesby Brooke and Josephine W. (White) Jones. He entered the military service in 1916, Pvt. and Pfc. Tr: A. Mass. N.G. on the Mexican border and the Regular U.S. army in 1917, 2nd Lieut. and 1st Lieut. Cav. 1918, Captain (temporary to Oct. 3, 1919); 1920, Captain Cavalry; 1923, The Cavalry School; 1931, The Q.M. Motor Transport School; 1935, Major, Cavalry; 1940, Lieut. Col. Cavalry; 1942, Col. A.U.S.; 1946, Colonel of Cavalry (subsequently Armor); retired as Colonel July 31, 1953. He served in France with the 2nd Regiment of Cavalry in World War I and during World War II in the War Department and as Military Liaison Officer at Gibraltar. He was awarded the Citation Ribbon with Pendant.

98 CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS DESCENDANTS.
51.Horace Waldo Forster, Jr., b. Dec. 16, 1922 at Fort Riley, Texas.
52.Elizabeth Catesby Forster, b. Dec. 29, 1924 at El Paso, Texas.

      33. Gardner Forster11 (Edith Allen10, Susan B. Gardner9, Edmund Gardner8 ) was born Aug. 17, 1899. (Harvard A.B. 1921). Married Aug. 31, 1935 Katherine Pixley Ranney, who was born Jan. 30, 1905, daughter of Frank Ogilvie and Katherine Beatrice (Holland) Ranney. He is living, in 1957, at 22 Fairfield Way, San Francisco, Cal.

Children, born in New York City:
53.Gardner Forster, Jr., b. Feb. 27, 1937. In 1958 is in the Air Force.
54.Susan Pixley Forster, b. Aug. 1, 1938. In 1958 is a Junior at Mary's Help Hospital College of Nursing in San Francisco.

      34. Allen Frederick Kingman11 (Clara G. Allen10, Susan B. Gardner9, Edmund Gardner8 ) was born in New Bedford Dec. 18, 1893. He graduated from Harvard College, A.B. 1916, was appointed 2nd Lieutenant U.S. Army (Regular) Nov. 30, 1916; retired in grade of Brigadier General May 31, 1953. Decorations U. S. Legion of Merit, Bronze Star Medal, Commendation Ribbon, and Purple Heart; French Legion of Honor (officer) and Croix de Guerre with Palm, British Order of British Empire (Commander); Belgian Order of Leopold II (Commander); Brazilian, Moroccan and Tunisian Orders. He married June 18, 1923 Margaret Dorsey Graham, born Sept. 29, 1896, daughter of Robert Patterson and Caroline Riggs (Dorsey) Graham of Baltimore, Md. He is living, in 1957, at 10 Davie Circle, Chapel Hill, N. C.

Children:
55.Allen Frederick Kingman, Jr., b. May 23, 1924 at Neuilly-sur-Seine, France.
56.Eleanor Graham Kingman, b. Apr. 18, 1926 at Washington, D. C.
57.George Metcalf Kingman, b. Dec. 25, 1929 at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.

      35. Metcalf Kingman11 (Clara G. Allen10, Susan B. Gardner9, Edmund Gardner8 ) was born in New Bedford July 1, 1898. He married in New Bedford Aug. 16, 1930 Helen Bruce, born Mar. 11, 1899 (Nova Scotia Normal College), daughter of Hector and May Forbes (Joudrey) Bruce of Truro, Nova Scotia. He is living, in 1957, at 130 School Street in New Bedford.

Children, all born in New Bedford:
58.Clara Allen Kingman, b. June 20, 1934. Simmons College. Medical Technician.
59.Ruth Allen Kingman, b. Sept. 14, 1936. University of Massachusetts B.S. 1958.
60.Metcalf Kingman, Jr., b. Sept. 14, 1936. Babson Institute B.S. 1957.

      36. John Morgan Bullard12 (John T. Bullard11, Sarah W. Spooner10, Lydia H. Gardner9, Edmund Gardner8 ), son of Dr. John T. and Emily M. (Rotch) Bullard, was born in New Bedford June 7, 1890 (Harvard A.B. 1913, L.L.B. 1915). He married in Detroit, Mich., Oct. 10, 1919, Catherine Crapo, born in Saginaw, Mich. July 23, 1897, daughter of Stanford Tappan

CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS DESCENDANTS. 99

and Emma Caroline (Morley) Crapo of Detroit. Residence: Nonquitt, Dartmouth, Mass.

Children:
61.John Crapo Bullard, b. Feb. 6, 1921 in Boston.
62.Sarah Bullard, b. July 27, 1924 in New Bedford; d. May 4, 1942, in Boston.

      37. Helen Rotch Bullard12 (John T. Bullard11, Sarah W. Spooner10, Lydia H. Gardner9, Edmund Gardner8 ), daughter of Dr. John T. and Emily M. (Rotch) Bullard, was born in New Bedford Jan. 25, 1892. She married in New Bedford on Sept. 16, 1916 Francis Colley Gray (Harvard 1912, LL.B. 1915), born Jan. 22, 1890, son of Morris and Flora (Grant) Gray, of Chestnut Hill, Mass. She is living, in 1957, at 62 Beacon Street, Boston.

Children, born in Boston:
63.Morris Gray, b. June 19, 1921.
64.Francis Calley Gray, Jr., b. Jan. 25, 1924.
65.John Bullard Gray, b. Oct. 9, 1927.

      38. William Rotch Bullard12 (John T. Bullard11, Sarah W. Spooner10, Lydia H. Gardner9, Edmund Gardner8 ), son of Dr. John T. and Emily M. (Rotch) Bullard, was born in New Bedford Oct. 16, 1893 (Harvard 1916) and died in Chestnut Hill, Mass. June 18, 1953. He married in Boston Nov. 4, 1920 Hilda Greenleaf, born Apr. I, 1895, daughter of Lyman B. and Ellen M. (Browning) Greenleaf of Boston.

Children:
66.Lyman Greenleaf Bullard, b. May 5, 1922 in Springfield, Mass.
67.William Rotch Bullard, b. June 4, 1926 in Springfield, Mass. Harvard 1947.
68.Peter Bullard, b. Sept. 16, 1931 in Boston.

      39. Emily Bullard12 (John T. Bullard11, Sarah W. Spooner10, Lydia H. Gardner9, Edmund Gardner8 ), daughter of Dr. John T. and Emily M. (Rotch) Bullard, was born in New Bedford July 20, 1895. She married in New Bedford Sept. 20, 1917 Robert Codman Cobb, born Nov. 11, 1893 (Harvard 1915), son of Charles Kane and Susan (Wheelwright) Cobb of Chestnut Hill, Mass. Residence: Old Pickard Farm, Littleton, Mass.

Children, born in Boston:
69.Lydia Bullard Cobb, b. Mar. 22, 1920.
70.Emily Morgan Cobb, b. Dec. 16, 1923.
71.Robert Cadman Cobb, Jr., b. June 12, 1926.

      40. Lydia Gardner Bullard12 (John T. Bullard,11 Sarah W. Spooner10, Lydia H. Gardner9, Edmund Gardner8 ), daughter of Dr. John T. and Emily M. (Rotch) Bullard, was born in New Bedford Nov. 3, 1896. She married in New Bedford Apr. 21, 1927 Charles Weston (Harvard 1913), born Sept. 25, 1891, son of Robert Dickson and Anstiss (Walcott) Weston of Cambridge, Mass. Residence: 21 Sears Road, Brookline, Mass.

Children, born in Boston:
72.Lydia Weston, b. Mar. 14, 1928.
73.Emily Weston, b. Mar. 7, 1930.
74.Carol Weston, b. Oct. 29, 1934, Boston University A.B. 1958.

100 CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS DESCENDANTS.

      41. William Mckinley Osborne12 (Martha Gardner11, Edmundl0, Edmund B.9, Edmund8 ) was born in Chicago, Ill. June 22, 1911 (Harvard 1933). He married in New London, Conn. Aug. 25, 1940 Charlotte Cameron, born Aug. 3, 1910, daughter of William Lockiel and Ida (Marion) Cameron, of Memphis, Tenn. Divorced June 1955. He is living at Old Lyme, Conn.

Children, born in New York:
75.Elizabeth Cameron Osborne, b. Aug. 10, 1941.
76.William Reyburn Osborne, b. Nov. 15, 1948.

