The Plough Boy Anthology


Acknowledgements

AMERICAN STATE PAPERS


DOCUMENTS

LEGISLATIVE AND EXECUTIVE

OF THE

CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES

FROM THE
SECOND SESSION OF THE TWENTY-FIRST TO THE FIRST SESSION OF THE TWENTY-FOURTH CONGRESS,
COMMENCING MARCH 1, 1831, AND ENDING JUNE 15, 1836

SELECTED AND EDITED, UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF CONGRESS

BY
ASBURY DICKENS, SECRETARY OF THE SENATE,
AND
JOHN W. FORNEY, CLERK OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES.

VOLUME IV.
NAVAL AFFAIRS
WASHINGTON:
PUBLISHED BY GALE'S & SEATON
1861.


23D CONGRESS.]                              NO. 573                              [2D SESSION.


INFORMATION COLLECTED BY THE NAVY DEPARTMENT RELATING TO ISLANDS, REEFS, SHOALS, ETC., IN THE PACIFIC OCEAN AND SOUTH SEAS, AND SHOWING THE EXPEDIENCY OF AN EXPLORING EXPEDITION IN THAT OCEAN AND THOSE SEAS BY THE NAVY.

COMMUNICATING TO THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES JANUARY 29, 1835.

      SIR: I have the honor to send herewith an original report of J. N. Reynolds, Esq., dated the 24th of September, 1828, describing certain islands, reefs, and shoals in the Pacific ocean, &c., and which is presumed to be the report called for by the resolution of the House of Representatives of the 23d instant, and referred to as dated the 9th October, 1829. When no longer required, it is respectfully requested it may be returned.

            I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,          M. DICKERSON

      HON. JOHN BELL, Speaker of the House of Representatives.



To the Hon. Samuel L. Southard, Secretary of the Navy:

      SIR: In obedience to your orders of June 30, I repaired without delay to New London, Stonington, Newport, New Bedford, Edgartown, Nantucket, and other places where information might be found of the Pacific ocean and South seas. The whaling captains were ready to communicate such knowledge as they had treasured up or recorded in their numerous voyages. The owners of the whale ships were equally anxious to do all in their power to assist me in the object of my visit to them. In these places the navigators are certainly better acquainted with those seas than any other people in this or any other country can be. The information had, in some measure, been gathered in gross, but without order or much arrangement; and I had to go over the whole ground, and examine at Nantucket every individual navigator of those seas who could be found at home, with their log books, and journals and charts. The doing of this, and putting the intelligence into such form as might save you much time in reading, was a work of no trifling magnitude, which I mention only to excuse the delay of this report. It was pleasant for me to find that all I had heard before was confirmed by a long train of witnesses, and every calculation I had previously made fell far short of the truth.

      The first objects of my inquiry were the navigation, geography, and topography presented by the whole range of the seas, from the Pacific to the Indian and Chinese oceans; also, the extent and nature of our commerce and fisheries in these seas.

      The whole number of vessels in the whale fishery, with those engaged in the sealing business, far exceeded the number I had given in my communication to the Naval Committee, and their tonnage was much greater. There are at least two hundred ships employed, being on an average of two hundred and seventy-five tons; some as large as five hundred, and others under two hundred tons. The average length of their voyages, taking one hundred and seventy-eight voyages from 1815 to 1824, was twenty-nine months, and the average cargo of oil from the same ships was exceeding seventeen hundred barrels. But it should be observed that the ships are now generally larger than they were formerly, the small ones being sold out of the fleet, as the whalemen call their ships, or broken up from decay and age. The length of their voyage is naturally increasing, from the fact that our whalemen are traversing new seas for the whale, sometimes doubling the Cape of Good Hope, and taking an eastern direction, meeting their brethren of the same pursuits, who have doubled Cape Horn, while the latter sail over the ground, in an opposite direction, which the former had just traversed.

      The crews of these ships, I found from general inquiry and a close inspection of their log books and journals, are remarkably healthy. What sickness they have is from the scurvy, a disease incident to long voyages, and which is avoided only by the utmost care the the frequent use of fresh provisions. The whaling ships are provisioned with beef, pork, and bread, for three years; but they never exceed three months on their whaling ground without recruiting themselves with fresh provisions from some neighboring island. The utmost care is taken in fitting out these ships with many delicacies; and it is a general remark among whalers, that they live better at sea than on shore. Tea, coffee, and chocolate are freely used as anti-scorbutics. These vessels are navigated with the utmost caution. Two men are constantly placed at mast-head as sentinels: for many of the islands, rocks, and reefs are not laid down in any chart; and those laid down or not, are many of them so low, that this precaution is indispensably necessary for their safety. From this precaution, many rocks, reefs, and islands have been discovered by them, and pretty accurately noted. The whalemen are much advanced in mathematics and practical navigation beyond other navigators: for, on their long voyages out and home, the most intelligent officers assist the younger in their mathematical and nautical studies; and thus schooled, all come home improved in their branches, distinction in them being the direct road to preferment. The scarcity of the whale on the common whaling ground may be easily accounted for, when it is understood that it takes about ninety whales, as they average, to make a full cargo, and that from this calculation, more than two thousand are mortally wounded that cannot be taken, making ten thousand a year destroyed by us. I have stated these particulars to show how necessary it will be to explore new grounds in higher southern latitudes for the right whale, when the sperm whale becomes scarce in the equatorial regions. And from the accounts I have received, there is an immense extent of ocean in the high southern latitude westward of which there is no account given; or, if there be any, but little more is known than this, that the geographer has marked it on his maps and charts with a sweeping hand, to fill up the might space of which the world is as yet ignorant, and will long remain so, if the enterprise of our government does not explore it.

      I shall now proceed to give you a list of the discoveries of our enterprising and careful navigators in those seas, in as concise a form as may be consistent with a clear view of the extent and importance of these discoveries. The English charts, and those of other countries are as yet very imperfect. Much of their information has been obtained from loose accounts from whalers who were careless in some instances, and forgetful in others, and which were seized with greediness by the makers of maps and charts, in order to be the first to make these discoveries known. But perhaps it does not become us to be hypercritical upon other nations, as we have as yet no maps or charts of our own to compare with them.

      From all the accounts I have received of the islands, reefs, rocks, &c., in these seas, I draw the inference that most of them are of volcanic origin, and have arisen, in the lapse of ages, in groups or single islands, as it has pleased the Great Creator of the universe to call them into existence; and by the same great engine of nature they may be constantly changing.

      The information I have collected, if not perfectly accurate, is certainly the most so that can be found. It has been drawn from purely original sources; nothing has been received at second hand. I have examined the log books, journals, maps, and charts of the navigators themselves, and in most cases have questioned them personally. Many of these facts have been received from several quarters, and I have had opportunities to compare them with others that had been offered before. Nantucket often confirmed the information from New Bedford, and vice versa. When the individuals were equally good in point of intelligence, and their statements in any way differed, I have given both accounts; but if there was a decided difference in the intelligence of the authority, I have adopted that which was held in the most general estimation.

      Some of those whom I have examined, whose voyages were of very recent date, or were connected with a train of remarkable facts, I have considered distinctly, and have given their statements as made to me verbally, or have taken extracts from their journals without placing their discoveries under the general heads. Their brief statements of the most recent date will show most distinctly that the field for discoveries is still prolific, and that there will be a sufficiency of subjects in those seas to employ the enterprise of our country for many generations to come.

      The currents have, in many instances, been given; and from all I could gather from the statements made to me, they are caused by the winds, rather than from any motion of the earth, and of course are perpetually varying in such a manner that but little reliance on the experience of any one can be placed. The variations of the needle I did not find noticed by many of the navigators. Captain Swain, of Newport, has noted the variations in some latitudes, which will be given in this report. There is one fact worth of remarking, which I obtained from the most experienced navigators, which is, that in all their voyages around Cape Horn, from the first commencement of their entering the Pacific until the present day, not a single vessel has been wrecked or lost in doubling the cape; and these navigators sail from home whenever they are ready, without the least regard to the season of the year: still, however, all agree that March and April are the best months to double the cape, as fresh gales are then frequent, without dangerous storms. I noticed from their log books and journals, that they reach the most dangerous parts of the cape navigation in about ninety or one hundred days from our shores.

Reefs and islands.

      Galago Island, 1 deg. 48 min. north latitude, 104 deg. 6 min. west longitude. Not on the charts.

      Fanning's Island, 3 deg. 49 min. north latitude, 158 deg. 29 min. west longitude (by others, 3 deg. 44 min. north latitude, 159 deg. 6 min. west longitude; also, 3 deg. 50 min. north latitude, 158 deg. 45 min. west longitude.) The centre of Fanning's Island lies in 3 deg. 52 min. north latitude, and 158 deg. 56 min. west longitude, by lunar observation and chronometer. It is a lagoon island, the land about five feet above the surface of the water. Cocoa trees, sixty or seventy feet in height, are on it: the remains of a stone hut, about twelve feet square, and in it human bones, stone hatchets, and blackfish teeth with holes drilled through them. Some parts of the land had been cultivated, as appeared by the gardens, fences of stone, &c., remaining. The island is about forty miles in circumference, the mouth of the harbor thirty rods in width on the south side; soundings going in, from three to seven fathoms. There is a good harbor under the eastern point. The Lion was lost on a reef which makes off to the south from the entrance of the harbor, on the starboard hand going in. Deep water all round the land close in. About ninety miles distant is Washington's Island.

      Washington's Island, 4 deg. 30 min. north latitude, 126 deg. west longitude (by others, 4 deg. 50 min. north latitude and 160 deg. 30 min. west longitude.)

      Island, 6 deg. 36 min. north latitude, 166 deg. west longitude.

      Barber's Island, 8 deg. 54 min. north latitude, 178 deg. west longitude; also, 8 deg. 33 min. north latitude and 177 deg. 59 min. west longitude.

      Reef, 10 deg. north latitude, 179 deg. 24 min. west longitude. Not on the charts.