      42. Harry Widener Osborne12 (Martha Gardner11, Edmund10, Edmund B.9, Edmund8 ) was born in Chicago, Ill. July 2, 1915. He married in Reno, Nev. Jan. 2, 1946 Victoria Luciano, born December 18, 1925, daughter of Victor S. and Inez (Ruiz) Luciano, of Alicante, Spain. He is living, in 1957, at 715 10th Street, Antioch, Cal.

Children:
77.Cherie Ann Osborne, b. Bridgeport, Conn., Jan. 23, 1947.
78.Elizabeth Ann Osborne, b. Antioch, Cal. June 10, 1955.

      43. Rutger Bleecker Miller, Jr.12 (Dorothy Forster11, Edith Allen10, Susan B. Gardner9, Edmund Gardner8 ) was born July 13, 1914. Harvard 1936, He married Dec. 19, 1953 Marie Celia Dyckman, who was born Dec. 11, 1924, daughter of Francis Hamilton and Kathryn (Bomann) Dyckman of New York City. He is living, in 1957, in New York City.

      44. Henry Forster Miller12 (Dorothy Forster11, Edith Allen10, Susan B. Gardner9, Edmund Gardner8 ) was born Sept. 16, 1916 (Yale 1938, Yale B. Architecture 1948). He married Apr. 6, 1942 Maria Stockton Bullitt, born Nov. 27, 1916, daughter of Logan McKnight and Dorothy M. (Roberts) Bullitt, of Chestnut Hill, Pa. He is living, in 1957, in New Haven, Conn.

Children, all born in New Haven:
79.Maria Stockton Miller, b. Nov. 29, 1948.
80.Andrew Gardner Miller, b. Oct. 11, 1950.
81.Dorothy Bullitt Miller, b. Sept. 24, 1952.
82.Steven Macomb Miller, b. Feb. 23, 1955.
82a.Henry Forster Miller, Jr., b. May 30, 1958.

      45. Susan Gardner Miller12 (Dorothy Forster11, Edith Allen10, Susan B. Gardner9, Edmund Gardner8 ) was born Oct. 4, 1918 (Bryn Mawr 1940). She married in New Bedford Sept. 7, 1946 James Higginson Jackson (Harvard A.B. 1938, M.D. 1942), born Oct. 6, 1916, son of Charles and Elizabeth Bethune (Higginson) Jackson of Boston and Dover, Mass. She is living, in 1957, at 356 Walnut Street, Brookline, Mass.

Children, all born in Boston:
83.Susan Gardner Jackson, b. Dec. 22, 1947.
84.Edith Allen Jackson, b. Oct. 21, 1949.
85.Elizabeth Bethune Higginson Jackson, b. May 24, 1951; d. Apr. 15, 1958.
86.Dorothy Forster Jackson, b. Apr. 11, 1954; d. Apr. 19, 1958.
87.James Edward Jackson, b. June 14, 1955.

      47. Bayard Stuyvesant Forster12 (Henry Forster11, Edith Allen10, Susan

CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS DESCENDANTS. 101

B. Gardner9, Edmund Gardner8 ) was born Apr. 5, 1924 (Harvard A.B. 1947 as of 1944). He married June 28, 1947 Clare Chanler who was born Nov. 15, 1927, daughter of L. Stuyvesant and Leslie (Murray) Chanler of New York City, He is in the foreign service.

Children:
88.Wendy Allen Forster, b. Apr. 24, 1949 in New York City.
89.Pamela Murray Forster, b. June 25, 1950 in Cold Spring-on-Hudson, N. Y.
90.Nicholas Stuyvesant Forster, b. May 16, 1955 in Beirut, Lebanon.

      48. Sheila Emily Forster12 (Henry Forster11, Edith Allen10, Susan B. Gardner9, Edmund Gardner8 ) was born May 9, 1928 (Radcliffe 1951). She married July 9, 1949 John Anthony Grant Morris who was born Dec. 28, 1924, son of Arthur Le Blanc Grant and Alison Emily (de Candole) Morris of London, England, who is, in 1957, attending the Episcopal Theological School in Cambridge, Mass.

Children, all born in Cold Spring-on-Hudson, N. Y.:
91.Jennifer White Morris, b. Sept. 13, 1951.
92.Melissa Stuyvesant Morris, b. Oct. 15, 1953.
93.Jonathan Forster Morris, . Mar. 30, 1955.
93a.Deborah de Candole Morris, b. Mar. 31, 1957, in Cambridge, Mass.

      49. Christopher Allen Forster12 (Henry Forster11, Edith Allen10, Susan B. Gardner9, Edmund Gardner8 ) was born Oct. 12, 1932 (A.B. Yale 1954). He married Sept. 7, 1957 at Whitemarsh, Pa. Elizabeth Morris Cheston, born Oct. 25, 1934 at Philadelphia, daughter of Morris and Caroline M. (Ashton) Cheston of Ambler, Pa.

      50. Hamilton Fish Forster12 (Henry Forster11, Edith Allen10, Susan B. Gardner9, Edmund Gardner8 ) was born Oct. 12, 1932 (A.B. Harvard 1954). He married Sept. 13, 1958, at Bernardsville, N. J., Elizabeth Hartz, born Dec. 29, 1934, daughter of Raymond Emory and Elizabeth (Keiser) Hartz, of Bernardsville, N. J.

      51. Horace Waldo Forster, Jr.12 (Horace W. Forster11, Edith Allen10, Susan B. Gardner9, Edmund Gardner8 ), son of Horace W. and Elizabeth C. (Jones) Forster, was born at Fort Riley, Kans. Dec. 16, 1922. He went to Virginia Military Institute 1942-43 and after serving in Europe as a 2nd Lieutenant in the Army, attended University of Virginia. He married at Wicomico Church, Va. May 3, 1952 Margaret Leolyn Russell, born Aug. 26, 1927 at Mila, Va., daughter of William H. and Ella (Taliaferro) Russell, of Mila,Va. She died Apr. 27, 1954. He married, second, at Richmond, Va. May 18, 1957 Virginia Ashby Taylor, born May 11, 1933 at Annapolis, Md., daughter of Rear Admiral Edwin Ashby and Virginia (Wright) Taylor, of Richmond, Va. He is living, in 1957, in Richmond.

 Edwin Taylor Forster. b. Oct. 20 1958.

      52. Elizabeth Catesby Forster12 (Horace W. Forster11, Edith Allen10, Susan B. Gardner9, Edmund Gardner8 ), daughter of Horace W. and Elizabeth C. (Jones) Forster, was born Dec. 29, 1924. She married June 17, 1946 Joseph Wilmer Comstock, born Oct. 24, 1913, son of Joseph Hooker and Dora (Tschantz) Comstock. She is living, in 1957, in Zion, Ill.

102 CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS DESCENDANTS.
Children, all born at Elkhorn, Wis.:.
94.Elizabeth Forster Comstock, b. Mar. 2, 1947.
95.David Brooke Comstock, b. Mar. 2, 1949.
96.Allen Gardner Comstock, b. Oct. 30, 1950.

      55. Allen Frederick Kingman12 (Allen F. Kingman11, Clara G. Allen10, Susan B. Gardner9, Edmund8 ) was born in Neuilly-sur-Seine, France, May 23, 1924. He graduated from George Washington University, Washington, D. C. A.B. 1944, M.D. 1947. He was a medical student U.S. Army 1943-1947, 1st Lieutenant Medical Corps Reserve 1947-1948, Regular 1948, Major 1955, Lt. Colonel (Temporary) 1956. Certified by American Board of Neurosurgeons 1955, U.S. Legion of Merit, Belgian Order of Leopold II (officer). He married Oct. 29, 1949 Hazel Brand Taylor, born May 10, 1924, daughter of Colonel Thomas Fenton and Hazel (Brand) Taylor of Chapel Hill, N. C.

Children:
97.Thomas Allen Kingman, b. May 25, 1955 at Washington, D. C.
97a.Robert Graham Kingman, b. Aug. 25, 1957, at Fort Sam Houston, Texas.

      56. Eleanor Graham Kingman12 (Allen F. Kingman11, Clara G. Allen10, Susan B. Gardner9, Edmund8 ) was born Apr. 18, 1926 at Washington, D. C. She married Mar. 23, 1946 Roy Neil Miller who was born Sept. 23, 1923, son of Roy Neil Miller. She is living, in 1956, at Newtown Square, Pa.

Children, all born in Philadelphia:
98.Roy Neil Miller, b. Aug. 23, 1947.
99.Margaret Kingman Miller, b. Apr. 16, 1950.
100.Cynthia Marie Miller, b. Aug. 30, 1952.