      Clipperton's rock, (low island,) 10 deg. 28 min. north latitude, 109 deg. 19 min. west longitude.

      Island, 11 deg. 33 min. north latitude, 164 deg. west longitude. Not on the charts.

      Island, (probably the same,) 13 deg. 6 min. north latitude, 168 deg. 24 min. west longitude.

      Island, (probably the same,) 13 deg. 6 min. north latitude, 166 deg. west longitude.

      Island, (probably the same,) 13 deg. 19 min. north latitude, 168 deg. 55 min. west longitude.

      Shoal, 14 deg. 44 min. north latitude, 170 deg. 30 min. west longitude, (13 deg. 32 min. north latitude, same longitude.)

      Gaspar's Island, 15 deg. north latitude, 176 deg. 30 min. west longitude, (by some, in east longitude.) On the charts, in 176 deg. 18 min. east longitude.

      Island, 16 deg. north latitude. 133 deg. west longitude.

      A cluster, from 16 deg. to 17 deg. north latitude, and 133 deg. to 136 deg. west longitude.

      Roca coral, 16 deg. 12 min. north latitude, 136 deg. 12 min. west longitude.

      Island, 16 deg. 15 min. north latitude, 133 deg. 30 min. west longitude.

      Island, 16 deg. 30 min. north latitude, 163 deg. 54 min. west longitude.

      Island, 17 deg. north latitude, 136 deg. west longitude.

      New Blada, 18 deg. 12 min. north latitude, 114 deg. 3 min. west longitude. Probably Cloud's Island.

      Island, 18 deg. 22 min. north latitude, 155 deg. 15 min. west longitude. The situation given this island is only forty miles southeasterly from the most southern part of Owhyhee doubtful.

      Shoal, 18 deg.22 min. north latitude, 170 deg. 30 min. west longitude. Not on the charts.

      Clarion's Island, (plenty of wood,) 18 deg. 23 min. north latitude, 114 deg. 45 min. west longitude. Another situation for Cloud's Island.

      Island, 19 deg. 15 min. north latitude, 166 deg. 52 min. west longitude. Perhaps another situation for Mallon's Island, which is found on the charts.

      Island, (fresh water,) 19 deg. 22 min. north latitude, 115 deg. 15 min. west longitude. See Cloud's Island, two lines below.

      Mallon's Island, 19 deg. 23 min. north latitude, 165 deg. 23 min. west longitude.

      Cloud's Island, 19 deg.46 min. north latitude, 115 deg. west longitude. (See above.) So many different situations are assigned to an island or islands in this neighborhood, that it would seem desirable that the true latitude and longitude should be accurately determined. There are, in fact, two islands on the charts, near this situation.

      Copper Island, 20 deg. 6 min. north latitude, 131 deg. 54 min. west longitude. Placed on the charts in east longitude.

      Island, 21 deg. north latitude, 176 deg. 30 min. west longitude. Near Krusensterm's rock, which is placed on the charts in latitude 22 deg. 5 min., longitude 175 deg. 40 min.

      Shaler's Island, 22 deg. 6 min. north latitude, 112 deg. 14 min. west longitude. Not on charts doubtful.

      Massachusetts Island, 22 deg. 28 min. north latitude, 177 deg. 5 min. west longitude. Placed on the charts in 28 deg. 30 min. north latitude, 176 deg. 40 min. west longitude.

      Henderson's Island, (fresh water,) 24 deg. 6 min. north latitude, 128 deg. 30 min. west longitude. By others, in 24 deg. 26 min.

      Reef, shoal, 24 deg. 14 min. north latitude, 168 deg. 35 min. west longitude. Two Brothers lost on it.

      Pollard's Island, 24 deg. 48 min. north latitude, 168 deg. west longitude.

      Gardner's Island, 25 deg. 3 min. north latitude, 167 deg. 40 min. west longitude.

      Cooper's Island, 25 deg. 4 min. north latitude, 131 deg. 27 min. west longitude.

      Maro's reef, 25 deg. 24 min. north latitude, 170 deg. 12 min. west longitude (by others 25 deg. 48 min. north latitude, and 170 deg. 52 min. west longitude; also 25 deg. 48 min. north latitude, and 170 deg. 20 min. west longitude.)

      Island, 25 deg. 22 min. north latitude, 131 deg. 26 min. west longitude. A repetition of Cooper's Island.

      Laysan's Island, 25 deg. 50 min. north latitude, 171 deg. 51 min. west longitude; also, 26 deg. 2 min. north latitude, and 173 deg. 40 min. west longitude.

      Group, (Pearl and Hermes, British whalers, lost in 1822,) 27 deg. 46 min. north latitude, 176 deg., or 176 deg. 30 min. west longitude.

      Bunker's Island, 28 deg. north latitude, 173 deg. 30 min. west longitude.

      Island, 28 deg. north latitude, 176 deg. 50 min. west longitude.

      Cure's Island, (low and dangerous,) 28 deg. 25 min. north latitude, 178 deg. 42 min. west longitude.

      Swift's Island (Otter Island,) 33 deg. north latitude, 119 deg. 6 min. west longitude.

      New Nantucket, 11 min. north latitude, 176 deg. 20 min. west longitude. Not on charts.

      St. Berto Island, (wood and water,) 18 deg. north latitude, 110 deg. west longitude.

      Island, 13 deg. 6 min. north latitude, 168 deg. 24 min. west longitude.

      Reef, 3 deg. 28 min. north latitude, 157 deg. 59 min. west longitude.

      Shoal, 13 deg. 38 min. north latitude, 170 deg. 30 min. west longitude.

      Island, 13 deg. 5 min. north latitude, 168 deg. 31 min. west longitude. Same as third above.

      Island, 20 deg. north latitude, 151 deg. 30 min. west longitude. Not on charts.

      Wake's Island, 16 deg. 49 min. north latitude, 169 deg. 40 min. west longitude. Here wrong placed.

      Shoal, 13 deg. 36 min. north latitude, 170 deg. 30 min. west longitude.

      Ann's Island, 13 deg. 4 min. north latitude, 168 deg 21 min. west longitude.

      Week's reef, 16 deg. 49 min. north latitude, 169 deg. 40 min. west longitude. See third line above.

      Reef, 1 deg. north latitude, 179 deg. 34 min. east longitude.

      Strong's Island, 5 deg. 23 min. north latitude, 163 deg. 10 min. east longitude. An island called Teyoa, is placed on the charts in latitude 6 deg. north, 162 deg. 35 min. east.

      Group,9 deg. 5 min. north latitude, 164 deg. 37 min. east longitude. A group of islands is found on the charts in the same latitude, 166 deg. east.

      Catherine Island, 9 deg. 8 min. north latitude, 166 deg. 10 min. east longitude.

      Aricief's Island, 9 deg. 18 min. north latitude, 161 deg. 18 min. east longitude. Island de Arresites is found on the charts in latitude 10 deg. north, longitude 160 deg. 30 min. east, and the Island Casbobas 9 deg. 40 min. north, and 161 deg. 50 min. east.

      Reef, 10 deg. north latitude, 179 deg. 24 min. east longitude. This reef is placed, in a preceding part of the list, in 179 deg. 24 min. west.

      Island, 16 deg. north latitude, 171 deg. 42 min. east longitude. Not on charts.

      Cornwallis Island, 16 deg. 48 min. north latitude, 169 deg. 22 min. east longitude.

      Tarquin Island, 17 deg. north latitude, 160 deg. east longitude. Not on charts.

      Folger's Island, 18 deg. 22 min. north latitude, 155 deg. 15 min. east longitude. Not on charts.

      Granger's Island, 18 deg. 28 min. north latitude, 146 deg. 14 min. east longitude.

      Reef, 17 deg. 6 min. north latitude, 156 deg. 14 min. east longitude.

      Halcyon Island, (wood,) 19 deg. 6 min. north latitude, 163 deg. 33 min. east longitude.

      Week's or Wilson's Island, 19 deg. 21 min. north latitude, 166 deg. 55 min. east longitude. Weeks Island.

      Island, 20 deg. 30 min. north latitude, 152 deg. 50 min. east longitude. Reef on chart.

      Lamira, 20 deg. 30 min. north latitude, 166 deg. 42 min. east longitude. Placed on charts in 164 deg. 15 min.

      Reef, 21 deg. 5 min. north latitude, 136 deg. 48 min. east longitude.

      Peru Island, 21 deg. 12 min. north latitude, 141 deg. 42 min. east longitude.

      Reef, 22 deg. 7 min. north latitude, 142 deg. 24 min. east longitude.

      Dexter's Island, 23 deg. 24 min. north latitude, 163 deg. 5 min. east longitude.

      Marcus Island, 24 deg. 18 min. north latitude, 153 deg. 42 min. east longitude. Probably Island de Sebastian Lobos, placed on chart about 55 miles to the north, same longitude.

      Island discovered by R. Weeks, 24 deg. north latitude, 154 deg. east longitude. Probably same s preceding.

      Island, 25 deg. 12 min. north latitude, 131 deg. 36 min. east longitude. A rock, "seen by Captain Bishop in 1796," is placed on the charts in latitude 25 deg. 20 min. north, longitude 131 deg. 55 min. east.

      Reef, 25 deg. 30 min. north latitude, 152 deg. 50 min. east longitude. Not on the charts.

      Forbe's Island, 25 deg. 42 min. north latitude, 131 deg. 13 min. east longitude.

      Island, 25 deg. 53 min. north latitude, 131 deg. 17 min. east longitude.

      Island, 26 deg. 5 min. north latitude, 131 deg. 52 min. east longitude.

      Lasker's Island, 26 deg. north latitude, 173 deg. 24 min. east longitude. Reef on chart.

      Reef, 26 deg. 6 min. north latitude, 160 deg. east longitude. Not on chart.

      Tree Island, 26 deg. north latitude, 145 deg. 44 min. east longitude. Placed on the charts, latitude 27 deg. to 27 deg. 30 min. north, same longitude.

      Island, 28 deg. 30 min. north latitude, 176 deg. 50 min. east longitude. Perhaps Massachusetts, here wrongly place in east instead of west longitude.