      57. George Metcalf Kingman12 (Allen F. Kingman11, Clara G. Allen10, Susan B. Gardner9, Edmund8 ) was born at Fort Leavenworth, Kans. Dec. 25, 1929, graduated Northwestern University B.S. 1955, married Aug. 7, 1954 Nancy Elizabeth Hughes, daughter of James Nelson Hughes of Washington, D. C.

      61. John Crapo Bullard13 (John M. Bullard12, John T. Bullard11, Sarah W. Spooner10, Lydia H. Gardner9, Edmund Gardner8 ) son of John M. and Catherine (Crapo) Bullard, was born in Boston Feb. 6, 1921 (Harvard 1943, M.D. 1945). He married at Malone, N. Y. Oct. 1, 1946 Katherine Kilburn, born at Malone Oct. 29, 1922, daughter of Clarence Evans and Anne (Crooks) Kilburn of Malone. Mr. Kilburn is a member of Congress. Dr. Bullard is a Diplomat of the American Board of Internal Medicine. He resides in South Dartmouth, Mass.

Children:
101.John Kilburn Bullard, b. Aug. 21, 1947 in New Bedford.
102.Sarah Bullard, b. June 8, 1950 in Boston.
103.Anne Bullard, h. May 6, 1952 in Boston.
104.Peter Crapo Bullard, b. Mar. 14, 1955 in New Bedford.

      63. Morris Gray13 (Helen R. Bullard12, John T. Bullard11, Sarah W. Spooner10, Lydia H. Gardner9, Edmund Gardner8 ) son of Francis C. and Helen R. (Bullard) Gray, was born in Boston June 19, 1921 (Harvard A.B. 1943, M.B.A. 1947). He married in Dartmouth, Mass. Sept. 16, 1944 Keturah

CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS DESCENDANTS. 103

Gorgas Irwin, born in Philadelphia Nov. 7, 1919 (Vassar A.B. 1941), daughter of Robert Forsythe and Keturah Thomas (Smucker) Irwin of Germantown, Pa. He resides in Dedham, Mass.

Children, all born in Boston:
105.Morris Gray, b. Aug. 18, 1946.
106.Robert Forsythe Gray, b. Mar. 1, 1949.
107.William Gray, b. Mar. 17, 1952.

      64. Francis Calley Gray, Jr.,13 (Helen R. Bullard12, John T. Bullard11, Sarah W. Spooner10, Lydia H. Gardner9, Edmund Gardner8 ) son of Francis C. and Helen R. (Bullard) Gray, was born in Boston Jan. 25, 1924 (Harvard S.B. 1946). He married Apr. 1, 1950 in New York City Elizabeth Thompson, born in New York City Aug. 13, 1929, daughter of Louis Steenrod Thompson, Jr., of Red Bank, N. J. and Elizabeth Craighead (Watson) Thompson, who came from New Orleans, La. He resides in Dedham, Mass.

Children, born in Boston:
108.Elizabeth Thompson Gray, b. July 23, 1952.
109.Francis Calley Gray III, b. Mar. 18, 1955 (the sixth of the name).

      65. John Bullard Gray13 (Helen R. Bullard12, John T. Bullard11, Sarah W. Spooner10, Lydia H. Gardner9, Edmund Gardner8 ), son of Francis C. and Helen R. (Bullard) Gray, was born in Boston Oct. 9, 1927 (Harvard A.B. 1949, M.B.A. 1951). He married June 25, 1949 at Dartmouth, Mass. Virginia Hamilton Tripp, born Nov. 5, 1927, daughter of Dr. Curtis Carver and Gwladys Mitchell (Ruffin) Tripp of New Bedford. He resides at Dover, Mass.

Children:
110.John Bullard Gray, Jr., b. Apr. 1, 1951 in New Bedford.
111.David Mitchell Gray, b. May 15, 1953 in Framingham, Mass.
112.Lucinda Hamilton Gray, b. Mar. 1, 1956 in Framingham, Mass.

      66. Lyman Greenleaf Bullard13 (William R. Bullard12, John Thornton Bullard11, Sarah W. Spooner10, Lydia H. Gardner9, Edmund Gardner8 ), son of William R. and Hilda (Greenleaf) Bullard, was born May 5, 1922 in Springfield, Mass (Harvard 1944). On June 24, 1950 he married at Prouts Neck, Me. Sarah Andrews Bell, born Mar. 16, 1927, daughter of Judge John and Sarah (Baker) Bell, of Wynnwood, Pa. He is living, in 1957, in Andover, Mass.

Children, all born in Boston:
113.Sarah Bell Bullard, b. Apr. 23, 1951.
114.Pamela Bullard, b. Apr. 8, 1953.
115.Lyman Greenleaf Bullard, Jr., b. May 16, 1955.
115a.William Rotch Bullard II, b. June 13, 1958.

      68. Peter Bullard13 (William R. Bullard12, John T. Bullard11, Sarah W. Spooner10, Lydia H. Gardner9, Edmund Gardner8 ) son of William R. and Hilda (Greenleaf) Bullard, was born in Boston Sept. 16, 1931 (Harvard ]953). On June 13, 1953 he married Joan Marsters Knowles in New Bedford, daughter of Russell and Eleanor (Read) Knowles of Rehoboth, Mass. He is living, in 1957, in Wellesley, Mass.

104 CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS DESCENDANTS.
Children, born in New Bedford:
116.Deborah Page Bullard, b. Apr. 17, 1954.
117.Peter Bullard, Jr., b. Nov. 19, 1955.

      69. Lydia Bullard Cobb13 (Emily Bullard12, John T. Bullard11, Sarah W. Spooner10, Lydia H. Gardner9, Edmund Gardner8 ), daughter of Robert C. and Emily (Bullard) Cobb, was born in Boston Mar. 22, 1920. She married in South Dartmouth, Mass. Sept. 9, 1944 John Allen Perkins, born Sept. 13, 1919 (Harvard A.B. 1940, LL.B. 1943), son of Ralph Chamberlain and Louise Bartlett (Allen) Perkins of South Dartmouth, Mass. She resides at Dedham, Mass.

Children, all born in Concord, Mass.:
118.John Allen Perkins, Jr., b. Mar. 28, 1946.
119.Susan Wheelwright Perkins, b. Dec. 13, 1949.
120.Robert Cobb Perkins, b. Apr. 18, 1951
121.William Bartlett Perkins, b. Apr. 26, 1955.

      71. Robert Codman Cobb, Jr.13 (Emily Bullard12, John T. Bullard11, Sarah W. Spooner10, Lydia H. Gardner9, Edmund Gardner8 ), son of Robert C. and Emily (Bullard) Cobb, was born in Boston, Mass. June 12, 1926. He married in Chestnut Hill, Mass. June 18, 1948 Mary Marland Hobbs, born Aug. 20, 1927, daughter of Marland Cogswell and Edith (Newlin) Hobbs of Chestnut Hill, Mass. He resides at Concord, Mass.

Children, all born in Concord, Mass.:
122.Jane Whitman Cobb, b. Apr. 2, 1949.
123.Deborah Marland Cobb, b. Dec. 17, 1950.
124.Melinda Morgan Cobb, b. Oct. 31, 1956.

      72. Lydia Weston13 (Lydia G. Bullard12, John T. Bullard11, Sarah W. Spooner10, Lydia H. Gardner9, Edmund Gardner8 ), daughter of Charles and Lydia Gardner (Bullard) Weston, was born in Boston Mar. 14, 1928. (Columbia M.A. 1952, Vassar A.B. 1958). On July 13, 1957 she married in Boston Veselin Kesich (Columbia B.S. M.A.), born in Yugoslavia Mar. 12, 1921, son of Mile Kesic of Bania-Luca, Yugoslavia.

125.Carol Kesich, b. Dee. 11, 1958 in New York.

      73. Emily Weston13 (Lydia G. Bullard12 John T. Bullard11, Sarah W. Spooner10, Lydia H. Gardner9, Edmund Gardner8 ), daughter of Charles and Lydia Gardner (Bullard) Weston, was born in Boston Mar. 7, 1930, (Vassar A.B. 1952). On Nov. 17, 1956 she married in Chestnut Hill, Mass. John Michael Frankovich, born Aug. 26, 1928, son of Michael J. and Louise (Cook) Frankovich of Illinois. (M.I.T. B.S. 1950). She resides in Belmont, Mass.

CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER,
HIS ANCESTORS

      Many descendants of Edmund Gardner and Susan Hussey might be interested in learning more of his and her ancestors, many of whom were common to both, and of the first days of the Nantucket settlement. I deem it very fortunate that my great, great grandfather wrote his Journal and left for all of us so many of the fascinating details of his life. He said he was descended from many of the first settlers of the Island, but he could not trace his pedigree to all of them. He would undoubtedly have been thrilled to read a book just written by Will Gardner, called "The Triumphant Captain John and Gardners and Gardiners," a Whaling Museum of Nantucket publication. There he could learn much of his great, great grandfather, John Gardner, who bested another ancestor, Tristram Coffin, for the control of the Island, and of John's brother, Richard, many times an ancestor of both Edmund and Susan, and of their father, Thomas Gardner, Planter, who came to Cape Ann in the Zouch Phenix in 1624 and was one of the earliest settlers of Salem. Other interesting ancestors described are James Coffin, son of Tristram, Damaris, the Widow Shattuck, the Planter's second wife, whose daughter married Richard, and Thomas Macy who changed from the Gardner side to the Coffin side. And there is much in this little book about Peter Folger and his wife, Mary Morrell, who were great, great grandparents of Edmund and grandparents of Benjamin Franklin, which made Edmund the first cousin twice removed of one of America's most renowned citizens. Of course, this makes all of us Gardner descendants Ben's first cousins, unfortunately five, or six (in my case), or more times removed.

Captain Edmund Gardner8

was born on Nantucket, Nov. 8, 1784, and died in New Bedford Sept. 16, 1875. On Aug. 25, 1807 he married Susan Hussey. He was the son of Thomas Gardner7, born May 7, 1736, died Oct. 4, 1830, and of Anna Worth7, who were married Feb. 7, 1760. Thomas Gardner7 was the son of Thomas Gardner6, born May 21, 1701, died Apr. 14, 1784; and Hannah Swain6, died Dec. 5, 1779, who were married Nov. 30, 1724. Thomas Gardner6 was the son of George Gardner5 and Eunice Starbuck5, born Apr. 1674, died Feb. 12, 1766. George Gardner5 was the son of John Gardner4, born 1624, died May 6, 1706, and Priscilla Grafton4, died 1711, who were married Feb. 20, 1653. She was the daughter of Joseph Grafton3, who was a mariner in Salem, Mass. in 1636, and his wife Mary3 . John Gardner4 was a captain of militia and Chief Magistrate of Nantucket. He was the son of Captain Thomas Gardner, Jr.3, born 1592, died Dec. 29, 1674 (or Sept. 4, 1677), who came to America at Cape Ann, Massachusetts in 1624, and who was a representative in the General Court of Massachusetts in 1637, and his wife Margaret Frier3 (or Freyer or Tryer), died 1659. Thomas Gardner, Jr.,3 later married Damaris, widow of Samuel Shattuck. He was known as Governor of Cape Ann. Thomas Gardner, Jr.,3 was the son of Thomas Gardner2 of Dorchester, England, who died in 1835, and a wife whose name is unknown. Thomas Gardner2 was the son of Thomas Gardner1.

106 CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS ANCESTORS.
Captain Edmund Gardner8

was the son of Anna Worth7, born May 7, 1736, died Apr. 1, 1815, whose father was John Worth6, born Feb. 15, 1713, died May 30, 1803, who married Mary Gardner6, born 1716, died Mar. 29, 1804. John Worth6 was the son of Jonathan Worth5 , born Oct. 31, 1685, died Sept. 26, 1719, who married Mary Hussey5, born Mar. 24, 1690. Jonathan Worth5 was the son of John Worth4, born May 19, 1666, died Feb. 11, 1731, who Sept. 22, 1684 married Miriam Gardner4, born 1664, died 1701. John Worth4 was the son of William Worth3, born 1644, died 1724, who was in Nantucket in 1662 and Apr. 11, 1665 married Sarah Macy3, daughter of Thomas Macy2, a Quaker, born 1608, died Apr. 19, 1682, who was in Nantucket in 1659 and who Sept. 6, 1639 married Sarah Hopcot2, born 1612, died 1706. William Worth3 was the son of John Worth2, who was probably killed during the reign of Charles I.

Captain Edmund Gardner8

was a grandson of Mary Gardner6 (born 1716, died Mar. 29, 1804), wife of John Worth6 . Her father was Solomon Gardner5, born July 1, 1680, died June 17, 1760, whose wife was Anna Coffin5, died Apr. 22, 1740. Solomon Gardner5 was a son of Richard Gardner, Jr.,4 died Aug. 3, 1728, who May 17, 1674 married Mary Austin4, died June 1, 1721. Richard Gardner, Jr.4 was a son of Richard Gardner3, died Jan. 23, 1688, resided in Salem, Mass. 1643-66 and in Nantucket and who in 1652 married Sarah Shattuck3, born 1632, died 1724. Richard Gardner3 was a son of Captain Thomas Gardner, Jr.2 and Margaret Frier2 (above but in third generation then). Sarah Shattuck3 was the daughter of Samuel Shattuck2 and his wife Damaris2, who, as a widow, married Captain Thomas Gardner, Jr.2 above.

Captain Edmund Gardner8

was a grandson of Hannah Swain6, wife of Thomas Gardner6. She was the daughter of John Swain5, born Sept. 1, 1664, the first male white child born on Nantucket, died Nov. 29, 1738, who married Experience FoIger5, died June 4, 1739, the daughter of Peter Folger4, born 1617, died 1690, who came over in 1636 and married Mary Merrill4 (or Morrill), a servant. He was the son of John Folger3 of Norwich, England, and Mirribah Gibbs3, his wife. Experience Folger5 was the aunt of Benjamin Franklin. John Swain5 was the son of John Swain4, born 1633, died 1717, and his wife, Mary Weir4, died 1714. John Swain4 was the son of Richard Swain3, born 1800, died Apr. 14, 1682, who came over in the ship "Truelove" in 1635, and his wife Elizabeth3, died 1659. Mary Weir4 was the daughter of Nathaniel Weir3 who was in Newbury, Mass. in 1637 and died Mar. 1, 1680, and his wife Sarah3.

Captain Edmund Gardner8

was a great grandson of Eunice Starbuck5, wife of George Gardner5 . She was the daughter of Nathaniel Starbuck4, born 1635, died Aug. 6, 1719, and his wife Mary Coffin4, born 1645, died Sept. 13, 1717. He was the son of Edward Starbuck3, born 1604, died Dee. 4, 1690, who was in Dover, N. H. in 1640, and his wife, Catherine Reynold.s3 Mary Coffin4 was the daughter of Tristram Coffin3, born 1605, died Oct. 2, 1681, who sailed from England in 1642, lived in Haverhill and Newburyport, and Nantucket by 1659, and who married Dionis Stevens3 . He was the son of Peter Coffin2, born about 1580, died 1638,

CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS ANCESTORS. 107

of Brixton Parish, Devonshire, and who about 1609 married Joan Kember2, the daughter of Robert Kember1 and his wife Anna1 . Peter Coffin2 was the son of Nicolas Coffin1 and his wife Joan1 . Dionis Stevens3 was the daughter of Robert Stevens2, who was the son of John Stevens1 . Her mother was Dionis2.

Captain Edmund Gardner8

was a great grandson of Mary Hussey5, born Mar. 24, 1690, wife of Jonathan Worth5. Her father was Stephen Hussey4, born 1630, died Feb. 2, 1718, who resided in Barbados and Nantucket and on Oct. 8, 1676 married Martha Bunker4, born Nov. 1, 1656, died Sept. 21, 1744, whose father, George Bunker3, was drowned May 26, 1658, and whose mother was Jane Godfrey3, died Oct. 31, 1662. George Bunker3 was the son of William Bunker2 . Stephen Hussey4 was the son of Christopher Hussey3 of Dorking, England, born 1598, died Mar. 6, 1686, who arrived on the ship "William and Francis" in 1832, lived in Lynn, Newbury and Hampden, N. H. He was one of the six councillors of New Hampshire in 1679 and was a purchaser of Nantucket. He married Theodate Batchelder3, died 1649-50, the daughter of Rev. Stephen Batchelder2, born 1561, died 1661, who had come over with Christopher Hussey3 in 1632. The father of Christopher Hussey3 was John Hussey2, died 1638, and who married Mary Wood2, Dec. 5, 1593.

Captain Edmund Gardner8

was a great grandson of Anna Coffin5, died Apr. 22, 1740, who married Solomon Gardner5 . Her father was Stephen Coffin4, born May 11, 1652, died Sept. 14, 1734, who married, in 1668, Mary Bunker4, born 1652, died 1724, sister of Martha Bunker4, above. Stephen Coffin4 was the son of Tristram Coffin3 and Dionis Stevens3 above.