      Galunus Island, 28 deg. 53 min. north latitude, 162 deg. east longitude.

      Island, 29 deg. 26 min. north latitude, 143 deg. east longitude. Island, 29 deg. 40 min. north latitude, 143 deg. 6 min. east longitude. Island, 30 deg. north latitude, 143 deg. east longitude. Island, 30 deg north latitude, 144 deg. 24 min. east longitude. Island, 30 deg. north latitude, 141 deg. 30 min. east longitude. Three of these islands are on the charts, and another, St. Thomas, in latitude 30 deg. 20 min. north, longitude 142 deg. 20 min. east.

      Ganges Island, 30 deg. 45 min. north latitude, 154 deg. 25 min. east longitude. An island is on the charts in latitude 31 deg. north, longitude 155 deg. south; do doubt intended for the same.

      Ganges Island, 31 deg. north latitude, 147 deg. 10 min. east longitude. Not on charts.

      Reef discovered by R. Weeks, 31 deg. 15 min. north latitude, 153 deg. east longitude. This reef is placed on the charts in latitude 33 deg. north, same longitude.

      Island, 31 deg. 30 min. north latitude, 140 deg. east longitude. Not on charts.

      Reef, near 32 deg. north latitude, 147 deg. east longitude. Not on charts.

      Roca di Plata, 33 deg. 48 min. north latitude, 160 deg. 48 min. east longitude. Roca di Plata is found on the charts in latitude 32 deg. 30 min. north latitude, 170 deg. east longitude

      Bank, sixty-four fathoms, 34 deg. 25 min. north latitude, 178 deg. 30 min. east longitude. Mellish's bank.

      Starbuck's group, 173 deg. 30 min. east longitude. No latitude given.

      Reef, northeast from Robert's Island, (one of the Marquesas,) distant twenty-one miles; six miles long from northeast to southwest.

      Magus shoal, 23 deg. 22 min. north latitude, 130 deg. 11 min. east longitude. Not on charts.

      Reef, 1 deg. north latitude, 178 deg. 24 min. east longitude. On charts, but placed in 179 deg. 24 min. east longitude. See also forward, 13th item, where the same longitude is given.

      Reef, 20 deg. 30 min. north latitude, 152 deg. 50 min. east longitude.

      Island, 17 deg. north latitude, 176 deg. 50 min. east longitude. Not on chart.

      Talsam's Island, 9 deg. 30 min. north latitude, 166 deg. 45 min. east longitude. Not on chart.

      Reef, 2 deg 30 min. north latitude, 158 deg. 60 min. east longitude. Not on chart.

      Island, 21 deg. 15 min. north latitude, 145 deg. 48 min. east longitude. Not on chart.

      Rock, 31 deg. 9 min. north latitude, 138 deg. 29 min. east longitude. Not on chart -- doubtful. See 10th item forward.

      Island, 30 deg. 33 min. north latitude, 139 deg. 36 min. east longitude. Very near the situation of Todos Los Santos on the charts.

      Abyos Island, 23 deg. 22 min. north latitude, 130 deg. 11 min. east longitude. The same latitude and longitude as given (in the 9th item preceding) to Magus shoal. Abajos Island, or shoal, is found on the charts in latitude 20 deg. 20 min. north, longitude 130 deg. 10 min. east.

      Reef seen by Captain Trask, 2 deg. 40 min. north latitude, 178 deg. 50 min. east longitude. Not on charts.

      Reef, 2 deg. 30 min. north latitude, 153 deg. 50 min. east longitude. Not on charts.

      Island, 21 deg. 15 min. north latitude, 145 deg. 48 min. east longitude. Same island given in the 6th article preceding.

      Reef, 22 deg. 12 min. north latitude, 142 deg. 42 min. east longitude.

      Reef, 1 deg. north latitude, 179 deg. 24 min. east longitude.

      Three Islands, 26 deg. 6 min. north latitude, 145 deg. 44 min. east longitude. See Tree Island, preceding.

      Rock, 31 deg. 42 min. north latitude, 141 deg. 10 min. east longitude. Not on charts.

      Rock, 31 deg. 9 min. north latitude, 139 deg. 29 min. east longitude. Not on charts. See 9th item preceding. Todos los Santos is placed on the charts in latitude 30 deg. 45 min. north, longitude 139 deg. 22 min. east.

      Spartan Island, 1 deg. 10 min. north latitude, 159 deg. 30 min. east longitude. Not on charts.

      Moore's Island, 30 min. south latitude, 166 deg. 35 min. east longitude. High land and well inhabited.

      Reef, thirty miles from Pelmire's island -- very bad one. Longitude taken in a strong current.

      Bunker's shoal, 17 min. south latitude, 160 deg. 40 min. west longitude.

      Island, 26 min. south latitude, 159 deg. 50 min. west longitude. An island called Jarvis's Island,and a shoal or reef seen by Captain E. Clark, are placed very near this situation on the charts.

      Island, 1 deg. 5 min. south latitude, 138 deg. 54 min. west longitude. Not on charts.

      Brock's Island, 1 deg. 13 min. south latitude, 159 deg. 30 min. west longitude.

      Clark's Island, 3 deg. south latitude, 151 deg. 30 min. west longitude.

      Island, 3 deg. 14 min. south latitude, 170 deg. 50 min. west longitude. Birney's Island, in latitude 3 deg. 20 min. south, longitude 171 deg. 30 min. west; and Sidney's Island, in latitude 4 deg. 25 min. south, longitude 171 deg. 20 min. west, discovered by Captain Emmert, will be found on the charts.

      Island, 3 deg. 33 min. south latitude, 173 deg. 44 min. west longitude.

      Island, 3 deg. 35 min. south latitude, 170 deg. 40 min. west longitude.

      Sidney's Island, 4 deg. 30 min. south latitude, 171 deg. 20 min. west longitude.

      Island, 3 deg. 57 min. south latitude, 154 deg. 20 min. west longitude. Maldone's Island, of Lord Byron, placed on the charts 155 deg. west longitude.

      Reef, 5 deg. 30 min. south latitude, 175 deg. west longitude. Not on the charts.

      Starbuck's Island, 5 deg. 40 min. south latitude, 155 deg. 53 min. west longitude.

      Loper's Island, 6 deg. 7 min. south latitude, 177 deg. 40 min. west longitude. Not on the charts.

      Island, 6 deg. 32 min. south latitude, 167 deg. west longitude. An island is placed on the charts in latitude 6 deg. 30 min. south, longitude 166 deg. west.

      Island, (probably the same,) 6 deg. 36 min. south latitude, 166 deg. west longitude.

      Island, (probably the same,) 6 deg. 45 min. south latitude, 160 deg. 48 min. west longitude.

      Island, 10 deg. 5 min. south latitude, 162 deg. 20 min. west longitude. Reirson's Island and Humphrey's Island, discovered by Captain Patrickson in 1822, are placed on the charts in latitude 10 deg. 30 min. south, longitude 160 deg. 55 min. west, and latitude 10 deg. 12 min. south, longitude 160 deg. 50 min. west. A shoal is also laid down in latitude 11 deg. south, longitude 165 deg. 48 min. west, and an island in latitude 10 deg. 55 min. south, longitude 166 deg. west.

      Island, 10 deg. 30 min. south latitude, 161 deg. 28 min. west longitude.

      Reef, 10 deg. 46 min. south latitude, 136 deg. 6 min. west longitude.

      Island, 11 deg. 47 min. south latitude, 162 deg. west longitude.

      Winslow Island, (inhabited) 14 deg. 10 min. south latitude, 177 deg. 10 min. west longitude.

      Island, 15 deg. 38 min. south latitude, 161 deg. 18 min. west longitude. Not on charts.

      Island, 15 deg. 47 min. south latitude, 161 deg. 14 min. west longitude. Not on charts.

      Islands, 16 deg. south latitude, 139 deg. west longitude. Not on charts.

      Island, 16 deg. 28 min. south latitude, 143 deg. 30 min. west longitude.

      Island, 17 deg. south latitude, 138 deg. west longitude.

      Island, 20 deg. south latitude, 167 deg. 30 min. west longitude.

      Macy's Island, 20 deg. 52 min. south latitude, 178 deg. 47 min. west longitude. On chart with other names.

      Elizabeth Island, 21 deg. 6 min. south latitude, 178 deg. 36 min. west longitude. On chart with other names.

      Eunice's Island, 21 deg. 8 min. south latitude, 178 deg. 47 min. west longitude. On chart with other names.

      Raratongo Island, (inhabited) 21 deg. 17 min. south latitude, 159 deg. 40 min. west longitude. Orurute Island (an inhabited island) is placed on the charts in latitude 21 deg. 20 min. south, longitude 160 deg. west. No doubt the same.

      Armstrong's Island, (inhabited) 21 deg. 21 min. south latitude, 161 deg. 4 min. west longitude. Orurnte Island (an inhabited island) is placed on the charts in latitude 21 deg. 20 min. south, longitude 160 deg. west. No doubt the same.

      Maria's Island, 21 deg. 45 min. south latitude, 155 deg. 10 min. west longitude. Not on chart.

      Oeno Island, 23 deg. 57 min. south latitude, 131 deg. 5 min. west longitude. Laid down on charts as discovered by Captain Bond, in longitude 131 deg. 35 min. west. Captain G.B. Worth found it in latitude 23 deg. 57 min. south, longitude 131 deg. 5 min. west, about eighty miles northwest by north of Pitcairn's Island, with a dangerous reef extending from the south point.

      Elizabeth Island, 24 deg. 6 min. south latitude, 127 deg. 50 min. west longitude. (By others 24 deg. 26 min. south latitude, and in east longitude.)

      Anderson's Island, 24 deg. 21 min. south latitude, 128 deg. 30 min. west longitude. Probably the same as Elizabeth's Island, placed on the chart in latitude 34 deg. 30 min. south, longitude 128 deg. west.

      Pilgrim's Island, 24 deg. 40 min. south latitude, 104 deg. 40 min. west longitude.

      Group, 25 deg. 12 min. south latitude, 130 deg. 30 min. west longitude. If this group exist, it must be a few miles only south of Pitcairn's Island. Very doubtful.

      Gwinn's Island, 26 deg. 25 min. south latitude, 105 deg. 30 min. west longitude. Another situation for Pilgrim's Island. Ya de Salas y de Gomes, of the charts.

      Island, 28 deg. 6 min. south latitude, 95 deg. 12 min. west longitude. Not on charts; doubtful.

      Group, 31 deg. 6 min. south latitude, 129 deg. 30 min. west longitude. Not on charts.

      Rock, 51 deg. 51 min. south latitude, 64 deg. 42 min. west longitude. Not in the Pacific.

      Sidney's Island, 4 deg. 29 min. south latitude, 172 deg. 17 min. west longitude. See above, where it is placed in 4 deg. 30 min. south latitude, and 171 deg. 20 min. west longitude.

      Cocoanut Island and reef, 18 deg. 12 min. south latitude, 174 deg. 15 min. west longitude. Not on chart. If correctly placed, must be between Amagura and the Mayorga Islands. See chart.

      Mary Balcourt's Islands, 2 deg. 47 min. south latitude, 171 deg. 58 min. west longitude. Surrounded by a reef twenty leagues in circumference, with only four openings where boats can enter.

      Byron's Island, 1 deg. 10 min. south latitude, 175 deg. 40 min. west longitude. Placed on the charts in latitude 1 deg. 10 min. south, and longitude 177 deg. 12 min. east. A reef on the north end, two miles distant.

      Island, 20 deg. south latitude, 167 deg. 30 min. west longitude.

      Clark's reef, 1 deg. 13 min. south latitude, 159 deg. 45 min. west longitude.

      Island, 21 deg. 29 min. south latitude, 131 deg. 28 min. west longitude. Not on chart.

      Shoal, 1 deg. 15 min. south latitude, 159 deg. west longitude. Very near Clark's reef; probably the same.

      Reef, 1 deg. 32 min. south latitude, 160 deg. west longitude. Very near Clark's reef; probably the same.

      Island, 11 deg. south latitude, 162 deg. west longitude. French Island, 10 deg. 30 min. south latitude, 162 deg. 15 min. west longitude. Francis Island, 10 deg. south latitude, 161 deg. 45 min. west longitude. Very near the situation of Reirson's and Humphrey's Islands. See above, and also account given by Captain Coffin, of ship Ganges.

      Reef,1 deg. 15 min. south latitude, 159 deg. 42 min. west longitude. Clark's reef. See above.

      Island, 20 deg. south latitude, 157 deg. 30 min. west longitude.

      Island, 20 deg. south latitude, 161 deg. 30 min. west longitude.

      Falcon's Island, 21 deg. 17 min. south latitude, 159 deg. 40 min. west longitude.

      A large island, 19 deg. 56 min. south latitude, 140 deg. 16 min. west longitude. Thirty miles north and south.

      A large round island,18 deg. 36 min. south latitude, 141 deg. 30 min. west longitude. An island called Sostanges, about thirty-six miles southwesterly of this, is place on the charts as discovered in 1823.

      Starbuck's Island 6 deg. 54 min. south latitude, 155 deg. 47 min. west longitude.

      Phenix Island, (small and sandy, three miles in circumference) 2 deg. 35 min. south latitude, 171 deg. 39 min. west longitude. Barney's Island (a lagoon, twenty miles in circumference) 3 deg. 9 min. south latitude, 171 deg. 41 min. west longitude. These two islands, with Mary Balcourt's Island, given before, in nearly the same latitude and longitude, are probably the same as Birney's Island.

      Two reefs, bearing north-northeast from Keppel's Island twenty-eight miles, about a cable's length apart.

      Independence Island, 3 deg. 36 min. south latitude, 144 deg. 35 min. west longitude. Not on charts.

      Sarah Ann, 4 deg. south latitude, 154 deg. 18 min. west longitude. Probably the same as Maldone's Island, placed on the charts in 155 deg. west longitude.

      Fenua Laosa Oroa, west-northwest from Mopelia about 60 miles.

      Gardner's Island, 4 deg. 30 min. south latitude, 174 deg. 22 min. west longitude. Not on charts; discovered by Captain Coffin, of ship Ganges.

      Coffin's Island 31 deg. 13 min. south latitude, 178 deg. 54 min. west longitude. Not on charts; discovered by Captain Coffin, of ship Ganges.

      Ganges Island, 10 deg. 25 min. south latitude, 160 deg. 45 min. west longitude. On charts; seen by Captain Coffin.

      Ganges Island, 10 deg. south latitude, 161 deg. west longitude. On charts; see Captain Coffin's printed account.

      Nederlandich Island, 7 deg. 10 min. south latitude, 177 deg. 33 min. east longitude. Not on charts. See printed account.

      Tracy's Island, 7 deg. 30 min. south latitude, 178 deg. 45 min. east longitude. Not on charts.

      Mitchells' group, 9 deg. 6 min. south latitude, 179 deg. 50 min. east longitude.

      Plasket's Island, 9 deg. 18 min. south latitude, 179 deg. 50 min. east longitude. Probably one of Mitchell's group.

      Independence Island, 10 deg. 25 min. south latitude, 179 deg. east longitude. Not on charts.

      Island, 10 deg. 45 min. south latitude, 179 deg. 35 min. east longitude. Not on charts.

      Hunter's Island, 15 deg. 31 min. south latitude, 176 deg. 11 min. east longitude.

      Reef, 23 deg. 48 min. south latitude, 164 deg. 14 min. east longitude.

      Reef, 26 deg. 6 min. south latitude, 160 deg. east longitude.

      Island, 31 deg. 19 min. south latitude, 160 deg. 42 min. east longitude.

      Reef, 26 deg. 6 min. south latitude, 160 deg. east longitude. Repetition of reef given above.

      Reef, 21 deg. 15 min. south latitude, 160 deg. east longitude.

      Island 30 deg. 33 min. south latitude, 139 deg. 36 min. east longitude. Inland, on New Holland.

      Moore's Island, 30 min. south latitude, 166 deg. 35 min. east longitude. See page 691 with Spartan Island and reef.

      An island, with plenty of wood and water, from 1 deg. north to 2 deg. south latitude, 125 deg. 6 min. east longitude.

      Island, 30 deg. 6 min. south latitude, 144 deg. 24 min. east longitude.

      Island, 29 deg. 31 min. south latitude, 143 deg. east longitude.

      Island, 31 deg. south latitude, 155 deg. east longitude.

      Lydne's shoal, 3 deg. 20 min. south latitude, 146 deg. 50 min. east longitude.

      Ocean Island, 41 deg. south latitude, 170 deg. 48 min. east longitude.

      Ocean Island, 2 deg. 30 min. south latitude, 152 deg. 40 min. east longitude.

      Reef, 1 deg. 40 min. south latitude, 159 deg. 30 min. east longitude.

      Reef, 8 deg. 30 min. south latitude, 144 deg. 45 min. east longitude.

      Island, 21 deg. 59 min. south latitude, 131 deg. 38 min. west longitude.

      Island, 5 deg. 1 min. south latitude. Seen by O. Starbuck, northwest from Marquesas.

      Sherdoff's Island, 14 deg. 41 min. south latitude, 144 deg. 59 min. west longitude.

      Reef, very low, 5 deg. 38 min. south latitude, 170 deg. 50 min. west longitude.

      Island, 4 deg. 45 min. south latitude, 174 deg. 40 min. west longitude.

      Island, 14 deg. 15 min. south latitude, 138 deg. 47 min. west longitude.

      Reef and island, 14 deg. 57 min. south latitude, 144 deg. 26 min. west longitude.

      Island, 14 deg. 41 min. south latitude, 144 deg. 59 min. west longitude.

      Jarvis Island, 23 min. south latitude, 160 deg. 15 min. west longitude.

      Malden Island, 3 deg. 59 min. south latitude, 155 deg. west longitude.

      Mante Island, 20 deg. 8 min. south latitude, 157 deg. 18 min. west longitude.

      Starbuck's Island, 5 deg. 58 min. south latitude, 155 deg. 58 min. west longitude.

      Island, 28 deg. 6 min. south latitude, 94 deg. 12 min. west longitude.

      Island, 9 deg. 57 min. south latitude, 149 deg. 30 min. west longitude.

      A rock, bearing from the Diego Ramirez, north 73 deg. east 30 miles.

      A rock, 31 deg. 24 min. south latitude, 177 deg. 55 min. west longitude.

      Island of Oratoa, 20 deg. 14 min. south latitude, 159 deg. 45 min. west longitude. Well inhabited.

      Island, 19 deg. 56 min. south latitude, 158 deg. 12 min. west longitude.

      Island, 20 deg. south latitude, 157 deg. 15 min. west longitude.

      Rorotonga Island, 23 deg. 6 min. south latitude, 157 deg. 55 min. west longitude.

      Remitara Island, 22 deg. 30 min. south latitude, 152 deg. 8 min. west longitude. Inhabited.

      Island, 15 deg. 50 min. south latitude, 155 deg. 5 min. west longitude.

      Island, 8 deg. 35 min. south latitude, 159 deg. 40 min. west longitude.

      Island, 20 deg. south latitude, 156 deg. west longitude.

      Island, 20 deg. south latitude, 156 deg. 40 min. west longitude.

      Island, 22 deg. 32 min. south latitude, 152 deg. 9 min. west longitude.

      Island, 21 deg. 18 min. south latitude, 159 deg. 36 min. west longitude. Probably Falcon's, 21 deg. 17 min. south latitude, 159 deg. 40 min. west longitude.

      Island, 21 deg. 28 min. south latitude, 161 deg. west longitude.

      Helicon's Island, 22 deg. 28 min. north latitude, 177 deg. 5 min. east longitude.

      Gasper Island, 15 deg. north latitude, 176 deg. 18 min. east longitude.