Captain Edmund Gardner8

was the great great grandson of Miriam Gardner4, barn 1664, died 1701; who married John Worth4 . Her parents were Richard Gardner3 and Sarah Shattuck3, above. He was also the great great grandson of Mary Austin4, who married Richard Gardner, Jr.4 . Her parents were Joseph Austin3, died 1663 or 1681, who was in Salisbury in 1640, and Sarah Starbuck3, married 1659; whose parents were Edward Starbuck2 and Catherine Reynolds2 above (where they were 3).

Susan Hussey8

      Susan Hussey, the wife of Edmund Gardner8, whose name appears in the Nantucket records as Susanna Hussey, was born on Nantucket July 18, 1784, the daughter of John Hussey7 and Lydia Barnard7 . On Aug. 25, 1807 she married Edmund Gardner. John Hussey7 was the son of Stephen Hussey6, died Feb. 8, 1794, and his wife Elizabeth Swain6, born 1740, died Oct. 4, 1815. Stephen Hussey6 was the son of John Hussey5, born June 8, 1710, died at sea 1749, and Jedidah Coffin5, his wife. John Hussey5 was the son of Batchelder Hussey4, born Feb. 18, 1685, and his wife Abigail Hall4 (or Hale), born Feb. 24, 1680, whom he married Oct. 11, 1704. Batchelder Hussey4 was the son of Stephen Hussey3, born 1630, and Martha Bunker3 . (For these last two see Edmund Gardner ancestors.) Elizabeth Swain6, grandmother of Susan Hus-

108 CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS ANCESTORS.

sey8, was the daughter of Richard Swain5, born Aug. 16, 1698 and lost at sea Aug. 30, 1744, and his wife Elizabeth Gardner5, born 1705, died Dec. 23, 1795. Richard Swain5 was the son of Joseph Swain4, born July 17, 1673, died Apr. 1, 1765, and his wife Mary Sibley4, said to be the daughter of Richard Sibley3 and his wife Hannah3 . Joseph Swain4 was the son of John Swain3 and Mary Weir3 . (See Edmund Gardner Ancestors)

      Susan Hussey's8 great grandmother, Jedidah Coffin5, was the daughter of Joseph Coffin4, born Feb. 4, 1669, died July 14, 1717, and his wife Bethiah Macy4, born Apr. 8, 1681, died June 29, 1738. Joseph Coffin4 was the son of James Coffin3, born Aug. 2, 1640, died July 28, 1720, and his wife Mary Severance3, born Aug. 5, 1645, died 1720, who were married Dec. 3, 1663. She was the daughter of John Severance2, who was in Salisbury in 1637, and Abigail Eimball2, died June 17, 1658, whose parents were Richard Kimball1, born 1595, died June 22, 1675, at Ipswich, Mass., a Puritan, who came over on the "Elizabeth" April 10, 1634, and Ursula Scott1, born in Rattlesdon Parish, Suffolk, England, Feb. 4, 1597 and died Mar. 1, 1676, who was the daughter of Henry Scott, who died December 24, 1624 in Suffolk, England, and his wife Martha. James Coffin3 was the son of Tristram Coffin2 and Dionis Stevens2 . (See Edmund Gardner Ancestors)

      Elizabeth Gardner5, great grandmother of Susan Hussey5, was the daughter of Solomon Gardner4 and Anna Coffin4 . (See Edmund Gardner Ancestors)

      Abigail Hall4 (or Hale), great great grandmother of Susan Hussey8, was the daughter of John Hall3 (or Hale), who married Abigail Roberts3, the daughter of John Roberts2, born 1629, died 1695, and resided in Dover, N. H., and Abigail Nutter2, the daughter of Hate Evil Nutter1 (whose father was Lieutenant Anthony Nutter and grandfather was also Hate Evil Nutter1 . John Roberts2 was the son of Thomas Roberts1, of Dover, N. H. in 1623, President of the Colony in 1631, and his wife Rebecca1 who died between Sept. 27, 1673 and June 30, 1674. The father of John Hall3 (or Hale) was also John Hall2 (or Hale).

      Bethiah Macy4, great great grandmother of Susan Hussey8, was the daughter of John Macy3, born July 14, 1655, died Oct. 14, 1691, and Deborah Gardner3, died 1712: (For his parents, Thomas Macy and Sarah Hopcot, and hers, Richard Gardner and Sarah Shattuck, see Edmund Gardner Ancestors.)

      Susan Hussey's8 mother, Lydia Barnard7, was the daughter of Christopher Barnard6 and Judith Swain6 . Christopher Barnard6 was the son of Peter Barnard5, born Jan. 5, 1713, died Apr. 28, 1775, and his wife Anna Starbuck5, born Sept. 12, 1716, died Dec. 19, 1786. Peter Barnard5 was the son of Nathaniel Barnard4, born Nov. 24, 1672, died Feb. 28, 1718, and his wife Judith (Coffin4 ) Folger, died Dec. 2, 1780, the widow of Peter Folger 2nd. She was the daughter of Stephen Coffin3 and Mary Bunker3 (see Edmund Gardner Ancestors). Nathaniel Barnard4 was the son of Nathaniel Barnard3, died Apr. 3, 1718, and his wife Mary Barnard4, died Jan. 17, 1718. She was the daughter of Robert Barnard2, died 1682, who was in Salisbury in 1639 and his wife Joan Henry2 died 1705. Nathaniel Barnard3 was the son of Thomas Barnard2 who was in Salisbury 1859 and his wife Eleanor2.

      Anna Starbuck5 was a great grandmother of Susan Hussey8 . She was the daughter of Nathaniel Starbuck4, born Aug. 9, 1668, died Nov. 29, 1752, and Dinah Coffin4, born Sept. 21, 1671, died Aug. 1, 1750, whom he married Nov. 20, 1690. He was the son of Nathaniel Starbuck3 and Mary Coffin3.

CAPTAIN EDMUND GARDNER, HIS ANCESTORS. 109

(See Edmund Gardner Ancestors.) She was the daughter of James Coffin3 and Mary Severance3. (See above, Susan Hussey Ancestors.)

      Judith Swain6 was Susan Hussey's grandmother. Her father was Caleb Swain5, died July 25, 1785, whose parents were Joseph Swain4 and Mary Sibley4 (see above, Susan Hussey Ancestors). Her mother was Margaret Paddock5 whose father was Joseph Paddock4, born Sept. 12, 1674, died Oct. 18, 1732, who married Mar. 5, 1696 Sarah Gardner4, born Oct. 23, 1672, died May 15, 1750. He was the son of Zachariah Paddock3, born Mar. 20, 1636, died May 1, 1727, and Deborah Sears3, who were married in 1659. Zachariah Paddock3 was the son of Robert Paddocks, who resided in Duxbury in 1638, and died July 25, 1650, and his wife Mary2 . Deborah was the daughter of Richard Sears2, born 1590, resided in Plymouth in 1633 and died in 1676, who married in 1632 Dorothy Thatcher2 . Sarah Gardner4 was the daughter of Joseph Gardner3, died 1701 and married Mar. 30, 1670 Bethiah Macy3, the daughter of Thomas Macy2 and Sarah Hopcot2 (see Edmund Gardner Ancestors). Joseph Gardner3 was the son of Richard Gardner2 and Sarah Shattuck2 (see above Susan Hussey Ancestors).


      Should any descendant, or other reader, be interested enough to chart the above ancestors, each generation with twice as many names as the preceding until blanks begin to occur in the second and third generation, he will find name after name appearing time and time again. Often an ancestor finds himself in two different generations. The strong, vigorous Nantucket blood flowed back and forth among comparatively few families. Almost all marriages were between two who were not too distantly related, which goes to prove that with human beings, as with animals, if you have good stock to start with inbreeding can lead to improvement and not deterioration.

[INDEX.] [111]

Index

Abaca, Island, 5.    Batchelder, Stephen, 107.
Adams, John, or Governor, or         Theodate, 107.
    Kuakini, 35.    Bayard, Louis P., 95.
Africa, 59.    Bayou Bend Collection, 89.
Albany, 70.    Bell, John, 103.
Aldebaran, Ship, 15.        Sarah A., 103.
Allen, Clara G., 84, 94, 96.    Berson Hall, 43.
    Edith, 94, 95.    Best, Clara C., 79, 94.
    Frederick S. (1812), 79, 94.        Robert, 94.
    Frederick S. (1856), 94.    Bliss, George, 3.
    George H. H., 84, 94.    Bolduc, Edna B., 4.
    Gertrude, 94.    Bomann, Kathryn, 100.
    James, 94.    Bonavesta, C. N., 59.
    Louise B., 104.    Boorn House, 42.
    Ruth, 1, 2, 95.    Boston, 70.
    Walter S., 94, 95.    Brand, Hazel, 102.
Almy, Christopher, 21.    Brayton, George, 47, 68.
Anne Alexander, Whaleship, 1.    Brazil, 32, 38, 41, 64, 72.
Apthorp, John V., 97.    Brigham, Lucy F., 95.
    Robert E., 97.    Browning, Ellen M., 99.
Arendal, 45.    Bullard, Anne, 102.
Ashton, Caroline M., 101.        Deborah P., 104.
Asia, East Coast of, 68.        Emily, 96, 99.
Atlantic Ocean, 72.        Helen R., 96, 99.
Attoi, 77, 78.        John C., 99, 102.
Attowai, 35.        John K., 102.
Austin, Joseph, 107.        John L., 95.
    Mary, 106, 107.        John M., 4, 96, 98.
Azores, 2, 11, 62.        John P., 95.
        John T., 84, 93, 95, 96.
        Lucy F., 95.
Babereba, Brazil, 40.        Lydia G., 96, 99.
Bahama Islands, 5.        Lyman G. (1922), 99, 103.
Bahia, 38, 40.        Lyman G. (1955), 103.
Baker, O. R. Co., 72.        Pamela, 103.
    Sarah, 103.        Peter (1931), 99, 103.
Bal, Joe, 35.        Peter (1955), 104.
Balaena, Whaleship, 2, 9, 34, 35, 36,        Peter C., 102.
       46, 68.        Sarah (1866), 84, 93, 95, 96.
Baltic, 44.        Sarah (1924), 99.
Barnard, Christopher, 108.        Sarah (1950), 102.
    Lydia, 93, 107, 108.        Sarah B., 103.
    Mary, 108.        William R. (1893), 83, 96, 99.
    Nathaniel, 108.        William R. (1926), 99.
    Peter, 108.        William R. (1958), 103.
    Robert, 108.    Bullitt, Logan McK., 100.
    Thomas, 108.        Maria S., 100.

[112] [INDEX.]
Bunker, George, 107.        David B., 102.
    Martha, 107.        Elizabeth F., 102.
    Mary, 107, 108.        Joseph H., 101.
    William, 107.        Joseph W., 101.
Busche, George H., 42.    Confederate States, 49.
Butler, 35.    Connecticut, 48.
    Cook, Captain, 35.
California, 33, 34, 54, 81.        Louise, 104.
Callao, 24.    Corvo, 11, 62.
Cameron, Charlotte, 100.    Court of St. James, 57.
    William L., 100.    Cox, see Keeaumoku.
Canada, 69.    Crapo, Catherine, 98.
Canary Islands, 59.        Stanford T., 98.
Cape Ann, 105.    Crozier, Margretta, 96.
Cape Horn, 16, 17, 29, 30, 33, 67.    Cuxhaven, 41, 42.
Cape Verde Islands, 6, 16, 58.    
Ceros Islands, 33.    Dabney, John B., 14.
Chanler, Clare. 101.    Dages, Manuel, 65.
    L. Stuyvesant, 101.    Danube, Whaleship, 21.
Charles Island, 31, 67.    De Candole, Alison E., 101.
Cheston, Elizabeth M., 101.    Delano, Charles H. L., 96.
    Morris, 101.        Mrs. Charles H. L., see Bullard,
Chile, 16, 33.        Sarah
China, 35, 81.        George, 96.
Cincinnati, 69, 71, 72, 76.    Don Jose, 65.
Clay, Henry, 57.    Dorsey, Caroline R., 98.
Cobb, Charles K., 99.    Dove, Whaling sloop, 5.
    Deborah M., 104.    Dover, 41
    Emily M., 99.    Downs, Captain, 24.
    Jane W., 104.    Dummer, Jeremiah, 89.
    Lydia B., 99, 104.    Dunbar, Elisha & Co., 47.
    Melinda M., 104.    Dunkirk, 51.
    Robert C. (1893), 99.    Dyckman, Francis H., 100.
    Robert C. (1926), 99, 104.        Marie C., 100.
Cochrain, Lord, 23, 24, 33, 83.    
Coffin, Anna, 106, 107, 108.    Eagle, Ship, 35.
    David, 15, 17.    Easter celebration, 28.
    Dinah, 108.    Edgartown, 36, 38, 59, 61.
    James, 105, 108, 109.    Elbe, River, 42.
    Jedidah, 107, 108.    Elizabeth, Ship, 108.
    Joseph, 108.    Emery, William M., 86.
    Judith, 108.    Ena, Jack, 35.
    Mary, 106, 108.    England, 45, 50.
    Nicolas, 107.    English Channel, 41, 42.
    Peter, 106, 107.    Equator, Whaleship, 2, 33, 34.
    Seth, Captain, 51, 52.    Essex, Whaleship, 2.
    Stephen, 107, 108.    Europe, 42, 72.
    Tristam, 5, 105, 106, 107.    
Columbia River, 81.    Fairhaven, 73.
Comocow, see Keeaumoku.    Falkland Islands, 67.
Comstock, Allen G., 102.    Fayal, 14.

[INDEX.] [113]
Fish, Hamilton, 97.            Birth, 5.
    Helena L., 97.            Marriage, 9.
Flores, 11, 12, 13, 62.            Sinking of the Union, 10, 61.
Folger, Elisha, Capt., 2, 16, 34.            Farming during war, 18.
    Experience, 5, 89, 106.            Injured by the whale, 20, 64.
    John (1633), 106.            Death of his sons, 31, 67.
    John (1664), 106.            Teaches school, 32, 68.
    Peter, 5, 53, 105, 106.            Moves to New Bedford, 46, 68.
    Peter, 2nd, 108.            The second Journal, 55.
    Walter, 53.            His journey by carriage, 69.
Folkestone, 42.            Breaks his leg, 70.
Forster, Bayard S., 97, 100.            Death of wife, 72.
    Christopher A., 97, 101.            Duties of a Whaling Captain, 73.
    Dorothy, 95, 97.            His views on Prohibition, 74.
    Elizabeth C., 98, 101.            His 87th birthday, 78.
    Frederick A., 96.            The Willis Story, 84.
    Frederick P., 95.            Obituaries, 87.
    Gardner, 96, 98.            Tankard, 90.
    Gardner(1937), 98.            His descendants, 93-104.
    Hamilton F., 97, 101.            His ancestors, 105-107.
    Henry, 95.        Edmund (1855), 90, 94, 95.
    Henry (1889), 96, 97.        Edmund B., 69, 71, 72, 90, 93,
    Henry H., 97.           94.
    Horace W. (1895), 96, 97.        Edmund S., 90, 95, 96, 97.
    Horace W. (1922), 98, 101.        Elizabeth, 108.
    Margaret, 96, 97.        George (1624), 105.
    Nicholas S., 101.        George (c. 1660), 105, 106.
    Pamela M., 101.        George (1828), 93.
    Reginald, 96.        Grafton, Captain, 6, 51.
    Sheila E., 97, 101.        John, 49, 105.
    Susan F., 98.        John H., 72, 78, 79, 93, 94.
    Wendy A., 101.        Joseph, 109.
Fort Rodman, 3, 70.        Lydia H., 93.
Fort Sumter, 49.        Martha, 95, 96.
Fosdick, Captain, 59.        Mary, 106.
Foster, Cochrain's officer, 24.        Mary H., 93, 94.
France, 48, 50, 51.        Miriam, 106, 107.
Franklin, Benjamin, 53, 105, 106.        Paul, 93.
Frankovich, John M., 104.        Richard, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109.
    Michael J., 104.        Richard, Jr., 106, 107.
Freyer, see Frier         Sarah, 109.
Frier, Margaret, 105.        Sewall L., 94.
        Seymour, 94.
Galapagos Islands, 16, 28, 29, 33,         Simeon T., 94.
       66, 67.        Solomon, 106, 107, 108.
Gardner, Albert Braman, 94.        Susan B., 93, 94.
    Anna Worth, 93.        Sylvia A., 94, 95.
    Charles, 90.        Thomas (1592), 105, 106.
    Charles H., 93.        Thomas (1701), 89, 105, 106.
    Deborah, 108.        Thomas (1736), 5, 54, 89, 90,
    Edmund (1784), 1, 2, 3,           105.