      Reef, 2 deg. 30 min. north latitude, 153 deg. 50 min. east longitude.

      Island, 21 deg. 15 min. north latitude, 145 deg. 48 min. east longitude.

      Cooper's Island, 21 deg. 48 min. north latitude, 131 deg. 48 min. east longitude.

      Island, 3 deg. north latitude, 144 deg. 24 min. east longitude.

      Rock, 31 deg. 42 min. north latitude, 136 deg. 29 min. east longitude.

      Island, 30 deg. 33 min. north latitude, 139 deg. 36 min. east longitude.

      Allegos Island, 23 deg. 22 min. north latitude, 120 deg. east longitude.

      Island, 1 deg. 7 min. north latitude, 155 deg. 10 min. east longitude.

      Island, 2 deg. 46 min. north latitude, 154 deg. east longitude.

      Island, 5 deg. 18 min. north latitude, 163 deg. 12 min. east longitude.

      Island, 8 deg. 54 min. north latitude, 165 deg. 38 min. east longitude.

      Island, 17 deg. north latitude, 156 deg. 18 min. east longitude.

      Three rocks, 31 deg. 15 min. north latitude, 153 deg. 40 min. east longitude.

      Buckle's Island, 28 deg. north latitude, 178 deg. west longitude.

      Island, 21 deg. north latitude, 176 deg. west longitude.

      Golconda Island, 54 min. north latitude, 132 deg. west longitude.

      Island, 1 deg. 6 min. north latitude, 139 deg. 5 min. west longitude.

      Burick's 15 deg. 15 min. north latitude, 146 deg. 46 min. west longitude. A chain of islands so called; wooded.

      Islands, 11 deg. 11 min. north latitude, 190 deg. 9 min. west longitude. A chain, 25 miles from north to south.

      Ocean Island, 28 deg. 25 min. north latitude, 177 deg. 42 min. west longitude.

      Allen's breakers, 25 deg. 30 min. north latitude, 170 deg. 30 min. west longitude.

      Island, 28 deg. 5 min. north latitude, 95 deg. 12 min. west longitude.

      Mellish's bank, 34 deg. 25 min. north latitude, 181 deg. 31 min. west longitude. Sixty-four fathoms.

      Cloud's Island, 19 deg. 46 min. north latitude, 155 deg. west longitude.

      Lassion's Island, 26 deg. 2 min. north latitude, 173 deg. 35 min. west longitude.

      Island, low, 10 deg. 8 min. north latitude, 189 deg. 4 min. west longitude. Three miles in length.

      Group, largest Oteda,9 deg. 28 min. north latitude, 189 deg. 44 min. west longitude.

      Island, 4 deg. 44 min. north latitude, 163 deg. 39 min. west longitude.

      New Island, 19 deg. north latitude, 133 deg. west longitude.

      Wreck reef, 16 deg. 49 min. north latitude, 169 deg. 40 min. west longitude.

      Island, 30 deg. north latitude, 178 deg. 30 min. west longitude.

      Island, 16 deg. 30 min. north latitude, 169 deg. 45 min. west longitude.

      Massahusetts Island, 30 deg. north latitude, 178 deg. 30 min. east longitude. Mentioned in three or four other places, differently situated.

      Island, 20 deg. 20 min. north latitude, 155 deg. 24 min. east longitude.

      Reef, 31 deg. 42 min. north latitude, 141 deg. east longitude.

      Three islands, from 25 deg. 58 min. to 36 deg. 30 min. north latitude, 158 deg. east longitude.

      Guardian Islands, three, 22 deg. 30 min. north latitude. 350 miles northeast of Ono.

      Incarnation of Quiros. North-northwest from Pitcairn's Island, distant 90 miles.

      Henderson's Island, 110 miles east of Pitcairn's Island, and 7 miles south.

      Bowen's Islands, 26 deg. 44 min. north latitude, 143 deg. 20 min. east longitude. Dangerous

      Group of small, low islands, 4 deg. 43 min. north latitude, 169 deg. east longitude. In form of a horse shoe, open at the north-northeast side, with a harbor eight or ten miles over in the middle of the chain.

      Group of low islands, 8 deg. 3 min. north latitude, 166 deg. 15 min. east longitude. Covered with wood, and surrounded with rocks and reefs; inhabited.

      Ellis's group of islands, 8 deg. 27 min. south latitude, 118 deg. 4 min. west longitude.

      Depeyster's Island, 8 deg. 5 min. south latitude, 181 deg. 45 min. west longitude.

      Island, 14 deg. 15 min. south latitude, 138 deg. 47 min. west longitude.

      Romanzoff's Island, 14 deg. 57 min. south latitude, 144 deg. 28 min. west longitude.

      Island, small, 26 deg. 40 min. south latitude, 104 deg. west longitude.

      Island, 26 deg. 32 min. south latitude, 103 deg. 59 min. west longitude. Low, rocky, barren, two and a half miles long by two in width, with a deep bay.


Extracts from the log book of Captain Rule, of Nantucket

      Captain Edmund Gardner, of New Bedford, having visited the Pacific ocean (both north and south) several times, gave his opinion as to the coasts and island which it would seem more immediately necessary to explore and survey, viz:

CALIFORNIA.

      This coast has been very imperfectly surveyed, particularly from Ceros Island, south, to the end of the Peninsula. From Ceros Island, north, was partially surveyed by Vancouver. There are, however, many bays, harbors, islands and reefs, that were not laid down by him. There has lately been a reef discovered by Captain Pease, of the ship Hesper, of this port, in latitude 32 deg. 34 min. north longitude 119 deg. 34 min. west, which was not seen till the ship was passing over one end of it. It was seen from the mast-head nearly under the ship. They sounded on it, and found from two and a half to sixteen fathoms.

      Northwest to west-northwest from the Sandwich Islands, (a track much frequented by our whaling ships) there are a number of islands and reefs but imperfectly known. In this direction three ships have been lost, viz: Two Brothers, of Nantucket, and Hermes and Pearl, of London. He should consider this track one of the first that should be explored.

      The next that should call the attention of the expedition would, in his opinion, be a track, north and west, perhaps more north than west, from the Ladrone Islands to the Islands of Japan, a chain of islands extending nearly across in this direction and the true situation of which is very little known.

      South-southwest from South Island, near the coast of Japan, Captain Clark, of the barque Elizabeth, of New Bedford, discovered a reef, latitude 31 deg. 45 min. longitude 137 deg. 50 min. east, The Sisters, of London, in company at the time.

      A rock, called The Haystack, said to lie in latitude 29 deg. 58 min. north, longitude 137 deg. 50 min. east, has also been recently discovered. The latitude is possibly correct; the longitude is given differently by different navigators.

Extracts from the log book of Captain Rule, of Nantucket.

      ------. Made an island he discovered in 1823, and named it Lydra Island, latitude 11 deg. 48 min. south, longitude 164 deg. 47 min. west. No inhabitants; plenty of wood and fish, but no water that he could find; not laid down in any chart they had; one and a half mile south-southeast to north-northwest in extent; a reef around it 100 rods from shore; no bottom 100 yards from the reef.

      ------, 1824. Made Friends' rock, bearing half compass west half south, distance four leagues from above, at 1. A.M. At noon it bore south, distant twelve miles, latitude 31 deg. 23 min. south. Next day discovered a reef,upon which the sea breaks high; at first thought to be whales breathing. It bears from the Friends' rock nortwest, distance about four leagues. Latitude, of reef, 31 deg. 15 1/2 min.; the day previous, the longitude, by chronometer, 177 deg. 50 min. west.


      Bonin Islands have had a place on the charts for some time; but little, indeed nothing, was known of them, except that land had been reported in that neighborhood, and some map-maker put it down on his charts. They are regarded as new discoveries in Nantucket, made by Captain Coffin, 12th September, 1824, while he commanded the ship Transit, from Bristol. There is a freshness in the account he gives of them, that is really interesting; and he may with some justice claim the honor of the discovery, as they were not laid down on his charts. He found the group to consist of six islands, besides a number of large rocks and reefs. Captain Coffin sailed in the employ of Fisher, Kidd & Fisher, and in honor of his employers, called two of the islands by their names, the largest of which is four leagues in length. The one most southern of the group he called South Island; and the fourth, from the great number of pigeons he found on it, he named Pigeon Island. About four miles east-northeast of South Island, lie two round, high islands, to which he gave no names. Fisher's Island lies from south-southeast to north-northwest, and Kidd Island, the most western of the group, lies southeast from the northwest part of Fisher's Island. Between the two last-mentioned islands there is a beautiful clear bay, two miles wide, and five miles up to the head. Captain Coffin sailed up this bay about four miles, where he found a fine small bay, where he anchored his ship, and, the remarks, as there is some justice due one's self, called it Coffin's harbor. This harbor is sheltered from all winds except from west-southwest, and a vessel will ride with as much safety as in Hampton Roads, with no current or swell. Captain Coffin took fifty tons of water on board, of the purest kind, with a supply of wood, both of these essential articles being in any abundance, and more easily procured than at any other place he was at. Turtle and pigeons were so plenty that any number could be obtained. The water in the bay was stored with a variety of fish, and with plenty of choice lobsters, and the cabbage tree was among the productions of the island, so that any desirable quantity might be easily procured. Captain Coffin did not discover any quadruped, reptile or insect, not even an ant. The islands are covered with large and beautiful forest trees, but not a single mark, even of a knife, could be traced upon one of them; nor did it appear that the footsteps of man had ever been imprinted on any of these islands. For whale ships, or those bound from Canton to Port Jackson, or the northwest coast of America, they will furnish a valuable place of refreshment. They are about south of Sandown Point, on the coast of Japan, and the distance may be sailed in four days. The bay where Captain Coffin anchored is in latitude 26 deg. 30 min. north, longitude 141 deg. east.

      In the year 1825, the same captain, and while on the same cruise, discovered, in latitude 27 deg. north, longitude 141 deg. 10 min. east, a high island, well wooded, from the west side of which he procured good turtle and wood. Six leagues north of this, he discovered a high lump of an island, and many small ones near it, with a dangerous reef extending from one island to the other, and as far as to latitude 28 deg. north. These islands and reef were not laid down on his charts. The navigation of the ocean around, and particularly north of this group, is dangerous, from our imperfect knowledge of it.

      From many inquiries made of Captain Macy, about the Loo Choo Island, I am of opinion it will be found well worthy of more minute examination. It is situated in north latitude 26 deg., and 125 deg. east longitude; is well cultivated; all kinds of refreshments may be procured, and a good harbor will probably be found on the southwest part. The inhabitants are peaceable, and seem disposed to form acquaintance, and establish friendly intercourse with foreigners. Vessels have seldom stopped at this island, and the world is yet ignorant of its inhabitants, their peculiarities, &c., except what information may be found in Capt. Hall's book, royal navy.

      Monmouth Island, one of the Baske Isles, is thickly inhabited, and well stocked with all kinds of provisions common to the islands in those latitudes. It affords good anchorage on the northeast part. The people on this island wear the Chinese costume, and appear very friendly, and anxious to trade with strangers. The island abounds with sheep; and there are many islands in its neighborhood, of more or less importance.

      A cluster of islands, said to have been discovered in 1716, and laid down on most charts in latitude 35 deg. north, and longitude 146 deg. east, is now considered of doubtful existence. By Captain Coffin's log book, he has frequently sailed and whaled over the very spot, without being able to see them from the mast-head.

      The naties of "New Islands" and the surrounding groups are generally well disposed, and willing to barter in all the productions of the islands. The group of islands between Francisco and Jida whould be more attentively examined. Several of them are well peopled, and the inhabitants, like the Japanese, are reserved and distrustful of strangers. From the southeast part of New Islands, there is a small island, well inhabited with curly-haired people, who appeared a warlike race. This island affords a good harbor, and probably abounds with beche-le-mer.

      Captain Richard Macy, of Nantucket, a very intelligent man, has long been engaged in the whale fishery, and has shown more than usual skill in his observations, as well in noting the facts he has seen as in taking a great many sketches of islands, reefs, harbors, coasts, &c., which will be found very useful to the expedition. Captain Macy discovered an island four or five miles in extent, in south latitude 59 deg., and west longitude 91 deg., his ship passing near enough to see the breakers. The island abounded with sea dogs, or seals, and the water was much colored, and thick with rockweed. While crossing the Pacific, on a return voyage, he passed between the latitudes 50 deg. and 55 deg. south, and found the water much colored, abounding with rockweed and seals -- conclusive indications that land was near; but he could not stop to make any researches. He mentions the following islands, reefs, and shoals, as deserving particular attention. Some of them, it is true, are laid down on the charts, some are not, and all require nearly the same examination. It is not at all surprising that the positions of those islands are not well defined. Their places were often given from observations, without making any allowance for refraction, and from the run of the log, without knowing or stopping to ascertain the direction and velocity of currents. One island, without any name, in 15 deg. 45 min. south, and longitude 154 deg. 15 min. west; one, 16 deg. south, 139 deg. west, not well known; another island, 17 deg. south, and 138 deg. west, not named; one island, not laid down on any of the charts, nor published in any list of newly discovered islands, lies in 16 deg. south, and 143 deg. west.

      Phillips' Island, discovered on his late passage, in 11 deg. 20 min. south, and 148 deg. 50 min. west, is very low and dangerous, and cannot be seen but at a short distance; lying in the track of our homeward bound ships, between the Sandwich and Society Islands. A few small shrubs and trees are on this island, but no inhabitants.

      In latitude 5 deg. 30 min. south, and longitude 155 deg. and 50 min. west, an island was discovered in 1826 of about five miles in length. It lies low in the water, and presents a coast as dangerous as a reef, as it cannot be seen any distance. This island could not be found on any charts, and is a new and interesting discovery, inasmuch as it is an island dangerous to vessels if not well known.

      There are a dangerous reef, and some rocks, in the neighborhood of 190 deg. 50 min. south, and 167 deg. 30 min. west.

      In June, 1825, an island was discovered northwest from the Fejee Islands, in latitude 15 deg. 30 min. south, and longitude 175 deg. 30 min. east. This island is not placed on any of the charts, is well inhabited, abounds in yams, and the natives are very friendly.

      The Island Rotunah is situated in about 12 deg. south. This island has long been known, and deserves attention, as a place where all refreshments known to the South seas can easily be procured.

      Due west from this island, and about 15 deg. south, there is a dangerous reef. Its extent and bearing are unknown, and it requires further attention.

      Duke of York's Island is laid down on the charts in 8 deg. and 30 min. south, and is said to be uninhabited. Captain Macy says he saw natives on it. This point should be settled, and I venture the prediction that the whaler is correct. The island contains refreshments.

      Savage Island. The natives are warlike; great caution necessary in landing.

      Wytootach and Navigator's Islands, all contain refreshments, abound in hogs, and the natives are noted for their passionate fondness for large blue beads.

      There is an island sixty miles west from the above, and also a reef, the former not inhabited, nor laid down on the charts.

      Some islands have lately been discovered, extending from 169 deg. to 172 deg. east, and from 30 deg. to 1 deg. south. These are not named, nor placed on any chart, nor included in any list of newly discovered islands.

      In the year 1827, Captain Macy discovered a small group of islands in latitude 6 deg. north and 153 deg. east. This group he called by the name of the ship he commanded, the Harvest. The islands are all enclosed by a reef, and abound in trees. He did not land, nor does he know if they are inhabited.

      In latitude 9 deg. north, and from 150 deg. 30 min. to 152 deg. east, there is a chain of islands, fifteen in number. Some of them are ten miles apart, but are enclosed by one reef, ninety miles in extent. These islands are low and beautiful, entirely covered with cocoa nut trees. He did not land, but thinks them inhabited.

      Captain Macy visited another group of islands in 7 deg. 40 min. north, longitude 144 deg. east. Some of them are well inhabited, but not marked on the charts.

      St. Andrew's Islands, per charts, are sixty miles out of the way. Laid down 5 deg. 20 min. north latitude, 130 deg. 20 min. east longitude. True position, 5 deg. 20 min. north latitude, 132 deg. 20 min. east longitude.

      Disappointment Island is placed on the charts in latitude 27 deg. 30 min. north, longitude 139 deg. 20 min. east. True position, 27 deg. 30 min. north latitude, 139 deg. 55 min. east longitude.

      Armstrong's Island was discovered in 1824, and is situated in latitude 21 deg. 21 min. south, and longitude 161 deg. 4 min. west. This island is fertile, well peopled, and affords a good anchorage to the north, and abounds in refreshments. The natives had never been visited before, nor had they any knowledge of civilized people. They were timid, and much alarmed at the approach of the vessels, showing no hostile appearances. The captain landed with a boat, when the fears of the natives soon subsided, and they gathered round him in great numbers. They would not allow him to move or walk a step, but carried him wherever he wished to go. They regarded him as a superior grade of being, and paid him every homage they knew now. The number of inhabitants is unknown, and the island has never been visited since its discovery.

      In Captain Macy's last voyage but one, he discovered a group of islands, eleven in number. They are many miles apart, and all surrounded by a coral reef, situated in 9 deg. north, and 164 deg. 40 min. east. Several of them are well inhabited by dark and savage looking fellows, although they behaved very well, came off in their boats and bartered cocoa nuts. Captain Macy did not land, nor is it probable the island has ever been landed on by any other ship's crew. The reef enclosing the group is very dangerous, extending, in some places, fifteen miles from the land.

      Broom's range affords a good place for wooding.

      Lord Howe's group is inaccurately laid down.

      There is a bank, latitude 36 degrees orth, longitude 179 degrees east, on which some whalers have sounded, but no one knows its extent and bearings.

      Captain Coffin, as stated by Captain Macy, discovered a reef in latitude 32 degrees north, and longitude 140 degrees east.

      Sixty miles southwest from Ohituo is a newly discovered island, thickly inhabited by very friendly natives. Refreshments may be procured at it in any quantity, and good anchorage found.

      The same captain, in the year 1824, discovered a group consisting of three islands, in latitude 21 degrees north, longitude 179 degrees west. The islands are ten miles apart: many inhabitants are seen on them, but he did not land, or hold any communication with them, nor is it probable they were ever visited.

      Ceno island, in 23 degrees 50 minutes south, 130 degrees 15 minutes west, not laid down on the charts, unless it be on some of the late editions.

      A group if islands in latitude 31 degrees 6 minutes north, and longitude129 degrees 30 minutes east, is not accurateon the charts, and the islands are not named.

      A number of reefs, situated about 27 degrees south, and longitude 160 degrees east, are dangerous, and should be examined. One more in 24 degrees south, and 164 degrees 30 minutes east. A dangerous rock somewhere about 27 degrees 30 minutes south, and longitude 130degrees 30 minutes east.

      From the Marquesas to 20 degrees south, and to at least 20 degrees north, and from 150 degrees west to 150 degrees east, is a portion of the globe where all our intelligent captains of whale ships agree many important discoveries may yet be made. Within these limits, there are many islands, reefs, and shoals, not yet discovered, and many but partially known.

      Captain John Gardner, of the ship Atlantic, reports the following discoveries, which he made while on his last voyage in the Pacific:

      The first island, in north latitude 8 degrees 48 minutes, longitude 144 degrees 35 minutes east.

      The second island, in north latitude 1 degree 7 minutes, longitude 165 degrees east.

      The third island, a cluster, south latitude 2 degrees 15 minutes, longitude 152 degrees 5 minutes east.

      Also, a cluster of reefs and shoals, extending N.N.E. and S.S.W. between the latitudes of 1 degree 35 minutes and 2 degrees 15 minutes south, and longitude 153 degrees 45 minutes and 153 degrees 15 minutes east.

      John Weeks, second officer, saw an island in 2 degrees north, longitude 150 degrees east, one mile long, surrounded by a coral reef six miles from shore. This island is low, and abounds in cocoa nuts.