[114] [INDEX.]
    Thomas (1812), 93.    Hastings, Clara F., 96.
    Will, 105.    Havre, 47.
Georgia, 48.    Hawaii, 34, 35.
Germaine, George, 35.    Hawaiian Islands, See Sandwich Is-
Gerrishes, 15.           lands
Gibbs, Mirribah, 106.    Hayes, Isaac, 95.
Gilman, G. D., 34.    Hector, Whaleship, 46, 49.
Godfrey, Jane, 107.    Henry, Joan, 108.
Gottenburg, 42, 44, 45, 75.    Higginson, Elizabeth B., 100.
Grafton, Joseph, 105.    Hobbs, Marland C., 104.
    Priscilla, 105.        Mary M., 104.
Graham, Margaret D., 98.    Holland, Katherine B., 98.
    Robert P., 98.    Hopcot, Sarah, 106, 108, 109.
Grant, Flora, 99.    Hospital in Hamburg, 43.
Gray, David M., 103.    Hotchkiss, Ruth E., 95.
    Elizabeth T., 103.    Hottentots, 6.
    Francis C. (1890), 99.    Houston, Texas, 89.
    Francis C. (1924), 99, 103.    How, Sam, 35.
    Francis C. (1955), 103.    Howland, Mary P., 94.
    John B. (1927), 99, 103.        Sarah M., 81, 94.
    John B. (1951), 103.    Hudson, 51.
    Lucinda H., 103.    Hughes, Nancy E., 102.
    Morris, 99.        James M., 102.
    Morris (1921), 99, 102.    Hussey, Batchelder, 107.
    Morris (1946), 103.        Christopher, 107.
    Robert F., 103.        George, 52, 53.
    William, 103.        John (16-), 107.
Greaves, William, 12, 14.        John (1710), 107.
Greenland, 51.        Mary, 106, 107.
Greenleaf, Hilda, 99.        Stephen, 107.
    Lyman B., 99.        Susan, 9, 90.
Grelett, Stephen, 67.            Her descendants, 93-104.
Grinnell, Cornelia, 86.            Her ancestors, 107-109.
    Cornelius, Jr., 86.    
    Joseph, 86.    Independantia, Warship, 24.
    Sarah H., 93.    Indian Ocean, 51, 69.
Gupualyan, Padre, 27.    Irwin, Keturah Gorgas, 103.
        Robert F., 103.
Hale, Abigail (See Hall)    Isle of France, 70.
    John (See Hall)    
Hall, Abigail, 107, 108.    Jack, Captain, 58.
    John, 108.    Jackson, Andrew, 48, 57, 58.
Hamburg, 41, 42, 43.        Charles, 100.
Harder, Peterson & Co., 42.        Dorothy F., 100.
Harmony, Henry, 35.        Edith A., 100.
Harriet, Whaleship, 59.        Elizabeth B. H., 100.
Harrison, William Henry, 57.        James E., 100.
Hartz, Elizabeth, 101.        James H., 100.
    Raymond E., 101.        Susan G., 100.
Harvard College, 52.    Japan, 36.
Haskell, Charlotte, 95.    Joanna, Brig, 14.

[INDEX.] [115]
Jones, Catesby B., 97.    Mann, Emily M., 97.
    Elizabeth C., 97, 101.    Maria, Whaleship, 15, 21.
Jovel, John, 35.    Marion, Ida, 100.
Joy, Robert M., Captain, 46, 47, 48.    Martha's Vineyard, 71.
    Mather, Cotton, 53.
Kailua, 35.    Matoppa, 65.
Kamehameha, The Great, 78.    Maui, 35, 77.
Kathleen, Whaleship, 1.    Mayo, Isle of, 58.
Kauai Island, 78.    Mechanics Bank, 78.
Kaumualii, 78.    Mediterranean, 41.
Kealakekua, 35.    Meek, Captain, 35.
Kealakekua Bay, 34.    Melville, Herman, 1, 2.
Keeaumoku, or Comocow, or Cox, 35.    Mercury, New Bedford Morning, 84.
Keiser, Elizabeth, 101.    Metcalf, Betsey W., 96.
Kember, Joan, 107.    Metropolitan Museum, 89.
    Robert, 107.    Mexico, 33, 73.
Kersy, Jesse, 67.    Miller, Alexander M., 97.
Kesic, Mile, 104.        Andrew G., 100.
Kesich, Veselin, 104.        Cynthia M., 102.
Kimball, Abigail, 108.        Dorothy B., 100.
    Richard, 108.        Henry F. (1916), 97, 100.
Kingman, Allen F. (1893), 96, 98.        Henry F. (1958), 100.
    Allen F. (1924), 98, 102.        Margaret K., 102.
    Clara A., 98.        Maria S., 100.
    Eleanor G., 98, 102.        Roy N. (192S), 102.
    George F., 96.        Roy N. (1947), 102.
    George M. (1858), 96.        Rutger B. (1878), 97.
    George M. (1929), 98, 102.        Rutger B. (1914), 97, 100.
    Metcalf (1898), 96, 98.        Steven M., 100.
    Metcalf (1936), 98.        Susan G., 97, 100.
    Robert G., 102.    Minerva, Whaleship, 51.
    Ruth A., 98.    Moby Dick, 1, 2.
    Thomas A., 102.    Montsier, or George Hussey, 52, 53.
Knowles, Joan M., 103.    Morgan, Charles W., 46.
    Russell, 103.        Emily, 96.
Kuakini, or John Adams, 35.    Morley, Emma C., 99.
    Morrill, Mary, or Morrell, 53, 105,
Lady Adams, Whaleship, 16, 17.           106.
Lahaina, 35.    Morris, Arthur LeB. G., 101.
Leonard, Abby, 96.        Deborah de C., 101.
Lobos Islands, 29.        Jennifer W., 101.
London, 76.        John A. G., 101.
Long Island, 74.        Jonathan F., 101.
Long, Reuben, 5.        Melissa S., 101.
Luciano, Victor S., 100.    Morse, Captain, 51.
    Victoria, 100.    Murray, Leslie, 101.
    
Macedonian, U. S. Frigate, 24.    Nantucket, 1, 5, 18, 38, 46, 49, 50,
Macy, Bethiah, 108, 109.           54, 55, 58, 61, 67, 68, 71.
    John, 108.        Names, poem, 53.
    Sarah, 106.    Napoleon, 41, 42.
    Thomas, 5, 105, 106, 108, 109.    

[116] [INDEX.]
Nassemus, 52.    Peters, Hugh, 53.
New Bedford, 1, 2, 3, 15, 29, 32, 36,     Phebe Ann, Merchant Ship, 38.
       41, 45, 46, 54, 67, 68, 69, 70,     Philadelphia, 47, 80.
       77, 80.    Philips, John Marshall, 91.
New Bedford Public Library, 55.    Pico, Island of, 36.
Newcomb, Truman, 90, 97.    Piura, 21, 22, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 66.
    Virginia (Mrs. Edmund S. Gard-    Pluma, 65.
       ner), 89, 90, 97.    Plymouth, 71.
New Jersey, 48.    Poughkeepsie, 70.
Newlin, Edith, 104.    Pruit, Antoinette, 95.
Newport, R. I., 17, 67, 71.    
New York, 15, 47, 48, 70, 72.    Randolph, Abby, 90, 97.
Niagara Falls, 60.    Ranney, Frank 0., 98.
Niihau, 35, 36.        Katherine P., 98.
North Sea, 45.    Ray and Bryant, 39.
Norway, 44, 45.    Read, Eleanor, 103.
Nutter, Abigail, 108.    Rayburn, John E., 96.
    Anthony, 108.        William S., 96.
    Hate Evil, 108.    Reynolds, Catherine, 106, 107.
    Richardson, George, 81.
Oahu, 35.    Rio de Janeiro, 39, 41.
Ohio, 49, 57, 69, 72.    Roberts, Abigail, 108.
Old Dartmouth Historical Society, 4.        Dorothy M., 100.
Ortiz, C. H., 22.        John, 108.
    Doctor, 22.        Thomas, 108.
Osborne, Charles G., 96.    Rodman, Benjamin, 67.
    Cherie A., 100.        Samuel, Sr., 15, 16, 17, 46.
    Elizabeth A., 100.        Whaleship, 46, 47, 70.
    Elizabeth C., 100.        William R., 47.
    Harry W., 96, 100.    Roman, Whaleship, 48, 49, 70.
    William McK., 96.    Rotch, Emily M., 96.
    William McK. (1911), 96, 100.        William, Jr., 51.
    William R., 100.            Deed, 3.
        William, Sr., 15, 50, 5I.
Pacific Ocean, 46, 51, 55, 64, 72.        William J., 96.
Paddock, Joseph, 109.    Ruffin, Gwladys M., 103.
    Margaret, 109.    Ruiz, Inez, 100.
    Robert, 109.    Russell, Abial, 90.
    Zachariah, 109.        Margaret L., 101.
Paita, 17, 20, 21, 22, 23, 26, 28, 29,         William H., 101.
       66, 67.    
Paragon, Ship, 35.    Sabin, 63.
Patagonia, 6, 10, 36, 38, 58, 59, 60.    St. Catherine's Island, 8, 18, 32, 59, 63.
Perkins, John A. (1919), 104.    St. Cruise, 32, 60.
    John A. (1946), 104.    St. Helena, Island, 8, 59.
    Ralph C., 104.    St. Mary's Island, 16.
    Robert C., 104.    St. Michael, 60.
    Susan W., 104.    St. Pago, 59.
    William B., 104.    Salem, 105.
Pernambuco, 38, 39.    Sandwich or Hawaiian Islands, 2, 33,
Peru, 16, 20, 33, 64.           34, 49, 68, 74, 77.

[INDEX.] [117]
San Francisco, 33.        Joseph, 108, 109.
Saratoga County, 51, 69.        Judith, 108, 109.
Sargent, Mary, 97.        Micajah, 21.
Scott, Henry, 108.        Richard, 106, 108.
    Ursula, 108.        Silas, 9.
Sears, Deborah, 109.    Swift, Mary T., 95.
    Richard, 109,    
Sechura Bay, 20, 25.    Taliaferro, Ella, 101.
Severance, John, 108.    Tamaher, 78.
    Mary, 108, 109.    Tamoree, George, 35, 78.
Shattuck, Damaris, 105, 106.    Tankard, 89.
    Samuel, 105.    Tarpolin Cove, 38.
    Sarah, 106, 107, 108.    Taylor, Edwin A., 101.
Sherman, Comelia Hotchkiss, 90, 95.        Hazel B., 102.
    Monroe C., 95.        Thomas F., 102.
Shetland Islands, 45.        Virginia A., 101.
Sibley, Mary, 108, 109.    Terceira, 14, 15.
    Richard, 108.    Terrapin, 29, 30.
Skagerrak, 44.    Thatcher, Dorothy, 109.
Smith, Bradford, "Yankees in Para-    Thompson, Elizabeth, 103.
       dise", 4.        Louis S., 103.
Smucker, Keturah T., 103.        Martha, 90, 94.
Society Islands, 48.    Thornton, John R., 93.
South America, Whaleship, 36.        Walter S., 93.
South Carolina, 57.    Tierra del Fuego, 20.
Southern States, 79.    Tillar, Idee, 95.
Spooner, Lydia G. H., 3.        Joshua T., 95.
    Paul, 93.    Tobacco Plant, Whaleship, 47, 49, 69.
    Sarah W. (Bullard), 71, 93, 95.    Tripp, Curtis C., 103.
    Sophia, 93.        Virginia H., 103.
    Walter S., 93.    Truelove, Ship, 108.
Springfield, 70.    Tryer, see Frier.
Stade, 42.    Tschantz, Dora, 101.
Standard-Times, New Bedford, 86.    Tumbes, 24, 28.
Starbuck, Anna, 108.    
    Edward, 106, 107.    Union, Whaleship, 1, 2, 6, 9, 10, 55, 58, 61.
    Eunice, 105, 106.    United States, 33, 36, 37, 48, 68, 75.
    Nathaniel (1635), 106, 108.    
    Nathaniel (1668), 108.    Van Buren, Martin, 57.
    Sarah, 107.    Vassar College, 70.
Stevens, Dionis, 106, 107, 108.    
    John, 107.    Walcott, Anstiss, 99.
    Robert, 107.    Walvis Bay, 59.
Studding Sails, 67.    Wamsutta Mills, 72.
Swain, Caleb, 109.    Watson, Elizabeth C., 103.
    Elizabeth, 107.    Webster, Daniel, 57.
    Gardner Tankard, 89.    Weir, Mary, 106, 108.
    Hannah, 89, 105, 106.        Nathaniel, 106.
    John (1633), 106.    West Indies, 75.
    John (1664), 5, 89, 106.    Weston, Carol, 99.
    John (1673), 108.        Charles, 99.

[118] [INDEX.]
    Emily, 99, 104.    Wooley, Rachel, 94.
    Lydia, 99, 104.    Worcester, 70.
    Robert D., 99.    Worth, Anna, 89, 90, 93, 105, 106.
Wheelwright, Susan, 99.        Captain, 51.
White, Josephine W., 97.        John (16-), 106.
Wilds, Captain, 35.        John (1666), 106, 107.
William and Francis, Ship, 107.        John (1713), 106.
Willis, Nathaniel P., 84, 86.        Jonathan, 106, 107.
Wilson, Anna C., 97.        William, 106.
Winslow, Whaleship, 9, 16, 18, 29,     Wright, Virginia, 101.
       32.    
Wood, Mary, 107.     Yale University, 91.
Woodruff Sims, Whaleship, 47.    Zouch Phenix, Ship, 105.

EDMUND GARDNER, 1784-1875

      Edmund Gardner was born in Nantucket, MA in 1784. In 1800, at the age of 16, he began his career as a mariner, sailing on a whaling voyage in the sloop Dove. His first command came in 1807 when he was asked to be the master of the Nantucket ship Union.

      Captain Gardner achieved some notoriety on this voyage by having his vessel sunk by a whale while on route to the Azores. This event was noted in Melville's Moby Dick which was first published in 1851.

      Gardner, as captain of the New Bedford whaler Balaena and Elisha Folger, captain of the Nantucket whaler Equator made history again in 1819 when they became the first American whalers to visit the Sandwich Islands (Hawaii).

      He retired from the sea in 1826. After moving from Nantucket to New Bedford and until is death in 1875, he invested in several ships, owned a cooperage firm, and served as a bank director.

      He married Susanna Hussey of Nantucket in 1807. Six of their twelve children survived childhood.

JOHN M. BULLARD, 1890-1965

      John Morgan Bullard, the editor and compiler of Captain Edmund Gardner of Nantucket and New Bedford: His Journal and His Family, was a great great grandson of Edmund Gardner and New Bedford lawyer.

      He was born in New Bedford, MA, June 7, 1890. He attended Harvard University were he received an A.B. degree in 1913 and an LL.B. degree in 1915.

      In New Bedford he was a partner in the law firm of Crapo, Clifford, Prescott & Bullard.

      He married Catherine Crapo of Detroit, MI, in 1919. Mr. Bullard was the father of John Crapo Bullard (b.Feb. 6, 1921 in Boston) and Sarah Bullard (b. July 27, 1924 in New Bedford). John M. Bullard died in New Bedford in 1965.

      Mr. Bullard was the author of: The Rotches (1947), Captain Edmund Gardner (1958), Friends' Academy, 1810-1960 (1960), and The Greens As I Knew Them (1964).

      The Harvard Law School Library in Cambridge, MA holds a collection of Mr. Bullards papers. The finding aid to these papers is found at:
http://oasis.harvard.edu/html/law00071.html

ABOUT THE TRANSCRIPTION / PERMISSIONS / COPYRIGHT INFORMATION

      Captain Edmund Gardner of Nantucket and New Bedford: His Journal and His Family was copyrighted by John M. Bullard in 1958. It is a work enjoying current copyright protection.

      Permission to transcribe this work in HTML has been kindly granted by the family of John M. Bullard.

      Reproduction of the HTML version requires the permission of both the owner of this page and the Bullard family.

BIBLIOGRAPHIC DESCRIPTION

Author:       Gardner, Edmund, 1784-1875.
Title:        Captain Edmund Gardner, of Nantucket and New 
                Bedford : his journal and his family / 
                edited and compiled by John M. Bullard.
Publisher:    New Bedford, Mass. : Bullard, 1958.
Description:  109 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Note:         Includes index.
Subjects:     Seafaring life.
              Gardner family (Nantucket and New Bedford,
                Mass.)
              Whalers (Persons) — Biography.
              Nantucket (Mass.) — Biography.
              New Bedford (Mass.) — Biography.
              Genealogy — Gardner family
                 (Thomas Gardner, 1592 (ca)-1674.
alt Author:   Bullard, John Morgan, 1890-1965

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