      Captain George Washington Gardner discovered the following islands, &c., which are not laid down on any of the charts:

      An island, north latitude 30 degrees, east longitude 144 degrees.

      An island, north latitude 39 degrees, east longitude 39 degrees.

      An island, north latitude 30 degrees, east longitude 44 degrees 20 minutes.

      Rocks, north latitude 31 degrees, east longitude 155 degrees

      An island, north latitude 37 degrees, east longitude.

      On the coast of New Albion, an island, north latitude 33 degrees, west longitude 119 degrees 30 minutes.

      On the coast of New Albion, an island, north latitude 21 degrees 55 minutes, west longitude 155 degrees 10 minutes.

      Maria Island, not on the charts, abounds with fish and wood, but no wateer; is low and dangerous.

      A rock, in latitude 20 degrees south, longitude 167 degrees 45 minutes west, not on charts, nor any published list; dangerous shoals in the neighborhood

      Palmyra Island is in 5 degrees 58 minutes north, and 162 degrees 30 minutes west longitude. Tere is a dangerous reef 30 miles north, extending E.N.E. and W.N.W., very narrow, and fifteen miles in length.

      Captain R. Joy, of Nantucket, reports a harbor, in latitude 45 degrees south, in West Patagonia, in which he found good, safe anchorage. By proper surveys, he thinks it might be made a place of refreshments for our whale ships.

      I have generally remarked that all our seamen, who have had occasion to touch at any point on the west of Patagonia, agree that the coast should be surveyed from Cape Horn to Cape Pilares. They have often been sealing on the islands around this coast, and all agree that very little reliance can be placed by the mariner, in the accuracy of the charts in common use. The shores, in many places, are so bold, that a vessel may be made fast to the trees growing on the land.

      Sidney's Islands vary, on different charts, from 4 degrees 50 minutes to 5 degrees 30 minutes. The northernmost is in latitude 3 degrees, and longitude, according to Arrowsmith's charts, 176 degrees 50 minutes. The islands are very numerous; some are very small, from two to three acres, others larger, and one twenty miles in extent.

      Again, the captains who have visited Fanning's Island, say it affords a good harbor, of four or five fathoms water, and abounds in wood and water, both easily procured. The island is found, by charts, in latitude 3 degrees 48 minutes north, and longitude 158 degrees 40 minutes west. Good fish in the harbor and around the island, and peppergrass on the island, good for the scurvy.

      The Kingsmills group, lying 1 degree south, and 175 degrees 30 minutes east, consists of a number of beautiful islands, all thickly inhabited. A steady current sets westerly from this group.

      Captain Joy discovered a barren island and a reef in 23 degrees north, and 177 degrees 15 minutes west, which has never been surveyed.

      Wake's Island, mentioned in the above list, in 19 degrees 20 minutes north, and 166 degrees 50 minutes east, affords wood in abundance; no water discovered on it, but probably may be found by examining the island.

      In 1825 there was an island discovered by the captain of the ship Spartan, which bears the name of the ship (of Nantucket.) It lies low in the water, and is in latitude 1 degree 10 minutes south, and 159 degrees 30 minutes east.

      In latitude 1 degree 30 minutes south, and longitude 166 degrees 35 minutes east, there is an island lately discovered. It lies high, and is well watered, and is called Morris' Island. This island lies near the track of Captain Butler, in 1794, and is S.W. from Pleasant Island.

      An American gentleman, in a letter from Valparaiso, dated the 10th of April, 1828, to the editor of the Salem Register, gives an account of an island which he considers a new discovery. In this supposition he is correct; but it was first discovered by Captain Ray, of Nantucket, in the year 1825. It lies in 26 degrees 32 minutes south, and longitude 103 degrees 59 minutes west. The nearest land to it is Easter Island, in latitude 27 degrees 15 minutes east. It is a small, low island covered with wood, and is not to be found on Purdy's large and late edition of charts of the world, published in 1827.

      In latitude 10 degrees 30 minutes north, and east longitude 166 degrees 40 minutes, the same captain discovered a large group of island surrounded by many insulated rocks and reefs, and no inhabitants.

      Captain Worth informed me that the Grigan Island, found on all the charts, north by west of the Ladrones, is worth of some notice. Fresh watere may be had at it, by digging wells near the southwest side of the island, within a few feet of the beach. Plenty of firewood of good quality may be had. Natural productions, cocoa nuts, bread fruit, yams, &c., are found. There is no sounding until near the shore; but in case of necessity a vessel may anchor in from 12 to 50 fathoms of water; dark grey sand on the southwest side. There is a volcano in the middle of the island.

      Captain Bennett laid down an island in 5 deg. 30 min. north, longitude 139 deg. 20 min. west. This is near Fanning's Island. He called it Madison Island.

      St. Pert's Island. Against the name of this island, Captain Bennett has marked in his log-book, "wood and water." Its position is 18 deg. north, longitude 116 deg. west.

      Captain Briggs discovered an island west and north of Sandwich Islands, in 25 deg. 47 min. north, longitude 172 deg. west. The island is low, with not more than 60 feet in any part from the water; 3 miles long and 2 across it.

      Captain Edward Gardner, while in command of the whale ship Bellona, discovered an island in 1823, in latitude 19 deg. 15 min. north, longitude 166 deg. 32 min. east, which he judged was 20 or 25 miles long. A reef appeared to make off from the east end of it, to the distance of 2 miles, with detached rocks to the west. The situation given is from the centre of the island. "Wake's Island" is placed on Arrowsmith's and other charts nearly in the above situation. The island was covered with wood, having a very green and rural appearance.

      The island to which Captain Seely proposes to give the name of Beverly Island, was probably not, as he supposes, a new discovery. On Purdy's smaller charts of the world, published in 1821, as well as on previous edition of that chart, an island is laid down in 18 deg. 30 min. north longitude 113 deg 30 min. west, to which he gives the name of "St. Rosa;" and, though the longitude differs considerably, I am disposed to believe it is the island Captain S. describes. It is not laid down in Arrowsmith's charts; and it s a little remarkable that, in Purdy's editions of his large charts, published in 1821, and improved in 1825, it is not to be found. Nor has Bowditch any reference to it in his tables of latitudes and longitudes. The island has been seen by some others of our whalemen who have cruised in that neighborhood; and Captain Swain, lat of the ship Charles, ran near it, and made the longitude 113 deg. 13 min. west, the same as given in Purdy's former maps.

      On some old charts, I perceived an island laid down in the same parallel of latitude, and about 120 deg. west longitude, but which is not found in the best modern charts.

      Captain Swain, while passing from Sandwich Islands to Cape Horn, ran farther south than usual for whale ships, and discovered an island in latitude 59 deg. south, and longitude 90 deg. west, covered with show, and abounding with sea dogs and fowls. This must be the same island discovered by Captain Macy, an account of which is given before; and this is only introduced to show how practical men tell their plain stories, and, without any previous concert, confirm each other.

      Captain H. Bunker, in 1823, discovered an island in 15 deg. 30 min. north, and 136 deg. west longitude. Lying to windward, and it blowing strong, he could not get to it to make any observations.

      In the same year, he landed on an island in 24 deg. 22 min. north, longitude 153 deg. 18 min. east, by reckoning, not being able to make an observation that day; nor has he visited or heard of the island since.

      Captain H.C. Bunker, almost three years ago, discovered an island not on his charts; it is called by the natives Pearotuah, is 3 miles from east to west, about 20 miles in circumference, high, mountaineous, rocky and rugged, free from all dangers around it, with two boat harbors, one northwest of the other, on the northwest side; the land productive. The missionaries had visited it, and Mr. Williams wason it at the time. The natives are estimated at 5,000 in number. It is in latitude 21 deg. 17 min. south, and longitude 159 deg. 40 min. west. There is no trace of this island on Purdy's charts to the latest editions.

      Captain S. Chase, of Nantucket, on one of his late voyages, fell in with a canoe containing a number of natives, S.S.W. from the Kingsmills group. They had lost their track, but pointed in the direction they thought they came from. Captain Chase steered to that point, and found the island where they belonged. On going ashore, the islanders gathered round them in great numbers, and conducted Capt. Chase to the residence of their chief, who treated him with great kindness, and loaded his boat with fresh provisions. Captain Chase is of the opinion that the island had never been visited before, and states it to be a good place for recruiting. The latitude and longitude are not given, nor have I been able to find them among any of the records in Nantucket; the captain, at present, being on a whalng voyage in the Pacific.

      Penrhyn's Island. On Arrowsmith's charts this island is laid down in latitude 9 deg. 14 min. south, longitude 167 deg. 48 min. west, which, by a comparison with Captain Alexander Macy's journal, kept during his late voyage in the ship Peruvian, is probably erroneously given on the charts, or Captain Macy has discovered a new island.

      On the 21st of July, 1827, Captain Macy discovered land, bearing from west-southwest to south by west 12 miles distant, his ship then heading south by east. On the following day he saw two other islands, or prominent parts of the island seen the day before, with valleys intervening, (shich was probably the fact, as no water could be seen between them,) lying to the south and west, the nearest part at four miles distant. This island was well wooded, and found to be inhabited. At 3 P.M., a canoe with five natives, of large stature and ferocious countenances, well armed with spears and clubs, came under the stern of the Peruvian, and remained there nearly an hour. Soon after many other canoes were at the leeward, paddling in a direction as though their object was to intercept the course of the ship. The manoeuvres of the natives appeared to hostile, that Captain Macy made all sail off shore, and at dark saw canoes in chase of the vessel, which, however, they did not succeed in overtaking. Captain Macy supposes, from the appearance of the natives, and the few articles he saw in the canoe which visited the ship, that they have never had any intercourse with, or knowledge of civilized people. The latitude of the island is 8 deg. 52 min. south, longitude 157 deg. 23 min. west. Whether this be a new island or not, is a subject of curious inquiry; and certain it is, our knowledge of it is very imperfect.

      From the account given by Captain Allen, the dangerous reef of rocks near Cape St. Roque is erroneously laid down on the charts. He experienced moderate weather while in the neighborhood of the island, which subjected his vessel to a strong westerly current, causing her to fall to leeward of the port about 90 miles of latitude. "May 24, land was seen west-southwest and west 20 miles, latitude, by observation, 5 deg. 24 min. south. Stood in, and at the distance of 10 miles from land tacked off, being 24 miles south of Cape shoals by the chart. Observed the day following 5 deg. 25 min. south, and stood in towards the wouthwest and west-southwest, working to windward; and 4 1/2 hours after, with my position, as per chart, 25 miles south of the shoals, the prominent headlands being precisely as the day before, and judging the same distance off, (10 miles,) while in the act of veering, the vessel struck on the reef, bilged, and filled in three hours; proving, according to my observation, and information subesequently obtained on shore, that the shoals were placed on the chart erroneously 25 to 30 miles: latitude by chart 5 deg., their true latitude 5 deg. 25 min. to 5 deg. 30 min. The Cape is also erroneously laid down, authors differing from 5 deg. 3 min. to 5 deg. 34 min. south. The latest edition of the 'American Coast Pilot' places them nearly in their true position."

      Captain M. Hart, on a late trading voyage from New York to the northwest coast, from thence to Canton, and back to New York, via the Sandwich Islands, embraced every opportunity in his power to obtain the true position of islands, shoals, rocks, reefs, &c., and the accuracy with which they are laid down in the charts in common use. The general correctness of his observations, I think, may be relied on, as he is a man of considerable science, of great experience, had on board two good chronometers, and was, besides, well versed in the use of lunar observations. In latitude 15 deg. 30 min. north and longitude 123 deg. 20 min. west, are laid down the dangerous rocks called "Villa Robos." Captain Hart sailed over the very spot, and saw nothing of them. They no doubt exist somewhere in the neighborhood, and should be looked after, and their position accurately defined. On all the published charts the island "Gaspar Rico" is laid down in 15 deg. north latitude and 172 deg. east longitude. Smith's Island, and also St. Bartholomew's, have the same latitude, and 170 deg. and 164 deg. east longitude. Capt. Hart run for these islands, tacked several times, had a number of good observations, and decided to his entire satisfaction that they are not to be found with fifty miles of their positions given on the charts. The island "Pagon" is laid down 25 miles too far to the north. The third Volcano island could not be found in the latitude and longitude given by some navigators. Captain Hart run for the island "Tres Colunas," and came to in latitude 27 deg. north and 160 deg. east longitude, the very position given this island, and, with a clear atmosphere, he could not discover land in any direction from the mast-head, and with "Gold Island" is not laid down correctly, as land was not in sight in 29 deg. 30 min. north and 151 deg. 30 min. east, the position given on all the large charts.

      The information I have thus far communicated has been derived chiefly from our citizens engaged or interested in the whale fishery. I regret that I am not at liberty to communicate in writing all the interesting facts which I have been enabled to collect from those engaged in the seal trade, or, as they call it, the "skinning business." The occupation of these men leads them into seas and parts of the globe far beyond the common pathway of the whaler. Their voyages and adventures, too, are of the most daring kind. In small vessels they venture into high southern latitudes, and have actually taken seal, with profit, in some instances, within the south antarctic circle. In the history of the seal trade, secrecy in what they know, has been deemed a part, and a very important part, too, of their capital. There is nothing more common at this time, that that islands are frequented for animal fur, and their positions known to no one on board but the captain; and when an island is discovered, the observations are made and noted down by the captain in his private journal.

      In frequent and familiar conversations with these practical men, who have spent so many years of their lives in these high latitudes, I have been enabled to draw out a great deal of information in relation to the manner of conducting a vessel with safety through the ice, and the proper season of the year to make the attempt to reach high latitudes, with a world of useful hints and observations of a kindred nature. These I do not deem it necessary to give in detail, but have recorded them in my private notes for future use. I have also been enabled to ascertain, with a good deal of precision, the portion of the southern hemisphere where these attempts to reach a high latitude have always proved ineffectual. And they have communicated to me, also, where their experience has fully shown that vessels may advance with no great difficulty into very high latitudes, if not to the 90th degree itself. From all which, as well as from answers received to a circular letter addressed to many whom I could not see, I have been enabled to make the following estimate:

      That they have been beyond 70 deg. south latitude in a few instances, in which latitude they experienced moderate weather, a clear sea, and no land or ice to the south. They all agree that the ice to be met with is first formed and attached to land, and that the greatest impediment to navigation from ice will be found from 62 deg. to 68 deg. south, except in those meridians where they have not been able to go far south at any time. They have seen lands to the east of the Shetlands, but give no account of any animal or vegetable productions on any of them.

      The southern part of the New South Shetlands extends farther than any one has yet penetrated. The shores are bold, and in many places afford spacious harbors, which look as if they might extend far into land, like Hudson's or Baffin's Bay.

      In latitude 63 deg. south, and 63 deg. west longitude, from the Island Pisgah, our sealers have sailed along a high and rugged coast, tending southwest to 75 deg. west longitude, and 66 deg. south latitude. Captain Pendleton, of Stonington, Connecticut, one of the most practical and intelligent sealers I met with, and who has spen many years in the South sea fur trade, is strongly of opinion that there are many valuable discoveries to be made in the seas southwest of the Shetlands. The quality of the ice, nature of the currents, &c., make his conjecture highly probable.

      The Island Deception abounds with volcanoes; and there are several places where a man may stand on ice and snow, and cook his dinner in whater that boils a few feet below him. On the northern part of Palmer's land, and in latitude 66 deg. south, and about 63 deg. west longitude, Captain Pendleton discovered a bay, clear of ice, into which he run for a great distance, but did not ascertain its full extent south. In those seas the prevailing winds are from the west-northwest to west-southwest, and all gales from northeast. A gale seldom continues more than six hours. Clear weather from south-southwest and south-southeast, which is not many days in a month.

      Captain Pendleton relates a curious fact of Deception Island. The middle of the island has been thrown up entirely by internal fires and volcanic eruptions, until the main body of the island has disappeared. In once place the melted lava ran into the ocean, leaving a passage of fifteen fathoms water, over which he passed with his vessel into the centre of the island, which had the appearance of an immense bowl. He sounded without being able to find bottom.

      Captain Morrill, who sailed from this city (New York) on a sealing voyage, while he commanded the brig Wasp, between the years 1822 and 1825, sailed between the latitude of 59 deg. 30 min. and 69 deg. 15 min. south, from 117 deg. east to 110 deg. west longitude, discovered several islands, and saw many indications of land, but had not time to run for it. On the meridian 46 deg. west he fell in with land, and coasted it from 60 deg. 47 min. to 71 deg. south, and does not know how much further it extends.

      The captains who have sailed within the Straits of Magellan all report that, if properly surveyed, it would become the principal passage to the Pacific ocean. They state that the snow storms are not frequent, nor of long duration, to the south, and generally come with E.N.E. and S.S.E. winds. Currents among the Shetlands, mostly set N.E. at one and half to two miles an hour.

      Captain James C. Swain states that he has been several times in the Pacific ocean, and found the best time to double the cape in March and April, as then the winds are most variable, and the weather the most pleasant, with but now and then some rain and hail. The highest point of south latitude he made was 59 deg. 18 min, long. 67 deg. 20 min. W., being then ninety-five days out. The snow storms lasted but a short time in that latitude. Short passages are made by keeping near the land. On the 5th of April he saw birds in lat. 56 deg. 20 min., long. 80 deg. W. The birds were small and could not have flown far. From the appearance of the water, and from the drift wood, as well as from the birds, he conjectured that land was not far off. He crossed the equator on the 24th of June, in long. 115 deg. 22 min., when the variation was 5 deg. easterly. In lat. 7 deg. 9 min. N., long. 121 deg. 25 min. W., the variation was 5 deg. 45 min. In lat. 11 deg. N., long. 123 deg. 55 min. W., and from thence to long. 129 deg., and to lat. 18 deg. 22 min., he saw driftwood and imagined land was near. From 33 deg. 28 min. N. lat. and on 144 deg. 50 min. W. long. to 153 deg., the variation was about 10 deg. He says it does not answer to come from high to low latitudes until October. In lat. 23 deg. 25 min. S.,long. 42 deg. 50 min. W., he saw an island, called by the natives "Remat." It appeared to be about fifteen miles in circumference, not then laid down in any chart. The inhabitants mild and peaceable; the land low, and the production the same as the Friendly Islands.

      Much other and more minute information has been given me respecting the mode of doing business in the whale fishery by the gentlemen I have consulted; as, also, the number and nature of their losses, with all the facts they have in their possession in regard to those ships now missing, which may enable the expedition to use the best methods of extnding to those unfortunate people assistance, if they are within the reach of aid. But these matters, fully written out, would extend my communication to an unwarrantable length. Enough has already been given, of what I have collected, to show how much remains to be done in that portion of the globe; and enough, also, to prove to the Department that it is in possession of more information of those seas than the admiralty of any other nation, however commercial, for those seas are truly our field of fame. Too much credit cannot be given to our whalers, sealers, and traffickers in those seas for the information they have acquired, and the liberality, generally speaking, with which they have imparted it. But after all their exertions, justice to ourselves, as a great people requires that this mass of information should be reviewed, analyzed, classified, and preserved in careful literary labors for the benefit of mankind.

      That this may be accomplished in your administration of the marine of our country, and under your auspices and especial care, to the satisfaction of the public, and the honor of our country, is my ardent wish. It is a desideratum for which I have labored, and am ready to labor while my arm has a sinew or my heart a pulse.

            Very respectfully, your obedient servant,            J.N. REYNOLDS.

      CITY OF NEW YORK, September 24, 1828.




Transcription Notes and Acknowledgments

Source:

      "Information Collected by the Navy Department Relating to Islands, Reefs, Shoals, Etc., in the Pacific Ocean and South Seas, and Showing the Expediency of an Exploring Expedition in that Ocean and those Seas by the Navy", 29 January 1835, American State Papers: Naval Affairs Vol. 4, pp. 688-700.